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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2014, held in Katowice/Kraków and Ustroń, Poland, in October 2014. The 49 papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 125 submissions. The papers provide an overview of solutions being developed in the fields of transport telematics and intelligent transport systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Road Surface Degradation – Measurement and Visualization

The paper presents the designed algorithm capable of creating the 3D road surface model based on measured data. This model can be used to calculate severity of degradation of road infrastructure manifested by cracks, pot-holes, rutting and shoving, deterioration, local deformations or beaten longitudinal tracks. The algorithm may also be used to calculate amount of material needed for repair of road surface deformations. It can provide data on GPS position of individual distresses together with visual information. In future information about positions of road surface deformations could be integrated into road databases and via I2C communication sent to drivers in the form of early warnings.

Marián Hruboš, Aleš Janota

Modeling of ETCS Levels with Respect to Functionality and Safety Including Polish Railways Conditions

Authors deal with functionality and safety p

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oblem of three levels of ETCS. To such analysis the stochastic processes are used to build appropriate models giving the possibility of estimation both probabilistic and time parameters related to efficient application of such solutions in the conditions of existing and planed railway infrastructure and assuring the required safety level corresponding to EU standards and recommendations.

Andrzej Toruń, Andrzej Lewiński, Paweł Gradowski

Traffic Data Collection Using Tire Pressure Monitoring System

In this paper we present initial results in utilization of TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System) for collecting traffic data and deriving traffic information, i.e. travel times. The obtained results show that current detection ratio is less than 5 % and the obtained travel times are in consistency with referent data. The experiment is performed on DLR test track in Berlin. In particular, architecture of TPMS receiver is proposed. Next, the algorithm for reducing data redundancy and for deriving traffic information is introduced. Finally the obtained results are presented.

Nemanja Savić, Marek Junghans, Miloš Krstić

Portable Electronic Devices on Board of Airplanes and Their Safety Impact

Paper deals with the use of portable multimedia devices for VFR flights. It explains the basic terms concerning the use of portable electronic devices on-board aircraft. It analyses the relevant international and national legislation for the use of portable electronic devices on-board aircraft. It includes a survey of the available devices, accessories and software on the market. An analysis and comparison of the devices, based on their technical specifications is included as well. The paper also deals with various aspects of the use of portable multimedia devices for a flight school. It reviews the whole process of selecting a suitable operating system, device, accessories and software with an example of calculation of the required financial expenses. A comparison of the devices based on the battery life in relation to the selected aircraft is also included. Furthermore, the paper considers the mounting options of the devices in the cockpit, points out the required changes in the operational procedures within the flight school and highlights the potential assets which could the use of portable electronic devices bring.

Marek Turiak, Alena Novák-Sedláčková, Andrej Novák

Modeling of Reliability and Safety at Level Crossing Including in Polish Railway Conditions

The paper presents a proposal to improve safety at unguarded level crossings, class C and D, by using an additional warning system in conditions of the current PKP railway infrastructure. In order to estimate reliability and safety of the proposed system, the authors carried out mathematical modeling based on stationary, homogeneous and ergodic Markov processes. They also carried out a hazard analysis and risk assessment using the FTA method, and calculated the MTBF coefficient using the Windchill Quality Solutions software.

Lucyna Bester, Andrzej Toruń

Utilization of Mobile Applications for the Improvement of Traffic Management Systems

In recent years, the utilization of telematics systems using the concept of Cloud Computing still increases. Also mobile phones have ceased to be the tools for conversation only. Additionally, the proliferation of new devices, such as smartphones and tablets, makes such solutions become even more useful. The paper is focused on utilization of mobile devices to assist traffic control systems. The application designed for Android, which is used for the presentation of the content of the traffic control system in Szczecin is introduced. The paper shows the concept of it, the method of its preparation and the results of experiments that demonstrate the usability of the tool in the context of reducing the negative environmental impact of the transport system.

Stanisław Iwan, Krzysztof Małecki, Damian Stalmach

Selected Issues of Reliable Identification of Object in Transport Systems Using Video Monitoring Services

The process of ensuring the security of monitored objects and material goods requires access to the information from sensors located in different points of monitoring and data acquisition systems. Therefore, they are becoming widely used in the transport services where they are needed for the administration of car fleet or the visualization of selected functions of transport processes. In each of these applications, the reliability and quality of the processes of supervision and monitoring is an important issue. Unfortunately, transmission of data from multiple video sensors may lead to degradation of video quality and reliability of identification. The paper presents a study of selected QoS (Quality of Services) supporting mechanisms and components elaborated for provision of reliable video monitoring services. The results of research have been presented as well which show the efficiency of the developed mechanisms in the process of reliable identification of objects in the transport system.

Piotr Łubkowski, Dariusz Laskowski

Evaluation of Safety of Highway CCTV System’s Maintenance Process

Issues of highway CCTV systems used in transport telematics systems were presented in this paper. Because those systems feature a vast range of electronic systems, they need to be tightly "packed" i.e. placed next to each other very closely. On one hand, integrated circuits bring down considerably dimensions of electric devices (and could also decrease power consumption), but on the other "packaging" them together in substantial amounts creates a danger of mutual interference (internal and external electromagnetic compatibility). Therefore, design of highway CCTV system needs to assure it both does not produce but also is resilient to external and internal electromagnetic interference (including overvoltage induced by atmospheric discharge).

Mirosław Siergiejczyk, Jacek Paś, Adam Rosiński

E-Navigation Revolution – Maritime Cloud Concept

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has decided that e-Navigation should be ‘User Need’ led and take into account the Human Element. In this paper the Author, which is a member of the IMO expert group on e-Navigation, will describe the Maritime Cloud, communication framework enabling efficient exchange of electronic information between maritime stakeholders, in terms of their benefits, core components, applicability to the prioritized e-Navigation solutions, considerations related to governance, impact on legal and operational issues, benefits compared with existing alternatives, administrative burdens, cost and options for implementation.

Adam Weintrit

Polish Toll Collection System as an Unexplored Data Source

In this article the authors shortly present major information on the PTCS (Polish Toll Collecting System) development, also known as viaTOLL, over the past three years. The article presents covering of road network divided into national roads, expressways and motorways, and, in parallel, the development of the distribution network. The authors also present some statistics and trends in the number of vehicles registered in the System.

The second part of the article presents the perspectives of the further PTCS development in terms of the road network coverage as well as the further development of the system functionalities in the context of the MLFF (Multi Lane Free Flow) plans and related changes in the Act on Public Roads, the Act on Toll Motorways and the National Road Fund that are currently being considered. The important message coming from the presented numbers, mentioned briefly in the Summary, is the system’s unexplored possibilities.

Katarzyna Bołtowicz, Marek Chwal

Concept of Smart Cities and Economic Model of Electric Buses Implementation

The article presents selected definitions of the smart cities in the context of smart mobility and smart environment. Then presents the basic algorithms of the economic model for electric buses implementation in the Smart Cities. This models are implemented in model of evaluation for the optimization of battery charging in electric-powered buses.

Ryszard Janecki, Grzegorz Karoń

Relationship between Vehicle Stream in the Circular Roadway of a One-Lane Roundabout and Traffic Volume on the Roundabout at Peak Hour

One-lane roundabouts are popular mainly due to high traffic capacity and the opportunities for ensuring a high level of road traffic safety to the users. Furthermore, they have been very often used as an effective means of reducing the traffic. This paper presents the analysis of relationships of a one-lane roundabout on the main factors that determine its value, such as total traffic volume that unloads the intersection at a particular external diameter of the roundabout. The effect of the study is development of a nomogram of traffic capacity for one-lane roundabouts.

Elżbieta Macioszek

Automatic Control Systems and Control of Vibrations in Vehicles Car

Growing customer requirements for comfort of vehicles more often become refer to vibrations that affect the people in transport. At the same time each car put into service must has the appropriate parameters traction to the road surface responsible for the safety. Due to the nature of the vibration transmitted to the vehicle body vibration requirements are of the often contradictory. Therefore, an intense research on modern control systems, active vibration damping system parameters are require. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages associated with the suspension systems of vehicles of conventional and active and semiactiv based on the elements of a controlled characteristics of both elastic elements and damping. It was suggested the possibilities of advanced signal processing methods application developed in vibration research.

Rafał Burdzik, Łukasz Konieczny, Błażej Adamczyk

Schema of Inference Processes in a Preliminary Identification of Navigational Situation in Maritime Transport

Article presents a modified inference model for the automatic communication system at sea. After an expert examinations, the inference model based on mechanism used by navigators during decisions making has been developed. The results of expert examinations have been taken into account. The schema of actions during decision making in preliminary stage of navigational situations identification was presented on the example of collision situation at sea. The key values used in the assessment of navigational safety have been included. The examples of model application have been shown by making uses of the proposed schema.

Anna Wójcik, Paweł Banaś, Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

Evaluation of Unwanted Road Marking Crossing Detection Using Real-Traffic Data for Intelligent Transportation Systems

The authors focus in the contribution on finding and testing effective digital image processing methods in line crossing detection systems. To verify experimental real-world results the authors used the Matlab 2013a and Digital Signal Processing Toolbox software tools. In the line detection block in the designed application the driving lane is searched using segmentation techniques suitable for line detection. The information on road position (driving lanes) has been acquired based on edge detection of guiding lines. For line detection, the proposed modifications of Hough transform and local processing methods have been used. During the testing process testing video-sequences were created with several parameters: traffic situations (day-drive, night-drive, drive on distinct road types, highway drive etc.), temporary traffic signs (presence of temporary traffic signs in form of orange lines, absence of temporary traffic signs). A change of light conditions has also been simulated during testing by adding an additional noise and by determining its effects on line detection.

Emília Bubeníková, Mária Franeková, Peter Holečko

Choice of the Final Number of Satellite Navigation and Based Augmentation Systems in the Immediate and Not Too Distant Future

Nowadays (June 2014) two satellite navigation systems (SNS), GPS and GLONASS, and four satellites based augmentation systems (SBAS), EGNOS, WAAS, MSAS, and GAGAN are fully operational, two next SNS, Galileo and BeiDou, and one SBAS, SDCM, are under construction. This paper gives the reply to some important questions as: these final numbers of the SNS and SBAS, four and five respectively, will be sufficient for all users in the whole world at any time or no; which user, why, where and when needs apart from GPS system the new SNS and next SBAS; which way the problem of compatibility and interoperability of all these systems will be solved; all these changes what it means for the users of different modes of transport.

Jacek Januszewski

Extension of the Tunnel Simulator with the Traffic Flow Model

The paper deals with macroscopic modeling of the traffic flow in the programmable logic controllerbased Tunnel Simulator. All relevant devices of the tunnel technological equipment are simulated by the software inside the programmable logic controller. Simulator offers many HMI/SCADA graphical screens to visualize the state of each subsystem of the technological equipment. Additional graphical screen has been created to add the traffic flow modeling functionality. Traffic flow model outputs (intensity, speed and density) are planned to be used as inputs for other models in the Tunnel Simulator e.g. Evacuation time estimation, Air flow speed modeling inside the tunnel tube.

Igor Miklóšik, Juraj Spalek

Estimation of Travel Times and Identification of Traffic Excesses on Roads

We made an analysis on the selected road in Prague road network, by help of research project SATEL, which aimed to automated detection of traffic excesses (AID) and estimating travel times on urban road net. For data collection were intended two types of traffic detectors – static data from loops, videodetection etc. and data from floating cars. The project introduces a new method for obtaining traffic data, which includes estimated travel times through data fusion from floating cars and traffic road detectors from on-line traffic and calibration by historical data. The proposed model uses the real data from traffic detectors with floating cars and it was proved its strength and application for estimation traffic excesses and travel times on the road network as well.

Jan Šilar, Tomáš Tichý, Jan Přikryl

Influence of Road Conditions on the Stability of a Laden Vehicle Mathematical Model, Realising a Single Lane Change Maneuver

An analysis of the impact of road conditions on the stochastic technical stability of a motor vehicle mathematical model was prepared, with additional, non-uniform load, and for the necessity to change lanes due to eg. bypassing obstacles or overtaking. The simulation was performed for adverse road conditions at randomly occurring surface unevenness.

Research was based on a motion simulation of a vehicle model at a speed of 100km/h, enabling analysis of the influence of both the mass – inertia parameters and the road surface conditions. Two cases were considered: the motion on a flat and icy and an uneven and icy road. Simulation of a mathematical model of a sports vehicle was prepared in an MSC Adams/Car environment. The considered model included non-linear characteristics of its flexible elements.

Presented results can also be used as one of the series of experiments proving the versatility of the discussed method, not only for the road vehicles.

Jarosław Zalewski

Telematics of Supply Chain – Areas, Opportunities, Challenges

The knowledge of the latest concepts and solutions dealing with a multitude of areas including telematic solutions and their correct implementation to support actions in progress, becomes one of the essential elements of gaining success in current market conditions. Telematic solutions make it possible not only to automate and shorten processes and logistic activities, but also affect their safety and enable greater flexibility and reliability in the supply chain. They also constitute a feature that allows to reduce the negative impact of transport on the environment. The use of telematics solutions within the supply chain should be considered as a process of dissemination of technological innovation, the result of which should be a clear improvement of the functioning of many processes within the chain, especially the increase in the level of transport services. Therefore, the research and analysis from this area related to the implementation in logistics practice, should be considered as a priority now.

Andrzej Bujak, Anna Orzeł, Ryszard K. Miler

Computer Simulation Studies of Capacity of the Railway Line

The author presented the structure and capabilities of SYM_POC simulation software designed for modelling traffic flows of trains on railway lines. He presented the results of simulations carried out for the Polish Railways State selected railway line with regard to different methods of the railway traffic control (fixed block interval rule, moving block interval rule) and various traffic flows. The presented method of computer modeling of train traffic flows using the SYM_POC software confirms the effectiveness of the method in planning and estimating the capacity of railway lines

Sławomir Jasiński

Influence of Operator on Safety of the Signalling System during Emergency Operation

A signalling system is a technological instrument for railway transport process controlling and its role is to replace or check human (operator of the signalling system) in applying the safety critical operations related to railway traffic control. The aim of such replacement or checking is contribution to safety of the railway transport so that the signalling system eliminates errors of operator. Because of continuous character of operation control of the railway transport process, there is a need to ensure control of the railway transport in the case of partial or total failure of the signalling system. An objective assessment of the operator´s influence on railway transport safety (especially in the case of not availability of one or more safety functions) is possible only on the quantitative model base. Creation of such model requires not only knowledge of the signalling system technical design, but the specific data about it what safety critical commands are used by operator and the frequency of their using by the operator too.

Peter Nagy, Karol Rástočný, Juraj Ždánsky

Telematic Support of Baggage Security Control at the Airport

A key element of baggage security control at the airport is a human - the security screener. He/she performs some of the tasks remotely, and is supported by the telematic system, making the x-ray baggage screening. The aim of this paper was to analyze the dependence of the number of errors on the experience and the frequency of virtual threat images projection (TIP). The study was based on measurements under real conditions at the Katowice-Pyrzowice International Airport. In the framework of this research two basic types of errors made by security screeners were identified. The results show that the number of errors is dependent from both the experience and the frequency of the stimulus, represented by TIP images. As a result, it was possible to determine the boundary level of experience that entitles security screener to independent work. Also the recommended frequency of threat images projections was determined.

Jacek Skorupski, Piotr Uchroński

Application of Bayes Classifier and Entropy of Vibration Signals to Diagnose Damage of Head Gasket in Internal Combustion Engine of a Car

Currently applied diagnostic systems of technical condition use more and more advanced methods of gathering and processing input data. Many scientific research centres all over the world deal with problems connected with this topic. Up till now no such unified set of guidelines has been constructed which would allow for construction of properly functioning diagnostic system no matter which object is chosen. That is why there is a constant need to test the possibilities of application of existing methods and their modification to match given diagnostic cases. In this article the results of tests conducted with the use of Bayes classifier for diagnostic purposes are presented. The purpose of the tests was diagnosis of technical condition of head gasket in internal combustion engine of a car. The source of information about technical condition was the vibration signal measured in various measurement points. In order to describe the character of changes occurring in vibration signal the measurement in form of entropy was marked for decomposed signal with the use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

Piotr Czech, Jerzy Mikulski

Conditions of Telematics Service for Purposes of the Army

The paper presents modern transport systems telematics solutions that can be adapted to the needs of the military. The requirements that must be met in order to increase the possibility of the use of transport telematics in military logistics. It highlights the role of wired and wireless telecommunications in data transmission systems telematics. In the publication, a special attention was paid to the safety and reliability of transport systems telematics in military applications, with particular emphasis on emergencies.

Andrzej Bujak, Marek Witkowski

Problems of Systems Engineering for ITS in Large Agglomeration – Upper-Silesian Agglomeration in Poland

Systems engineering and list of good practices has been presented in the context of ITS systems for Upper-Silesian Agglomeration. Selected results of surveys which confirm a complexity of the problems of ITS development in Silesian Region have been presented too. The differences in SWOT analysis for urban transport and variation of ITS level implementations including National Traffic Management System have been mentioned as examples.

Grzegorz Karoń, Jerzy Mikulski

Impact Electric Component of the Electromagnetic Field on Electronic Security and Steering Systems in Personal Rapid Transit

Transport safety systems and electronic security system Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) steering systems constitute a spatially formed set of elements that operate together in order to achieve the assumed level of security at a railway station or during the performance of transportation operations. Occurring intended or unintended electromagnetic interferences in the process of exploitation electronic systems may cause the occurrence of catastrophic damages or can be the reason of a reduction of the work quality of these systems. Small frequency range electromagnetic interference (up to 100 kHz) that occurs in an extensive “railway” area should be considered separately, i.e. the electric and magnetic components of this field should be distinguished. Because of measurements and legal regulations concerning the impact of this interference on elements, devices and electronic systems. Any disruption of the primary functions of the steering system can be the cause of the occurrence of human life and health hazards. The present article discusses the impact of electromagnetic interference: the electric component of the field on the process of the operation of the PRT steering and security system.

Jacek Paś, Włodzimierz Choromański

Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gases Production of the Road and Rail Cargo Transport Using a Software to Simulate the Energy Consumption of a Train

The paper describes the energy consumption and GHG production comparison of two transport kinds – road and rail. The calculations are done according to the legislation in force – standard EN 16 258:2012 Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers). The results have high informative value because they take into account energy consumption and emissions from primary and secondary consideration – life cycle analyses and the result is a summary of consumption and emissions of transport the cargo, handling and support activities. By the energy and emissions calculation was considering with normative values from the standard. It is the first part of the life cycle. The second part – secondary consumption and emissions were calculated according to the standard fuel consumption of specific road vehicles. The electric energy consumption of a train was simulated through the software Train Dynamic.

Tomáš Skrúcaný, Jozef Gnap

Identification of Information Systems Application in Road Transport Companies in Silesia Region

Rapid analysis and transport’s information transfer are extremely important in order to achieve the efficient transport system, which main task is to fulfil users’ needs and requirements. Therefore, telematics called also intelligent transport system is gaining popularity and is still expanding its field of activity. The aim of the article is to identify the information systems applied in road transport companies in Silesian Region. The authors also draw their attention to the effects and benefits of using information technology in transport companies, functions and tools used in road transport activities and identify elements which are essential in the implementation of rapid and efficient transport.

Sebastian Kot, Bogdan Marczyk, Beata Ślusarczyk

Multiple-Objective Simulated Annealing Optimization Approach for Vehicle Management in Personal Rapid Transit Systems

This paper presents a multi-objective simulated annealing (MOSA) algorithm for the static problem of routing electric vehicles with limited battery capacity in a Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) system. The problem studied in this work aims to minimize both the total energy consumption and the number of vehicles used. Our algorithm uses a strategy of Pareto-dominant-based fitness to accept new solutions. The performance and computational costs of MOSA are studied on a set of randomly generated instances. Algorithm is found to be effective for the multi-objective version of the PRT problem.

Olfa Chebbi, Jouhaina Chaouachi

Exchange of Navigational Information between VTS and RIS for Inland Shipping User Needs

The paper presents a concept of data exchange between Vessel Traffic Services and River Information Services using Inter VTS Exchange format. The motivation is given presenting the problem of lack of communication between both parties sometimes sharing same or neighboring area of interest or administration. Further, internal data exchange processes in both systems are described. Based on undertaken research a common model of exchange is proposed using an approach to enhance IVEF with additional features available in RIS. Main changes assume improvement of data model and expanding of interaction model. Data cross-coherence map is presented and new service parameters are proposed.

Witold Kazimierski, Natalia Wawrzyniak

Safe Ship Trajectory Determination in the ENC Environment

The paper presents the problem of determining a safe ship trajectory in real conditions with the use of information comprised in electronic navigational charts (ENC). Ship trajectory optimisation is one of essential functionalities of decision support systems which are part of intelligent transport systems. An ENC data transformation method herein presented is aimed to reduce the time of creating the numerical terrain model for an optimization problem. Trapezoidal meshes are proposed for this purpose. Water area parameters as well as moving targets are considered. The three dimensional ship domain is used as a safety criterion. The implementation of the presented method is discussed.

Zbigniew Pietrzykowski, Janusz Magaj, Marcin Mąka

Adaptive Method of Raster Images Compression and Examples of Its Applications in the Transport Telematic Systems

The paper presents a concept and exemplary application of an adaptive method of compression of raster images which may be applied, i.a. in ITS systems. The described method allows to improve the efficiency of systems belonging to ITS category, which require transmission of large volumes of image data through telecommunications networks. The concept of the adaptive method of compression of raster images described in the paper uses a compressor with a variable compressor ratio and is based on the dependence of the degree of compression of each transmitted digital image on the transmission conditions (defined by the average data transmission rate) and the number of digital images queuing in the buffer to be processed and transmitted.

Marcin Sokół, Małgorzata Gajewska, Sławomir Gajewski

Algorithm Determining the Setting Force at Point Machines

This paper is an attempt to develop a precise algorithm determining the value of the setting force. This is extremely essential for telematic and diagnostic measuring systems. What makes the task difficult is that no method, which determines the value of the setting force, has been defined so far. Although it is understandable what kind of force it is, there are some misunderstanding and doubt as to its definition and the determination of its value. As manufacturers of point machines define the same concept differently as well, the task is not easier. Frequently, instead of the setting force, slipping of the switch coupling is mentioned.

Jakub Młyńczak

Smart City Concept – The Citizens’ Perspective

One of the biggest challenges for the European Union is to transform European cities into intelligent, sustainable places of living in the social, economic and environmental context, called “smart cities”. The smart city concept is a natural result of the evolution of cities – from knowledge-based cities, through digital cities (cyber-cities), intelligent cities, up to the most complex model – a city based on IC technologies used to increase the interactivity and efficiency of the urban infrastructure and its components. There are six modules creating the basics of functioning and ranking of smart cities concept, i.e.: smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living and smart governance. The implementation of the smart city concept in Poland is the subject matter of the paper. It also presents the citizens’ approach towards the most important modules of smart cities (with the stress put on smart mobility) and perspectives for its development in future.

Anna Dewalska–Opitek

Areas of Using Telematic Tools in the High Speed Rail Integration Process in Europe

High speed rails services are the most dynamically developing branch of collective transport in Europe. The development of the already existing high speed rail network and the integration of the national systems so that they create strong trans-European network is one of the priorities for European Union transport policy. The realization of this goal depends on implementing modern telematics tools which play dominating role not only in the process of technical harmonization of the trans-European high speed rail network, but also in the process of services integration, thus the integration of the seat booking and ticket sale systems, or the passenger information system. In the article there have been presented the examples of telematics tools used in the integration process of high speed rail in Europe; there have also been presented the directions for telematics development in this segment of passenger transport.

Barbara Kos, Anna Urbanek

Comparative Analysis of the Roughness of Asphalt and Concrete Surface

The paper presents a comparative analysis of the measurement results of the roughness for two types of road surfaces. The tests were performed using the British pendulum on the airport auxiliary roads of the Aero Club Piła. The tests were done for concrete and bituminous pavement. The measurements were conducted at four measuring points of the cross section of the road and the roughness was measured six times at each point. The measurements were repeated at every 30m for the longitudinal section of the road with the length of 120m. This situation allowed us to elaborate our own roughness maps of the investigated road surfaces in a form of 3D charts. The authors have assessed the state of the road surface contamination before and after the measurements. During the tests the authors have also conducted the environmental investigations in order to determine the parameters of the road surface and the environment. The roughness investigations are particularly important during safety determination of the road traffic. The parameters of the road surface have a direct impact on the behaviour of the vehicle, its acceleration, braking, steerability and motion stability. These parameters are defined by the interaction between the tyre and the ground.

Jakub Polasik, Konrad J. Waluś

Hierarchical Hydrographic Data Fusion for Precise Port Electronic Navigational Chart Production

One of crucial problems in the process of precise Port Electronic Navigational Chart (Port ENC) production is the seabed objects charting. General knowledge about the underwater objects is very important for the improvement in navigational safety, especially important in harbour areas. The article presents the concept of hierarchical hydrographic data fusion from different hydrographical sources for seabed object‘s detection. Simultaneous processing of 3D seabed model obtained by measuring the water depths, sonar mosaicked images (illustrating the seabed characteristic) and the magnetic anomalies map could be remarkably helpful for discrimination of ferrous features, establishing their highly precise positions and to determine their placing characteristics. An attempt to integrate all the above is expected to provide a significant enhancement of the interpretation of the whole context of the seabed situation. The image obtained from hydrographic data will be much more helpful than considering all acquired information separately as individual data sets. This approach is believed to be of great importance for Port ENC production process.

Andrzej Stateczny, Izabela Bodus-Olkowska

Network Model of the Shortest Path Selection in Transport

The network models are often used to solve transport problems. In this paper authors propose such application in the field of finding optimal path in transport. Furthermore, a comparison with other known methods is described. This paper touches only the theoretical aspect of transport problems, but the results can be successfully applied to real transport systems.

Mariusz Dramski, Marcin Mąka, Waldemar Uchacz

Integrated E-ticketing System – Possibilities of Introduction in EU

Development of information and communication technologies changes the manner in which many industries and services operate. Those changes are concerning public transport as well. One of the ways public transport can be improved is the introduction of integrated e-ticketing. The point of integrated e-ticketing is combining various modes of transport with use of a single ticket. In principle, the integrated e-ticketing simplifies switching between various modes of transport, making public transport easier to use and thus more attractive to potential users. For more than a decade, integrated e-ticketing system has been one of the goals of EU transport policy; nonetheless, its current application remains limited. Author attempts, based on analysis of existing integrated e-ticketing systems, to show potential dangers and costs connected to introduction of such solutions, along with possible gains for all parties involved – both the travellers and organizations that provide the services.

Joanna Kos-Łabędowicz

Mobile Highway Telematics System on D1 Highway in the Czech Republic

Highway management systems belong to modern methods enhancing capacity and increasing safety on highways, while using strategies such as variable speed limits, ramp metering, information about alternative routes or danger on road and others. Typically, they use static infrastructure, i.e. fixed sensors and gantries with variable message signs, which are not very effective in case of constructions.

In this paper, a mobile telematics system (mRLTC) aiming on enhancing the common static highway management system in work zones is presented. Its objective is to inform drivers about the traffic situation ahead and warn them in case of traffic instability. This is essential primarily to increase the safety on roads and secondly also the driver’s comfort. The system, its major components and the different modes of operation are presented as well. In order to be able to place the system into operation under real world conditions, an evaluation within microsimulation environment has been performed for an existing work zone on the major Czech highway, D1. In this way, the algorithms and settings of the system can be optimized and its performance and effect on traffic can be determined for different traffic scenarios without any disruption to traffic. The simulation process and its results are discussed within this paper as well.

Pavel Přibyl, Ondřej Přibyl, Tomáš Apeltauer

Evaluation of the Drivers’ Distraction Caused by Dashboard MMI Interface

The article attempts to the aspect of driver distraction caused by the embedded the MMI interface. At the beginning the concept of drivers’ distraction and related works were submitted. Next were presented same of nowadays dashboards examples. Emphasized that even in a class of small passenger cars MMI interface are standard. In the following part was presented a method for evaluating the impact of the built-in LCD panel on the driver’s distraction. The method is static and is based on the measurement of the luminance level of the background environment and MMI. The results and their evaluation is a summary of the work.

Marek Sumiła

Crane Payload Position Measurement Vision-Based System Dedicated for Anti-sway Solutions

Handling operation efficiency in cargo transportation realized by the cranes mainly depends on counteractions against undesirable phenomena’s such as payload swing, crane bridge deflections in vertical plane and many others. Although experienced crane operators are an experts in suppressing an excessive payload sway, there is a strong need to develop robust anti-sway systems supporting their work. In this paper authors propose a kind of an absolute payload position measurement system with the use of an image sensor for sway detection. The proposed technique is based on kind of template matching method with the use of a smartcam as a reliable vision sensor. In the described system, vision sensor measures displacement of the markers attached to the cranes hook. On the markers shifts base measure from equilibrium position and actual crane rope length, the payload swing can be estimated. All experiments and tests presented in this paper were conducted on the scaled physical model of overhead travelling crane with hosting capability of 150 kg.

Paweł Hyla, Janusz Szpytko

Microscopic Simulation of Optimal Use of Communication Network

The development of transportation in Slovakia has an increasing character as in the other developed countries, and the negative impacts of transport are still rising. To handle this situation, the Slovak cities should have to solve their transport situations with more often use of ITS elements. One of the possibilities of optimal communication network use in the city is the management of traffic flow on the route, or its reroute from congested stretches to existing alternative routes of transport network. This use is suitable, if the likelihood of overloading is high, and the lateral routes have a sufficient reserve. High proportion of transport which is possible to reroute is a condition for success of this system. In our article we build a cost- benefit based model to compare two variants. The first variant includes a current state and in the second one designed changes will be incorporated. We use this model to solve the problems on communication network in the city of Žilina. As a modelling tool we use software Aimsun which allows a microscopic simulation. AIMSUN (Advanced Interactive Microscopic Simulator for Urban and Non-Urban Networks) is a software tool which is able to reproduce real traffic conditions on any network. It means that we can also use it to predict behaviour of network with implementation of vehicle guidance systems.

Simona Kubíková, Alica Kalašová, Ľubomír Černický

Evaluating the Efficiency of Road Traffic Management System in Chorzow

In the article the effectiveness of the traffic management system, on the diametral highway in Chorzow was described. The presented analysis has a multi-criteria character taking into account the efficiency of the recording units, detection of hazardous road conditions and assessment of the impact of variable message on the particular traffic streams. The subject of the analysis were the systems of weather information, vehicle identification, speed section control and variable message sings. An important part of the work was also an empirical attempt to estimate the dependency between selected traffic flows parameter and the road conditions.

Artur Ryguła, Andrzej Maczyński, Paweł Piwowarczyk

Telematics in the New EU Cohesion Policy on the Example of Integrated Territorial Investments Strategy

The new instruments of the European Cohesion Policy , which are Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI), first as a field of intervention, define sustainable transport. ITI does not replace other tools and operational programs, financing at 4.5 % of the funds may, however, in the case of individual agglomerations increase the integration leading to metropolisation of these areas , including the integration of transport. In particular- the Upper Silesian agglomeration along with the entire subregion in which it is located. The purpose of this article is to show the role of an ITI in balancing the development of transport by supporting the integration processes of transport in metropolitan areas and an indication of the example of the Upper Silesian agglomeration advantages and disadvantages of extension support area to the area of the central subregion. The article presents the experience of the preparation of one of the first ITI strategies in Poland for a subregion of the central province of Silesia.

Robert Tomanek

Automated Bias-Correction for Accurate FCD Processing Systems

Within the European research project SimpleFleet, a fleet management system for small and medium enterprises has been developed. GPS traces are collected from equipped vehicles and fed into an FCD processing system to generate traffic data. To estimate the quality of derived traffic data and determine the systematic bias of a FCD processing system a previous method called “self-evaluation” was applied for specific times of day and roads with similar characteristics. With the assumption that the relative bias is the same for corresponding traffic situations, it can be transferred and used to correct results of further computations. Notice that this opens up a convenient road for automated online corrections based on really large amounts of data, rather than on small data sets from costly measurement campaigns.

Günter Kuhns, Rüdiger Ebendt

Model of Incentives for Changes of the Modal Split of Traffic Towards Electric Personal Cars

Application of technology that uses electric drive opens up new possibilities in traffic. Previous models of modal split traffic usually included four types of movements (by car, by public transport, by bicycle and by foot). Personal car was then perceived as the least eco-friendly. The creation of new means of transport changed this situation. The article focuses on the problems associated with the development of transport systems in the direction of support electric cars. At the local level and national level in different parts of the world are accepted various types of incentives that will bring about changes of travel behaviour and increase participation of electric cars in the traffic. The article presents possible model the relationship between different types of incentives and determines barriers that must be overcome in order to improve the image of this means of transport. Example of using the proposed method was also briefly described.

Grzegorz Sierpiński

Telematics for the Analysis of Vehicle Fleet Fuel Consumption

Within the European research project SimpleFleet, a telematics system for fleet management business intelligence was developed, delivering live or near-realtime statistics about individual vehicles or the entire fleet. This supports the fleet manager in ad-hoc decisions and in medium and long term improvements. The fleet vehicles (e.g. taxis, delivery vans) are equipped with an On-Board-Unit (OBU) for GPS tracking and data collection from other sensors, e.g., an engine on/off detector. These raw data are sent to a host system and database, being enhanced to Floating Car Data (FCD) using map-matching and routing. Beside other route-related information, consulted fleet operators expressed their interest especially in fuel consumption calculation. For this purpose the German EWS procedure was chosen, providing 2nd degree polynomial functions of the driven speed. Final results for the test in the Athens region are presented, including the comparison of two calculation approaches with different aggregation levels of driven speeds.

Wolfgang Niebel, Rüdiger Ebendt, Günter Kuhns

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