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2023 | Buch

Temporal and Spatial Environmental Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic


Über dieses Buch

This book identifies, evaluates and reports the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical, biological and socioeconomic environment, using the science and technology of geoinformatics. It encourages the environmental considerations in the future city and policy planning and decision-making. For example, according to the World Health Organization, 80% of people living in cities are exposed to polluted air that exceeds healthy levels. City planners have applied the developing concepts of sustainability to modern debates over how cities and regions should be reviewed, regenerated and reformed since the introduction of the concept in developmental science. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a remarkable drop in air pollution has been observed in India and other countries, which has accelerated the shift to green and sustainable development.

Geoinformatics can provide solutions and resources for local, sustainable activities in education, health, sustainable agriculture, resource management and related fields. This book serves researchers in a variety of areas, including hazards, land surveys, remote sensing, cartography, geophysics, geology, natural resources, environment and geography.


Chapter 1. Overview of Geospatial Science and Technology
The phrase “geospatial technology” refers to a group of current tools that aid in the mapping and analysis of the Earth and human societies. Since prehistoric times, when the first maps were made, these technologies have evolved in some form. It is generally accepted that geospatial technology education and training involve a substantial effort of departmental resources, such as faculty positions, equipment purchases, space, and technical assistance. This paper explores the ways in which geospatial science and technology (GS&T) can support development, the paper also describes its structure and scope. It also gives a definition of GS&T and provides a brief overview of its applications. The article will be useful for Researchers, professionals, academicians, and policymakers whose work incorporates geospatial science and related solutions.
M. Kamraju
Chapter 2. Geospatial Appraisal of Vegetation Health and Air Quality of Delhi During Pre- and Post-lockdown Phases Through a Multi-criteria Decision Model
The world is in the cruel clutch of environmental pollution. Large-scale unplanned developmental activities of man are increasing day by day which in turn is making the problem of environmental pollution worse in general and air pollution in particular. This continuously rising problem of air pollution is also severely affecting vegetation health. Delhi is not an exception in this regard. Since the domain of geospatial science is making rapid advancement, it has become possible to analyse the vegetation health of a particular place by computing normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using satellite images. Besides, air quality data on a temporal basis is also available from the central pollution control board (CPCB). In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the temporal changes in vegetation health, built-up index, land surface temperature and air quality status of Delhi for the years 2018, 2020 and 2022 and also opts to study the correlation among them. The study has also analysed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the lockdown phase on the environment of the capital city of India. It is highlighted that during the COVID-19-induced lockdown phase, the air quality seemed to have a better status in comparison to the pre- and post-lockdown phases. The vegetation health has also been found to be improving during the lockdown, apart from the fact of health emergencies. But again the vegetation health of Delhi has exhibited a declining trend while air quality status exhibits a fluctuating trend. The study also shows the existence of a negative correlation between vegetation health and air quality status. Hence, it is very urgent to take preventive measures to reduce air pollution and improve air quality so that improvement in the health of vegetation can be achieved considering the fact that lockdown is not a permanent way out to restore environmental sustainability.
Asutosh Goswami, Suhel Sen
Chapter 3. Pandemic Effect of COVID-19: Identification, Present Scenario and Preventive Measures
Mutation in viruses is known to be unavoidable phenomenon. But at times it may become a life-threatening pandemic as in the case of 2019-novel coronavirus, formally named as SARS coronavirus which consumed around 36,405 lives out of 7,50,890 infections as per the data available from the World Health Organization at the end of March 2020. Found to be from the family of earlier known outbreaks of 21st-century SARS and MERS, it is now become a public health emergency internationally (PHEIC). Millions of dollars are spent throughout the world for getting a positive sign of finding vaccines but still, it remains an unsolved mystery. Even though, with the implementation of strict lockdown measures from several affected countries around the globe, the trend line of the COVID-19 epidemic is still increasing exponentially. Being in this scenario, this paper deals with the outbreak of 2019-nCoV, its structure, growing stages, global statistics, transmission modes, and most possible precautionary methods and also emphasizes on creating public awareness by answering a few key clarifications about novel Beta coronavirus disease.
Er. Loveneesh Talwar
Chapter 4. Impact of Lockdown (COVID-19) on Air Pollution in India
According to the Worldometer elaboration of the latest U.N Information on November 2020, the contemporary populace of India is 1,384,530,463. That’s equal to 17.7% of the overall world’s population, with 35% urban population expected to increase by 483,098,640 people by 2020, where air pollution is a huge challenging issue for India. Air pollution is the presence of both hazardous solid and gaseous substances in the air/atmosphere that are harmful to humans, and other living creatures and it affects the Earth too. It happens when the air is contaminated by hazardous biological agents and chemicals. According to the WHO, outdoor (ambient) air pollution and household air pollution so many hazardous solid and gases pollutants emitted into the atmosphere like carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide, particulate matter, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, and aerosols. According to the World Air Quality Report 2019 (PM2.5) data, India ranks 5th most polluted countries in the world. Air pollution in India is a serious health issue. During this lockdown period, there is a lot of decreasing change seen in the quality of air pollution all over India. Especially in northern India, NASA Satellite Sensors noticed the levels of aerosol at a 20-year low during this lockdown period. The European Union Copernicus programme declared few cities throughout India are having decreased levels of around 40–50% during the COVID-19 quarantine period. Data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is retrieved which is on the Terra satellite of NASA and data from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite maps are considered for this Study to identify the level of pollutants in air during the lockdown period.
Shaik Riyaz Basha
Chapter 5. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Environmental Awareness: A Case Study of Hyderabad City
The present study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental awareness in Hyderabad city, Telangana state of India. Hyderabad is the fourth largest city in terms of population and rapid urbanization growth in India. The city is facing severe environmental issues such as air pollution, noise pollution, water contamination, waste materials, soil pollution, and the destruction of green areas due to the growing demand for urban facilities in urban areas. The study includes a digital survey through a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The total number of participants in the survey were 482, including 73.65% males, 25.93% females and 0.41% other gender. The study reveals that the lockdown helped people to follow sustainable development behavior and earn a living life with consciousness and hygiene, taking good care of one another, keeping social distance, wearing mask, and shopping online. As a result, there was a decrease in air pollution in many areas of the city and a relief of traffic congestion. The study argues that environmental community awareness and efficient legislative action can be the most effective tools against environmental issues in Hyderabad.
Harish Balduri, A. Bala Kishan
Chapter 6. Examination of Radiation Distribution and Its Relation with Stress Degree Day Index in Some Crops of the Yamne River Catchment in Arunachal Pradesh During Pre- and Post-COVID Times
In the present study, an attempt has been made to detect the moisture stress in the food crops (tomatoes, green beans and small vegetables) of the Yamne River catchment of Arunachal Pradesh state in India during pre-monsoon and monsoon on the basis of the differences between the canopy and air temperatures (stress degree day or SDD). The study also aims to identify the relationship between the radiation (incident, reflected and transmitted) and stress degree day index of those food crops during pre- and post-COVID phases. The study was basically initiated in the month of June (monsoon), 2019 (pre-COVID phase) and the radiation and SDD data were collected up to the month of April (pre-monsoon), 2022 (post-COVID phase). Point quantum sensor has been utilized for the measurement of incident, reflected and transmitted photosynthetically active radiations (PARs) on different dates. For the identification of canopy and air temperatures, an infrared tele thermometer and dry bulb thermometer have been used, respectively. The positive deviation of canopy temperature from air temperature (also known as stress degree day index or SDDI) is found to be maximum during pre-monsoon season whereas the air temperatures are found to be higher than the canopy temperatures during monsoon for all the food crops. The computed coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.77 suggests strong positive relationship between the top incident PAR and SDDI of the three crops during pre-monsoon. The higher PAR more specifically in the pre-monsoon months of the pre-COVID phase has been found to be responsible for the higher canopy and base temperatures of crops and air temperature resulting in higher moisture depletion coupled with greater demand for irrigational water. In some instances, the top incident PAR is found to be high during pre-monsoon of post-COVID time but its influence was critically minimized by the less transmitted PAR; thus ideally balancing the irrigation water requirement at all the stages of crop growth.
Asutosh Goswami, Munmun Mondal
Chapter 7. COVID-19 and Its Impact on the Urban Healthcare System
In this study, the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on food security and coping strategies in Hyderabad, India's urban and peri-urban areas are examined. India is where Hyderabad is situated. Both prior to the pandemic's start in October 2018 and during it in January 2021, data from household surveys were collected. About 12% of members reported having a general sickness, while 25% of members said they had a chronic condition. More than 80% of people sought medical attention, with the majority of them turning to non-traditional healthcare providers. In the three months prior to the study, 39% of the mothers who had just given birth visited a doctor. We specifically find that the principal income-producing household member's industry of employment is highly connected with the amount of food security in a household. In order to lessen the pandemic's influence on their food security, the families in our study adopted a variety of strategies to spread out their intake. These efforts included leveraging their funds as well as securing credit from formal and informal sources. Homes with a mild level of food insecurity used saved food as a method to smooth consumption in response to the pandemic's impact on income shock compared to homes with a severe or moderate level of food poverty. The reason for this is that households with mild food insecurity depended more on food storage than those with intermediate food insecurity.
Kavita Toran
Chapter 8. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Education Sector of Kashmir Valley Its Challenges and Future Prospects
The present study is related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the education sector in the Kashmir valley. The work is an attempt to analyze the educational scenario of the valley to find out the problems and challenges faced by teachers and students. The study shows only 28.9% avail facility of online education. Both students and teachers are facing problems to handle technology and online classes. Various government initiatives and e-portals launched by the center and state governments are proving transformational for the development of the education sector, further structural and transformational changes are needed to improve the education sector.
Adnan Hussain Lone, G. M. Rather, Aijaz Ahmad Khanday, Javeed Ahmad Rather
Chapter 9. A Study on Socio-Economic Impact of COVID 19 Pandemic on Tour Operators of Vishakhapatnam City, Andhra Pradesh
COVID-19, a worldwide pandemic slows the whole global economy, causing many economies, particularly in underdeveloped countries, to collapse. The numerous economic operations and mobility were prohibited in several countries due to the countrywide lockdown. Tourism is one of the economic activities that has been particularly hard damaged by the pandemic. It would take years to return to its former position. Tour personnel who work directly in the tourism business have had a negative impact on their employment and several aspects of society. This research investigates the economic impact of the COVID-19-induced economic crisis on tour operators. The research was carried out through in-depth interviews with 75 tour employees and observations of several tourism firms in Vishakhapatnam. The content analysis method was used to examine the impact of the pandemic on employees. According to the study, the pandemic epidemic caused several problems for the city’s tour operators, including bank loans, unemployment, loss of a source of family income, and psychological concerns.
P. Manisha, M. Kamraju, Sanja Devi
Chapter 10. A Study on Problems Faced by the Street Vendors in Hyderabad City Post-COVID-19 Pandemic
Owing to their lack of training and experience, street sellers are frequently people who are unable to obtain permanent employment in the lucrative formal sector. They make an effort to address their financial difficulties in order to maintain their way of life. They serve as the primary means of distribution for a wide range of items used on a daily basis, including fruits, vegetables, ready-to-wear clothing, shoes, home furnishings, toys, stationery, newspapers, and periodicals. If they were to disappear from urban marketplaces, fruit and vegetable growers and small-scale businesses who cannot afford to sell their products through pricey distribution networks in the official sector would face a catastrophic catastrophe. The nature of the current study is descriptive. The entire population of Hyderabad is included in the study's domain. The sample size is restricted to 500, and the sampling is chosen using practical sampling. The street vendors in our study region who use bandis (vehicles) to sell vegetables and household appliances are the subjects of the current study.
Mohd Akhter Ali, M. Kamraju
Temporal and Spatial Environmental Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
herausgegeben von
Mohd Akhter Ali
M. Kamraju
Springer Nature Singapore
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