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2022 | Buch

Territorial Development and Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Global South

A Study for the Maputo Province, Mozambique


Über dieses Buch

This volume collects the results from the Politecnico di Milan’s award-winning “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” research-by-design project, which studied various transdisciplinary approaches to development in the context of the Global South. The challenges of urbanization are well known, but that only goes so far in aiding implementation. From local considerations like water access and housing rights to global issues like climate change, territorial development demands solutions that address the needs of the specific population while keeping such goals as sustainability and inclusion in mind. By focusing on a number of towns within the Maputo Province of Mozambique, and thus addressing many of the issues endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa, the research, structurally presented so as to aid those who may require introduction to the issue, makes a clear case in favor of always keeping the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus in mind when formulating development strategies for improving people’s lives, as well as the wisdom of marrying academic findings with the insights accrued by local NGOs and institutions, thereby expanding the potential idea bank beyond the Eurocentric status quo that has tended to dominate the field.


Emanuela Colombo, Manuela Nebuloni
Introduction. A Polytechnic Approach to Urban Africa. Methodological and Cultural Challenges of a Transdisciplinary Research Cooperation
This introductory chapter provides and discusses the main cultural and methodological frameworks in which the contributions of the volume are embedded. Drawn on current debates on academic partnerships between international educational and research institutions, the essay explores the increasing importance of pluralism, internationalization, and new policies of social responsibility in performing transdisciplinary research in the Global South. The text also discusses the specificities and originality of the approaches adopted in the past decades by the book authors’ institutions—the Politecnico di Milano and the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM)—embedded into the mutual interplay between space and society, multidisciplinary and practice-based research, and the role of socially and environmentally responsible transformations, in dialogue with other academic approaches to international cooperation. The paper further presents the ongoing academic joint initiatives between Polimi and UEM, introducing two major research and educational programmes that are the main source of evidence for this volume’s contributions and discussion within and beyond the international academic networks involved. In addition, an overview of the book’s structure and main contents is provided.
Laura Montedoro, Alessandro Frigerio, Alice Buoli

Sustainable Territorial Development of the Maputo Province. Debates, Research, and Innovative Perspectives

A Capital in History: Widening the Temporal and Physical Context of Maputo
This chapter presents an overview of Maputo in relation to its surrounding region, with an emphasis on spatial and temporal change. It supports an endogenous reading of these scales for what is now one of the top twenty urban conurbations in Sub-Saharan Africa. In doing so it aims to challenge dominant negative discourses of such rapid urbanisation—prevalent in both Global North and South—and stresses the essential dynamism of urban society and culture, albeit within constrained political and economic limits. The chapter is essentially an opinion piece and draws on more than forty years of the author’s personal experience, professional work and research in Maputo, and is accompanied by a wide range of the author’s prior publications for further reading and reference. Rapid urbanisation in Sub-Sahara Africa, with relatively weak states and still quite limited private sectors, will bring enormous changes in the next few decades to land and environments. The extent of this urbanisation process also means that the alignment of environmental resource management of the “rural” adjacent to these “urban” futures is crucial and Maputo and its surrounding region can be a case study from which much could be learnt for wider trends in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Paul Jenkins
The Demography of the Maputo Province
The Maputo Province is located in southern Mozambique, bordered by the Republic of South Africa and the Kingdom of e-Swatini, a key geographical condition among the reasons for fast demographic growth, side by side with higher job opportunities internally and regionally along with the proximity with Maputo city, the capital of the Republic of Mozambique. At the same time, internal and international migrants either use the Province as the final destination or as transit to access the neighbouring countries. This chapter is drawn on readings and published articles on different aspects of migration and population studies in Mozambique and Maputo, based on the long-term research trajectory of the author. Available data illustrate the demographic dynamics of the Province from the first post-independence census held in Mozambique in the year 1980 up to the most recent of 2017. The trends emerging from them demonstrate that Maputo Province is not far from the so-called “immigration crisis threshold” as the faster growth has pressurized local infrastructures and is a gate for irregular migration.
Inês Macamo Raimundo
Integrated Multisectoral Research Programme (PIMI). Origins, Trajectories and Horizons
The Integrated Multisectoral Research Programme (PIMI), implemented under the coordination of the Faculty of Architecture and Physical Planning (FAPF) of the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), is an experience of interaction between research, didactics and institutional capacity, which aims to contribute to the elaboration of a sustainable and participatory model of land analysis and planning for local territorial development. In order to address the criticalities related to Spatial Planning in Maputo Province, mainly with regard to the sustainability of the actions that take place or are carried out in this area, the PIMI started from the assumption that it is only possible to develop such a sustainable and participatory model if these research/didactics/institutional interactions allow a process of capacity-building of decision-making institutions, organizations and enterprises operating in this territory. Such process will occur, thanks to the strong participation of local technicians, through the elaboration of a Territorial Model, which will not only be the graphic expression of the spatial planning for the region under study but will also be a basis for the elaboration of future spatial planning instruments for the region.
Carlos T. G. Trindade, Domingos A. Macucule, João T. Tique

Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!: a “Research by Design” Project. WEF-Sensitive Territorial Assessment and Strategic Guidelines for the Namaacha, Boane and Moamba Region

Introducing the Maputo Province. A Tentative Assemblage of Planning Tools and Visions
The city of Maputo and its de facto metropolitan area could be defined as an “unknown Metropolis”, fragmented in terms of administrative boundaries and governance and shaped by a complex tangle of unmapped non-formal urbanization patterns, rural-to-urban migrations, as well as national and transnational flows, and local and global interests. Moreover, climate change is strongly affecting the area; threatening agricultural activities; and making water, food, and energy (WEF) security issues to be urgently considered. What is the most appropriate scale to address this complexity? To what extent the current and past planning and governance tools have been effective and adequate to address emerging socio-spatial trends and guide future territorial development? How to reframe these tools into larger territorial visions and a long-durée perspective? Starting from such premises and drawing on the results of “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” research, this chapter aims first at introducing the main cultural and methodological framework of the project, and then at addressing the complex—and yet incomplete mosaic—of the available planning documents and tools in force in the Maputo Province. The purpose is to understand their potential and unexplored synergies and surface the existing inconsistencies and gaps in between them to provide an operative background for further design-oriented explorations.
Alessandro Frigerio, Alice Buoli
Unpacking Territorial Development in the Namaacha, Boane and Moamba Regions. A Cartographic Narrative
The chapter presents the primary analytical and methodological approach adopted and applied by the “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” project team to represent and describe the Maputo Province in its multi-dimensional and cross-scalar features. The first part of the essay provides a brief introduction to the main debates and cultural frameworks on reading and mapping African urbanization patterns. A second section is devoted to the state of the art of the current socio-spatial and cartographic knowledge on the Boane, Moamba and Namaacha Regions. In the third section, the visions and regulations provided by the current planning plans in place in the area are combined with information from different data sources, qualitative and direct observations to propose a new cartographic knowledge base for the region. These maps have been intended as the main background to provide a more comprehensive and integrated knowledge base designed to support a revision and implementation of territorial visions and guidelines for more sustainable and WEF-sensitive development of the Maputo Province.
Alice Buoli
Energy-Food Challenges and Future Trends in Mozambique and in the Maputo Province
Mozambique is one of the richest countries in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of natural resources and agro-ecological assets. However, the country does not look on track for the achievement of the SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) and 7 (affordable and clean energy) by 2030. The population with access to electricity is around 30%, while 1.9 million people are estimated to be in high levels of acute food insecurity, with a strong imbalance between urban and urban areas. The Maputo Province, being the economic centre of the country, faces an above-average condition in respect to other areas of Mozambique. The policy frameworks as regards both energy and food production are indeed mainly focused on the development of the Great Maputo area. At the same time, major weaknesses hindering a more sustainable and even access to basic resources in this area are related to a) the ongoing use of coal and biomass for cooking purposes and the difficulties in adopting more clean and renewable energy sources; b) the impact of climate change, water scarcity and land / water competition on small-scale subsistence farming, as well as land-grabbing issues related to the presence of transnational food companies. In this context, the main challenge for policymakers is to translate the richness and availability in resources into effective policies, to support local economic activities and enable sustainable development also in terms of clean energy, and healthy and nutritious food access. Based on insights from “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” project, this chapter focuses on these two interrelated dimensions of the WEF nexus (Energy and Food), focusing on specificities of the Great Maputo area. The essay further discusses future patterns provided by authoritative institutions to provide insights on potential criticalities and challenges to be overcome and orient more integrated and sustainable energy and food security-related policies.
Lorenzo Rinaldi, Davide Danilo Chiarelli
Trans-scalar and WEF-sensitive Strategic Scenarios for an Integrated Territorial Development. A Proposal for the Maputo-Boane-Namaacha Transect as a Green-Blue Metropolitan Armature
The chapter presents some insights from “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” research project concerning the need to reconceptualize spatial planning in the specific context of a growing sub-Saharan African city coping with the effects of climate change and a fragmented planning framework. The first part discusses the opportunity to embrace a metropolitan perspective and investigate alternative strategies and tools to overcome the weakness of mainstream planning paradigms when dealing with WEF nexus challenges in such a context. The second part presents an experimental study and proposal for the Maputo Province, including four pilot projects, one of which is discussed as an example of how trans-scalar strategic scenarios could facilitate WEF-sensitive metropolitan governance and planning processes: the Maputo-Boane-Namaacha (MaBoNa) Transect. This is envisioned as an integrated territorial green and blue infrastructure with the potential to set a synergy among public, private and third sector actors in supporting the sustainable development of the region, thanks to better balanced rural-urban linkages. From territorial guidelines to local development plans and projects, drafting strategic scenarios could mean co-producing platforms for building knowledge, promoting negotiation and facilitating decision-making: common grounds to foster cooperation.
Alessandro Frigerio

A Transdisciplinary Lexicon of Sustainable Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa

Agriculture and Food Security: Implications on Sustainable Development and the WEF Nexus
Agriculture is the backbone of the Mozambican food system, and it represents not only the most important economic sector in the country but also the main user of natural resources such as water, land and eco-systemic services. However, more than 95% of agricultural areas consists of mostly rainfed smallholder farms, characterized by low yields and, when irrigated, by low irrigation efficiency. The wide yield gap affecting most Mozambican cultivations is partly due to the unfertile sandy soil and to the prevalence of rainfed agriculture. In addition to that, flawed farming practices and scarce mechanic agricultural inputs contribute to the low productivity of farmlands in Mozambique, hindering a diffuse and adequate access to healthy and nutritious food for the local populations. In addition, the overall resilience of the agricultural system is low also regarding climate and weather extremes. The fragilities of the Mozambican agricultural system and their consequences on food security and malnourishment have led to a series of acts and policies aimed at the development of agriculture and the eradication of hunger. Based on a WEF Nexus perspective, the chapter presents the overall conditions of water and agriculture in Mozambique and discusses the main national policy framework to address and reduce food insecurity.
Maria Cristina Rulli, Davide Chiarelli, Nikolas Galli, Camilla Govoni
Water and Climate Change: Water Management in Transboundary River Basins Under Climate Change
Water scarcity is becoming one of the main threats of this century. Population growth, increasing water, energy and food demands, low water use efficiencies and high losses are some of the reasons behind the water crisis worldwide. More than 2.3 billion people are currently living in water-stressed countries and 733 million in highly critical areas. In the Global South, additional pressure is coming from a lack of water management infrastructure, non-adequate sources of drinking water and insufficient sanitation services, unsustainable groundwater withdrawal and unpreparedness to disaster’s risks and climate change impacts. In this brief contribution, we first tackle the main challenges of water resource management in the developing countries of the Global South, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Beside water scarcity facts, we highlight how these are worsened in transboundary river basins, where cooperation and political agreements are hard to be achieved. The solutions in our hands are sustainable and integrated water management of the multiple uses of water, along with adequate mitigation and adaptation actions to climate change. Afterwards, we describe the expected climate impacts and why African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Finally, an interesting study with a focus on Mozambique is presented, as it shapes well the hard facts in the region, but it also sheds a light on the right direction to take in supporting regional development and cooperative water management.
Elena Matta, Andrea Castelletti
Energy: an Essential Asset for the Development of the African Continent
Africa is possibly the richest continent in terms of primary resources, from fossil fuels to materials and solar radiation. However, on the other hand, despite the progressive economic improvements, it is still the poorest region at the global level, and more than half of its population is still employed in the primary sector. To reach better living conditions, access to electricity and to modern clean cooking solutions play a crucial role. This section provides a synthetic picture regarding the relevance of the nexus between energy access and socio-economic development. In conclusions, future pathways on how energy conditions in African countries are expected to evolve according to the main authoritative scenarios are discussed.
Matteo Vincenzo Rocco, Lorenzo Rinaldi
Environment: A Bioclimatic Approach to Urban and Architectural Design in Sub-Saharan African Cities
Drawn on shared understandings of what “environment” might mean across different disciplines and making reference to the most recent literature on bioclimatic and sustainable urban and architectural design, this chapter aims at providing some general guidelines on how to work with local climate conditions and materials to achieve more sustainable and climate-sensitive building design. This is particularly crucial when dealing with fast-changing urban areas—especially in the sub-Saharan African context—where the climate crisis combined with unprecedented urbanization trends are increasing the pressure on natural environments and resources becoming more and more endangered and scarce. These challenges need to be addressed through a conscious and a cross-scalar approach towards the built environment. The case of Mozambique is adopted as a testbed for the combined use of traditional building techniques and innovative bioclimatic methods adopting basic energy flows—solar irradiation, winds and air humidity, among many others—as main guiding parameters to achieve a better comfort both in new or renovated buildings.
Valentina Dessì
Urban Forestry: Perspectives from Sub-Saharan Africa Between Planning and Global Challenges
Today, Urban Forestry and, more generally, the actions of planting and maintaining forests are at the forefront of the International Agendas. As the pressure towards the climate change effects arises, urban forestry and, more generally, urban greening become an increasingly critical infrastructure and an essential public service (Konijnendijk in Nature-based solutions for more sustainable cities. Emerald Publishing, Bingley, 2021). The essay aims at providing an introductory discussion on the specific challenges related to urban forestry in sub-Saharan Africa, and more specifically to Mozambique, to provide the context of the research to date in the sector of urban forestry in sub-Saharan Africa, and to introduce the discussion on the specific context of the metropolitan area of Maputo, where the pace of development and urbanization, in a changing climate condition, are rapidly deteriorating the overall ecosystem.
Maria Chiara Pastore
Governance: Rethinking Paradigms and Urban Research Approach for Sub-Saharan African Urbanism
To address the enormous challenges of management and rebalancing of the massive “urbanization of poverty” widespread in many countries of the Global South and particularly in the African continent, international multi-later organizations such as the World Bank and UN-Agencies have long since introduced the notion of governance—reformulated as good governance—as a sort of “magic formula” to tame unplanned and informal urban growth and enable a more prosperous, equitable, and sustainable urban development. The practical application of this new mode of urban government that has been so successful in Western cities—although still debated—has encountered and still encounters many obstacles in contexts where the government, especially at the local level, is weak and poorly equipped, formal resources are very limited, and informal processes predominate. The essay tries to reconstruct this problematic framework, especially with reference to sub-Saharan Africa, drawing on the growing studies on the specificity of African urbanism, which strongly support the need for a “place-based innovation” of planning and urban governance based on specific knowledge production and rooted in a new theory and praxis of urban research in that context. In the end, the case of the action-research “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!” is argued as a valuable contribution to this perspective.
Paola Bellaviti
Mobility: Developing Countries Through the Lens of Megaprojects, Equity, Sustainability, and Development
Mobility and transport investment in developing countries face different challenges from those of developed economies. A viable and balanced recipe for them should skip a Euro-centric approach and focus on local conditions. In particular, the role of megaproject must be questioned, as they are often risky and out-of-scale, fitted for extraction and industrial sectors that typically are aliens to local economy and development. In this chapter I propose a reflection on lighter solutions for mobility problems in Africa, focusing in particular on habilitating conditions: a reliable and diffused road and air accessibility, maintenance, the support to investments in vehicles, feasible solutions to traffic in cities. In the second part, I focus on two very different cases of transport megaprojects in Mozambique: the Maputo Corridor and the Maputo-Catembe bridge; pointing out that the first is a successful case because solving a real missing link and part of an industrial strategy, while the second is a perfect white elephant.
Paolo Beria
Society: Maputo, a Case of Social Non-simultaneity? A City Repertoire of Issues
The aim of this article is to show the socio-historic complexity of Mozambique’s capital city. Maputo presents all the traits of heterogenetic urbanism. It is born as a colonial outpost destined for the exploitation of the country’s resources. It long remains a white city, which begins to transform only after the 1975 revolution. The growth in the successive decades is chaotic both from a demographic and spatial point on view, joining destiny with other African cities in not leading in any way to a cohesive and shared idea of a city. Maputo remains the fruit of a clash between the city and the countryside, between the colonial model of rationality and the one of the autochthonous populations. It is a realm of Non-Simultaneity, of an unresolved coexistence of different perceptions of time and views on urban life. In the meantime, the predominance of extraction capitalism multiplies its issues in social, organizational, and infrastructural terms, as informal settlements grow, and the near prospects predict a further rise in the number of inhabitants. This situation implies consequences that are difficult to evaluate under the profile of stability and structuralism of the extremely fragile equilibrium existing now and the possible re-ignition of conflicts that are far from subsided.
Agostino Petrillo
Rural/Urban/Metropolitan: Trying to Reduce Inequalities Through Planning
The regulation of land use is a crucial tool to try to ensure conditions of equity and access to fundamental and non-negotiable rights: living, moving, eating. In the Anglo-Saxon disciplinary tradition of urban planning, this regulation has represented an unavoidable node to try to govern the tumultuous and dynamic processes of metropolisation of the territories, meaning by this expression a field of forces that implies a radical reconfiguration of the relational and settlement framework, characterized by the emergence of new polarities and new gravitation that transform the historical city/countryside relationships. In recent decades, in Sub-Saharan Africa, this process has taken on such strong, accelerated, and uncontrolled forms that it has radically and irreversibly redesigned some centuries-old territorial relations, such as that between urban and rural, and produced new forms of exclusion and inequality in a global world that is increasingly polarized between poor-poor and rich-rich. The contribution, starting from the research experience of “Boa_Ma_Nhã, Maputo!”, aims to focus on the main criticalities/inadequacies of planning practices in the field today, reinterpreting the relationship between rural-urban-metropolitan starting from the water-energy-food nexus (WEF nexus), assuming a transcalar and integrated approach as a necessary condition for a strategic vision of sustainable development.
Laura Montedoro
Afterword. Learning from Research by Design Approaches for a WEF-Sensitive Planning Culture
Gabriele Pasqui
Territorial Development and Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Global South
herausgegeben von
Laura Montedoro
Alice Buoli
Alessandro Frigerio
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