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Globalization is one of the buzz-words in the 1990s. It points to a world in which geographic location becomes increasingly irrelevant, a vision that has aroused both hopes and fears. Surprisingly, globalization is accompanied by increasing regionalization. This volume is a timely contribution to the debate on globalization and regionalism. Coming from several disciplines, its contributors explore the consequences of a world with no geographical barriers. Refuting simple notions of globalization, they argue that location and space will remain important dimensions of economic and social development. In view of this, the book develops a more balanced view of the tension between globalization and regionalism.



Territory and Territoriality in the Globalizing Society: An Introduction

Territory and Territoriality in the Globalizing Society: An Introduction

Globalization is one of the buzz-words of the 90s. It denotes a world closely knit together through improved means of technology, the increase in trade and the flows of capital and culture. In a globalizing world, things happen faster. As the means of transportation and communication increase, remote places come expeditiously within one’s reach. Money can buy the same goods everywhere and, these goods and, increasingly so, services can be produced anywhere. Economic transactions, transnational migrant mobility, tourism, social concerns, fashion and cultural artifacts deny economic, cultural and political boundaries.
Stefan Immerfall

Power and Competition


Territoriality in Modern Societies: The Spatial and Institutional Nestedness of National Economies

This paper presents an inquiry into globalization and regional responses. It argues that social actors are embedded in distinctive social systems of production which are societally specific. While social systems of production are constantly changing, they are not converging toward some global system. Different institutional mechanisms to coordinate relationships among economic actors, such as corporate hierarchies, states, networks, associations, class, and communities, may by found at the global level, the transnational regional level (e.g., the European Union), or at the territorial level of the nation state or subnational regions. The paper challenges the idea that globalization is the dominant force of our time, even though the autonomy of the nation state is weakening as a double shift in economic coordination is occuring at the subnational regional level, and at the transnational, regional, and global levels. As a result, economies and political actors are increasingly nested in a complex web of coordination mechanisms.
Rogers J. Hollingsworth

Do Territories Compete?

In the reemerging debate an geopolitics and economic competition some scholar hold that “geography matters”. Territory is said to increasingly constitute a defining cleavage of social and international conflict. This papers questions the territorialization of economic competition with reference to the nation-state. The concepts of territory and competitiveness are vaguely defined and often serve a political rather than a serious academic purpose. Neither geographical boundaries nor social cohesion define territory as an entity that can help to explain social action. The paper then suggests to define territories to consist of functional layers that form overlapping communities with loyalties that may vary according to situation. If conceptualized this way, a number of useful hypothesis may derive.
Christian Tuschhoff

The Integration of East German Firms into the Western Market Economy

Before 1989 the East German economy was protected from global competition by the Wall. When the borderline was opened East German firms were exposed to the competition within the European Common Market from one day to the next. For East Germany the privatization of the state-owned industry was a “shock therapy”, and it illustrates the consequences of a rapid integration of a society into global markets which was previously a niche society. The paper explores the method of privatization and its severe consequences for the economic and social structure of the East German society, and for the ownership and the governance structure of East German firms. The result is a surprising symbiosis between (West German) owners and the East German management, thereby reducing the principal-agent problem. This problem, which states that owners have difficulties to exercise an efficient control over the firm, is prevalent in other Eastern European countries.
Paul Windolf

Demarcation and Border-Transgression


Policing Europe: Border Controls and European Integration

The demarcation of boundaries is a precondition of territorial identity. Do external European borders and a new system of European policing indicate a definite step towards the transformation of the European Union into a state with its own territory, citizens and regime of territorial rule or, perhaps, even the evaporation of traditional concepts of the territorial state? This question is analyzed by discussing the problems that arouse in the effort of the EU to abolish internal borders and to set up a European regime of border checks (Schengen treaty). It is argued that we neither witness an integration of national borders into larger European ones nor the persistence of the traditional territorial nation-state borders.
Albrecht Funk

Remapping the World of the News

More than ever before, news is part of global politics, and information itself is a new measure of wealth and influence. The role of communication in reshaping the world at the end of the millennium is addressed in three areas. First is a discussion of the global information system itself, which is as different from the traditional telegraph news agencies as modern diplomacy is from 19th century imperialism. Second is a summary of first results of a cooperative study of foreign news and international news flow in 40-50 countries that remaps the world of news in the 1990s. Third is a set of changes in global politics brought about by modern communication.
Robert L. Stevenson

Globalization and its Impact on the Northern Border Region of Mexico

The US/Mexico border region is a prime example of profound transformations in the political economy of space. The paper elucidates processes for workings and the consequences of Mexico’s new industrial strategy for its people and its economy through a variety of geographical scales. Space is creatively used by transnational business interests, the state, and by industrial workers, creating, however, contradictory and paradoxical results.
Altha J. Cravey

Cohesion and Identity


Constructions of Europe: Territoriality, Sovereignty, Identity1: Disaggregations of Cultural and Political Space

One of the ideal presumptions underpinning the nation-state in Europe is the convergence of culture, politics, and space. It is predicated on spatial politics in its national meanings. This paper addresses the question of the impact of European political integration on the linkages between territoriality and national identity in the contemporary European landscape. These processes tend to detach the space of politics from the politics of space. In an ongoing reformulation of the territorial state in Europe, mental geographies are challenged and changed and nationalism and patriotism reforged. This reinvention of territoriality does not undermine national identity, nor eliminates political interest in the national citizenry even though it reshuffles some of its basic components. At best we can expect a maturing of a European nationalism no longer solely based on exclusivist images of the national-spatial Other
Ulf Hedetoft

Disembeddedness and Localization: The Persistence of Territory

Globalization has become a center of attention and a focus of both fears and hopes. Various disputes remain over the essence of globalization or whether the world today is more “globalized” than a century ago. To unlock this conundrum we suggest to make the critical distinction between globalization as a process, as an outcome and as a perception. The contributions of this volume provide a rejection of what we take as the core of the globalization argument, the withering away of the social effects of location and spatial settings. Territorial differences are likely to continue to create differences in cultural, political and economic activity. The “failure” of globalization as a predictive theory stems from a confiision of potential with actual and perceived homogeneity.
Stefan Immerfall, Patrick Conway, Carole Crumley, Konrad Jarausch


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