This paper describes the test results and nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened by bonded steel plates under increasing static loading conditions. The first part of this paper discusses the flexural tests on five T-beams, including the test model design (based on similarity principles), test programs, and test procedure. The second part discusses the nonlinear numerical analysis of the strengthened beams, in which a concrete damage plasticity model and a cohesive behavior were adopted. The numerical analysis results are compared with experimental data and show good agreement. The area of bonded steel plate and the anchor bolt spacing were found to have an impact on the cracking load, yield load, and ultimate load. An increase in the area of steel plate and a reduction of the anchor spacing could significantly improve the cracking and ultimate loads and decrease the damage of the beam.