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Über dieses Buch

In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific information on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly employed textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology and membrane technology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The recent concepts and trends in lightweight construction applications and the development of suitable fiber-based materials and matrix systems, as well as thoroughly automated manufacturing concepts contribute to an increased use of high-performance fibers and make fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) the defining material class of the twentyfirst century. Textile materials and semi-finished products act as carriers and drivers of these innovative developments and are an important basis of quantum leaps in resource efficiency, CO2 emission reduction and development of products able to meet consumer demands with wholly new ideas. In the future, energy consumption coverage in all civil and economic sectors will require wider use of renewable and CO2 neutral energy sources and concepts, leading to innovations and changes within the energy sector. As a result, a paradigm shift in the use of materials driven by energy and resource scarcity will put fiber-based high-performance materials and the products based on them in high demand by a variety of industries [1].
Chokri Cherif

Chapter 2. The Textile Process Chain and Classification of Textile Semi-finished Products

Abstract
This chapter gives a general overview of the most important steps of the textile process chain and will thus facilitate a deeper understanding of the material group of functional textiles. The introductory material- and process-related definitions concerning fibers, yarns, fabrics and their further processing are explained in depth in the following chapters. The scope of technical textiles has been extended far beyond the original technical application areas. The steady and intense use of micro system and nanotechnology, measurement and sensor technology, plasma technology and modern finishing techniques are suitable to equip textiles with specific, adjustable properties and functions. One main characteristic of functional textiles is their orientation toward functionality, performance and an added value in comparison with conventional textiles.
Chokri Cherif

Chapter 3. Textile Fiber Materials

Abstract
Textile fiber materials are the basic element for textile semi-finished products and the products manufactured from them. Thus, they are crucial for the product properties. Based on molecular and supramolecular structures, and ensuring optimum synthesis and fiber formation processes, high-quality fiber materials with tailor-made characteristics with the ability to function as reinforcement fibers or thermoplastic matrix fibers are created. The following chapter explains the general, complex relationships between initial materials, production, structure and properties. Detailed attention will be paid to the common commercially available reinforcement fiber materials, such as glass, carbon, and aramid fiber materials. Examples of other types of reinforcement fiber materials and thermoplastic fiber materials acting as matrix fibers will be given. A short introduction will be provided for the property optimization by means of surface modifications and material combinations.
Christiane Freudenberg

Chapter 4. Yarn Constructions and Yarn Formation Techniques

Abstract
Yarns are an important basic element for both the production and the assembly of textile reinforcement structures. They consist of either a 100 % reinforcement fibers or a blend of reinforcement and matrix fibers. They are made from filaments and/or staple fibers by means of different technologies, which allow the customization of structure and properties of the yarns according to the respective functional requirements. These chapters give an overview of the yarns currently used in lightweight construction and shows that their design has considerably influence of further processing and on the characteristics of composite materials. During textile processing, the yarns have to be processed easily at high speeds and must be formable force- or form-fit. Defined, anisotropic characteristics are achieved by the preferred orientation of the fibers in the yarn and the 2D or 3D yarn orientation during the production of textile semi-finished products. In the composite material itself, the yarn structures offer mechanic fixations.
Beata Lehmann, Claudia Herzberg

Chapter 5. Woven Semi-finished Products and Weaving Techniques

Abstract
This chapter introduces the structural description, weaving-technical manufacture and possibilities of woven fabric structure modifications for the development of practically suitable woven fabrics for application in lightweight construction. The basic structural set-up, methods for its description and the properties resulting from the structure of the woven fabrics will be clarified. An overview of basic methods of woven fabric manufacture and the corresponding weaving machines will demonstrate the diversity of technical solutions for a gentle and damage-free processing of special and high-performance fiber materials into a variety of woven structures. The focus of the chapter will be on an extensive introduction to woven structures and the respective structural modifications. This includes 2D structures as flat, grid, multiaxial, and polar woven fabrics, 3D structures as multilayered woven fabrics and spacer fabrics as well as shell-shaped 3D geometries. As early as during the production of the woven fabrics or the preforms, the inclusion of special fibers or external materials, such as electronic devices and inserts for mechanical connections, additional functions can be integrated.
Cornelia Sennewald, Gerald Hoffmann, Roland Kleicke

Chapter 6. Semi-finished Weft Knitted Fabrics and Weft Knitting Techniques

Abstract
This chapter details the most important development steps, binding elements, and basic bindings of weft knitting as well as the basic properties of weft knitted fabrics. This overview will include the various ways of influencing the properties of a mechanical engineering-based production of knitted fabrics. One focus of the chapter will be to provide an introduction to the wide range of possibilities in the realization of suitable, near-net shape, semi-finished, weft knitted fabrics, particularly for use in fiber composite components. One crucial prerequisite for that is the load-adapted integration of stretched reinforcing yarns into the knitted structure. In connection with the extensive technological shaping possibilities during manufacture, and with a subsequent drapability adjustable by means of stitch length, ideal conditions are created for a wrinkle-free production of weft knitted fabrics for complex component geometries. Due to the structure of weft knitted fabrics, such components exhibit outstanding properties, in particular with regard to impact loads.
Wolfgang Trümper

Chapter 7. Warp-Knitted Semi-finished Products and Warp-Knitting Technologies

Abstract
The production of warp-knitted semi-finished products is based on classical warp knitting processes, in which warp yarns of one or several groups are simultaneously and parallelly transformed into loops. This basic principle is used to connect yarn layers and/or other fabrics, such as nonwovens or pre-impregnated fiber layers by means of these loops. The main advantages of warp-knitted semi-finished products are their highly productive manufacture, the adjustability of the angles at which the individual yarn layers can be arranged respective to one another, and the versatile combinations of layer structuring and layer arrangement. Typical products are made from glass or carbon filament yarns and find applications in rotors in wind energy plants, in boat and vehicle construction, sports equipment, and construction.
Jan Hausding, Jan Märtin

Chapter 8. Braided Semi-finished Products and Braiding Techniques

Abstract
Traditionally, braiding is regarded as a manufacturing method for narrow fabrics like cords and ropes. New braiding methods allow the manufacture of structures with complex geometries which are used in lightweight construction solutions, for instance in vehicle engineering. Braiding plays a special role in the production of reinforcement structures due to the adjustment of the angular orientation in the braiding and to intertwine threads in nearly all three spatial directions at continual fiber orientation. 3D-braiding methods facilitate the manipulation of fiber orientation and thus ensure high strengths and stiffnesses at reduced mass. This chapter describes the various braiding technologies for the manufacture of 2D-and 3D-structures. The principle and functionality, as well as the most important braiding machine components are explained in detail. Potential application areas of this process based on different examples are shown in this chapter, also, possibilities for functional integration are discussed.
Ezzedine Laourine

Chapter 9. Nonwoven Semi-finished Products and Nonwoven Production Technology

Abstract
The properties of nonwoven-based semi-finished products are influenced much more significantly by their production methods than any yarn-based semi-finished products. Due to the multitude of available production methods, nonwoven semi-finished products offer a comparably specific and diversified property profile. In order to fully utilize this property potential of nonwoven-based semi-finished products for the characteristics of the composite material, basic knowledge of the combination between the structure and the characteristics of the nonwoven fabrics, in relation to various manufacturing methods is absolutely necessary. This chapter, beginning with the basic technological principles, reviews the combination of construction and structural as well as processing properties of the nonwoven semi-finished products in interaction with the manufacturing process. Conclusively, selected nonwoven-based lightweight construction solutions will be presented.
Kathrin Pietsch, Hilmar Fuchs

Chapter 10. Embroidered Semi-finished Products and Embroidery Techniques

Abstract
Since antiquity, embroidery has been known as a familiar textile method for applying yarns to textile surfaces, mostly as decoration. There are many variations as to the manner and direction in which the yarn material is placed and how much of it is used. Owing to modern drive and calculation technology, embroidery machines offer nearly unlimited pattern variety at high productivity and reproducibility. One enhancement of embroidery technology is constituted by Tailored Fiber Placement (TFP). This technically fully developed method enables a targeted local reinforcement or functionalization of textile semi-finished products and the production of textile preforms with required reinforcement yarn arrangement for the manufacture of fiber composite components. This chapter provides an insight into the embroidery technology of technical textiles for fiber composite applications. It will deal with process-relevant parameters regarding mechanical properties and conveys an overview of two- and three-dimensionally embroidered semi-finished products. The potential of semi-finished products and preforms functionalized with embroidery technology will be illustrated by examples.
Mirko Schade

Chapter 11. Pre-impregnated Textile Semi-finished Products (Prepregs)

Abstract
Pre-impregnated semi-finished textile products (prepregs), are an important base material for the manufacture of thermoset and thermoplastic composite materials. They consist of a usually flat and planar textile reinforcement structure and are combined with thermoset or thermoplastic matrices required for the production of the final component. Both short fibers or continuous filaments and textile fabrics, such as woven fabrics or multiaxial warp-knitted fabrics, can be used as base material. The basic principle of using this special textile semi-finished product is to separate the step of impregnating the reinforcement structure with the matrix during composite material production from the final step of producing the component form.
Olaf Diestel, Jan Hausding

Chapter 12. Ready-Made Technologies for Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites

Abstract
Ready-made technology processes are used to cut the semi-finished products from the textile fabric manufacturing processes, give them the shape of the near net-shape dry preform, assemble, and prepare them for composite material production process. This includes pattern design of the individual preform parts, nesting, and spreading as cutting preparation, as well as cutting and textile assembly of the preform by sewing, welding, and bonding. To ensure mechanical functionality of the composite component, the semi-finished products have to be selected carefully and integrated into the preform structure in the directions of forces. This has to be managed without fold formation and with only a defined change of yarn orientation during draping. In cutting and assembly, CNC-controlled machines or robot-guided handling and joining technologies, among them one-side sewing and industrial handling are required for reasons of reproducibility. Component properties are influenced by the assembly processes. Z-reinforcements are advantageous, while the pricking and piercing reduce in-plane characteristics due to perforation.
Hartmut Rödel

Chapter 13. Textile Finishing and Finishing Technologies

Abstract
Principally, textile-reinforced composites consist of a form-giving matrix (polymers or inorganic) and the reinforcement structures embedded in it. The third and less clearly distinguishable component, the interface between the aforementioned elements, is decisive for the quality and properties of the manufactured composite part. This layer is formed by the surfaces and interfaces (phase boundaries) of reinforcement fibers and matrixes as well as in the space between them. This is influenced by the interactions between fibers and the neighboring molding compound. The distance between the interfaces can be on the molecular level so that direct interactions are possible. The insertion of further mediating substance layers is also possible. This chapter gives an overview starting from the consideration of the involved materials at the molecular level, via the pre-treatment of textile surfaces, up to the application of functional finishing.
Heike Hund, Rolf-Dieter Hund

Chapter 14. Textile Testing Methods

Abstract
This chapter explains basic aspects and methods for the physical characterization of technical textiles and the fiber-reinforced composites manufactured from them. Testing methods from all steps of the supply chain will be considered, from the filament, the yarn, fabrics, preforms, to the final composite. Commercially available testing device exist for this, realizing standardized test environments and procedures. A representative selection of standardized testing methods will be outlined. The focus will be on testing methods providing information on the mechanical properties, in particular on the strength, of the textile structures and the resulting fiber-reinforced composites.
Thomas Pusch

Chapter 15. Modeling and Simulation

Abstract
This chapter will describe the fundamental aspects and methods for the modeling and simulation of textile reinforcement structures and fiber-reinforced plastic composites (FRPCs). Due to the anisotropic material properties, the simulation of the deformation behavior of textile reinforcement structures is a complex matter. Various approaches will be introduced and simulation solutions based on kinematic models will be discussed in detail. The focus of this chapter is to assist designers and engineers in the design of preforms for complex FRPC components. To correctly configure the composite material according to the expected strains by means of Finite Element Models (FEM), extensive experimental tests for the quantification of composite characteristics are necessary. This contribution will therefore also address modeling and simulation methods based on multi-scale approaches to the determination of special mechanical values of materials.
Lina Girdauskaite, Georg Haasemann, Sybille Krzywinski

Chapter 16. Processing Aspects and Application Examples

Abstract
The global energy and climate situation requires future activities to reduce energy consumption as much as possible, not only in transport technology and the construction sector, but also in all other industries. Lightweight construction with textile-reinforced composite materials offers fascinating possibilities in developing energy-efficient and function-integrated structural components, especially when compared to their conventional metallic counterparts. The combination of two or more different types of material results in novel composites, whose performance exceeds the sum of properties of the individual components.
Chokri Cherif, Olaf Diestel, Thomas Engler, Evelin Hufnagl, Silvio Weiland

Backmatter

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