The action model (AM) is the most detailed and comprehensive aspect model. It is also
on the ontological level. Strictly speaking, the other three aspect models (PM, SM, and CM) are derived from the AM, although it is practically convenient to follow the sequence that we adopt. The AM of an organization consists of a set of action rules, each of which represents an action rule in the CRISP model, as discussed in Chap. 14. One should keep in mind, however, that action rules serve only as guidelines for an actor. Sometimes it might be necessary for an actor to deviate from an action rule. Ultimately, the actor is held responsible for his or her acting. In this chapter, the action rules for the library and the pizzeria are presented, grouped into the distinct actor roles.