Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Expatriation is undoubtedly an expensive undertaking. Companies spend billions of dollars annually to send their employees on international assignments, and yet, based on recent reports (e.g. Brookfield Global Relocation Services, Global relocation trends survey report, Woodridge, IL, 2012) the return on investment (ROI) from expatriates has been altogether ‘unsatisfactory’. And so, year-on-year, organizations still struggle to define what international assignment success really means, and have made little to no progress on expatriate ROI in practice. More alarmingly, few have a clear strategy for how to measure expatriate ROI in a meaningful way (Cartus & Primacy, Global mobility policy and practices survey, Wilmington, NC, 2010). In addition, these same companies often have a short-term profit-driven focus, ignoring such forces as international careers and the “global war for talent.” Many also fail to run their mobility programs like they often do other areas of their business: with rational strategic practices, and a clear strategy and focus to ensure an acceptable level of “success” (McNulty and Inkson, Managing expatriates: A return on investment approach, Business Expert Press, New York, 2013). The question then is: if expatriates are among an organization’s most expensive employees, surely we ought to be able to justify the money spent and manage them more effectively?
The purpose of this chapter is to delve deeper into the “added value of expatriation”. Specifically, what purpose does expatriation serve and which types of international assignments and international assignees add real value? How has expatriate return on investment (‘ROI’) been historically defined and measured? And how should the return on investment of international assignments be evaluated in the future?
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Arp, F. (2014). Emerging giants, aspiring multinationals and foreign executives: Leapfrogging, capability building, and competing with developed country multinationals. Human Resource Management, 53(6). doi: 10.1002/hrm.21610.
Cartus & Primacy. Global mobility policy and practices survey. Wilmington: Cartus & Primacy; 2010.
Cendant. Worldwide benchmark study: New approaches to global mobility. New York: Cendant; 2002.
Collings D, Scullion H, Morley M. Changing patterns of global staffing in the multinational enterprise: Challenges to the conventional expatriate assignment and emerging alternatives. Journal of World Business. 2007;42(2):198–213. CrossRef
Doherty N, Dickmann M. Measuring the return on investment in international assignments: An action research approach. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2012;23(16):3434–54. CrossRef
Dowling P, Festing M, Engle A. International human resource management. 6th ed. London: Cengage; 2013.
Edström A, Galbraith J. Transfer of managers as a coordination and control strategy in multinational organisations. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1977;22(2):248–63. CrossRef
Edström A, Galbraith J. Alternative policies for international transfers of managers. Management International Review. 1994;1(1):71–82.
Ernst & Young. Winning in a polycentric world: Globalization and the changing world of business. London: Ernst & Young; 2011.
Fitz-enz J. The ROI of human capital. New York: Macmillan; 2002.
KPMG. Global assignment policies and practices survey. Geneva: KPMG; 2011.
Lazarova M, Westman M, Shaffer M. Elucidating the positive side of the work-family interface on international assignments: A model of expatriate work and family performance. Academy of Management Review. 2010;35(1):93–117. CrossRef
Mayrhofer W, Sparrow P, Zimmerman A. Modern forms of international working. In: Dickmann M, Brewster C, Sparrow P, editors. International human resource management – The European perspective. London: Routledge; 2008. p. 219–39.
McNulty Y. Expatriate return on investment in global firms. Melbourne: Monash University; 2010.
McNulty Y. Are self-initiated expatriates born or made? Exploring the relationship between SIE orientation and individual ROI. In: Vaiman V, Haslberger A, editors. Managing talent of self-initiated expatriates: A neglected source of the global talent flow. London: Palgrave-McMillan; 2013a.
McNulty Y. What not to do when measuring expatriate ROI, International HR adviser, vol. 53. London: International HR Adviser; 2013b.
McNulty, Y. Women in non-traditional expatriate families as a source of global talent: Female breadwinners, single parents, split families, and lesbian partnerships. In K. Hutchings & S. Michailova (Eds.), Research Handbook on Women in International Management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 2014. p. 332–366.
McNulty Y, Aldred G. Local-plus: Winning the compensation battle but losing the talent war, Strategic Advisor, vol. 9. Chicago: Brookfield Global Relocation Services; 2013.
McNulty Y, Inkson K. Managing expatriates: A return on investment approach. New York: Business Expert Press; 2013.
McNulty Y, Tharenou P. Expatriate return on investment: A definition and antecedents. International Studies of Management and Organization. 2004;34(3):68–95.
McNulty Y, De Cieri H, Hutchings K. Do global firms measure expatriate return on investment? An empirical examination of measures, barriers and variables influencing global staffing practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2009;20(6):1309–26. doi: 10.1080/09585190902909830. CrossRef
PricewaterhouseCoopers. Key trends in human capital: A global perspective – 2006. London: PricewaterhouseCoopers; 2006.
PricewaterhouseCoopers. Key trends in human capital: A global perspective – 2010. London: PricewaterhouseCoopers; 2010.
Scullion H, Collings D. Global staffing. London: Routledge; 2006.
Services BGR. Global relocation trends survey report. Woodridge: Brookfield Global Relocation Services; 2010.
Services BGR. Global relocation trends survey report. Woodridge: Brookfield Global Relocation Services; 2012.
Stanley P. Local-plus packages for expatriates in Asia: A viable alternative. International Human Resource Journal. 2009;3:9–11.
Tait, E., De Cieri, H., & McNulty, Y. (2012). The opportunity cost of saving money: An exploratory study of permanent transfers and localisation of expatriates in Singapore. Paper presented at the Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Perth.
Von Bertalanffy L. The history and status of general systems theory. Academy of Management Journal. 1972;15(4):407–26. CrossRef
- The Added Value of Expatriation
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock