The adjoint state method based on the variational theory has been used in groundwater modeling for more than two decades (Carter et al., 1974; Chavent et al., 1975; Seinfeld and Chen 1978; Neuman et al., 1980; Sun and Yeh, 1985; Townley and Wilson, 1985; Ahlferd et al., 1988; Sun and Yeh, 1990a; and etc.). Its applications include not only parameter identification, but also sensitivity analysis, reliability estimates, observation design, and so forth. In this section, we will show how to derive the adjoint equations for groundwater flow and mass transport problems and how to solve them.
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- The Adjoint State Method
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 6