The terminology related to ‘technology’ is used in many different ways in the economics and industrial literature.1 In a broad sense, technology means the same thing to everyone. It is the application of scientific knowledge and skills to the setting up, operating, improving and expanding of productive facilities. However, it can be narrowly defined to cover the technical aspects of such applications, or broadly to include managerial, organizational and other aspects.2 Even in the narrow technical definition, it may be taken to connote one particular technique or a whole family of techniques for making a given product. Similarly, the transfer of technology may refer variously to the setting up and training pertaining to one facility; to the sale of blueprints, patents and similar technological ‘instruments’; or to the transfer of the whole body of technical knowledge on which that particular facility is based. It is not surprising, nor is it inappropriate, that a rather general term should be circumscribed in different ways to suit the purpose at hand. This does, however, lead to some confusion.
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