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Über dieses Buch

Artists and creators in interactive art and interaction design have long been conducting research on human-machine interaction. Through artistic, conceptual, social and critical projects, they have shown how interactive digital processes are essential elements for their artistic creations. Resulting prototypes have often reached beyond the art arena into areas such as mobile computing, intelligent ambiences, intelligent architecture, fashionable technologies, ubiquitous computing and pervasive gaming. Many of the early artist-developed interactive technologies have influenced new design practices, products and services of today's media society. This book brings together key theoreticians and practitioners of this field. It shows how historically relevant the issues of interaction and interface design are, as they can be analyzed not only from an engineering point of view but from a social, artistic and conceptual, and even commercial angle as well.



Introduction to the Art and Science of Interaction and Interface Design

This chapter serves as an introduction to this book and will give a brief overview on the following chapters and their relationships towards the topic of artistic aspects of Interaction and Interface Design with special focus on how the notion of interactivity developed in the Arts and how early interactive artworks have left marks in later consumer products and interaction paradigms.
Christa Sommerer, Lakhmi C. Jain, Laurent Mignonneau

Interactivity – A Word in Process

This essay investigates the concept of interactivity by means of a historical analysis of the term itself and its classification. It should be understood as complementary to the essay by Dieter Daniels (’Strategies of Interactivity’) in this volume, elaborating on the related artistic and societal contexts and discourses. Understanding the history of a term and its application to the various scientific fields helps to contextualize its denotations and interpretations. Therefore the first part of this essay sources the roots of the term interactivity, adopted by scientific fields as heterogeneous as physiology and sociology, cybernetics and computer science. The second part investigates recent attempts to go beyond a mere definition by further describing and classifying the various processes that are subsumed under the umbrella term of interactivity. The compilation of exemplary studies introduces different approaches of classification, from an ideological or technical, epistemological or aesthetic perspective. As a further step towards new ways of describing and analyzing interactive art, the final paragraph of the essay presents a research project of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. evaluating a taxonomy for interactive art.
Katja Kwastek

Strategies of Interactivity

The ideological and technological frames of reference for the changing paradigms of interactivity are presented in an overview. The topics range from the early days of media and modernism to a typology of interactive art in the 1980s and 1990s and include the mass media interactivity models of the last decade.
Dieter Daniels

Interfaces in Public and Semi-public Space

In the late 1980s, a Berlin based group of designers and artists from Berlin’s University of Arts teamed up with hackers and programmers coming from the ChaosComputerClub environment. Together, they founded ART+COM. Up to that time, everyone from this group had used computers only as a tool. At the same time, all of them knew that this technology was on the verge of turning from a tool to a (mass)medium used not only to process and edit information but also to spread and to convey it. The quality most important to this new medium was and still is its potential for interaction (generating a mutual dialog between the users and the application) that distinguishes it from the classic mass media like print, radio, TV and the traditional fine arts like painting and sculpture.
What are the possibilities, the strategies and the right approaches to use interactivity and interfaces to access information in public space (e.g. urban environments) and semi-public space (e.g. museums)?
Joachim Sauter

Interactivity as Media Reflection between Art and Science

This article describes the evolution of interactivity in the media arts ranging from immersive virtual reality to intuitive interfaces for real-time installations, to online archives and tools for knowledge discovery finally unfolding in networked environments for public space. This development is exemplified by the authors’ own works and compared with selected media art works in the field.
Monika Fleischmann, Wolfgang Strauss

Media Facades as Architectural Interfaces

Artists who are creating interactive systems have begun to look for new display formats for their interactive art systems. Modern architecture allows building facades to become membranes for the display of interactive digital content.
Laurent Mignonneau, Christa Sommerer

Interaction Design for Ubiquitous Content

Ubiquitous Content is an emerging genre that uses everyday and everywhere media as a platform for creative content. This chapter covers key components for designing Ubiquitous Content to achieve emotional and entertaining experience.
Masa Inakage, Satoru Tokuhisa, Eri Watanabe, Yu Uchida

Ubiquitous Gaming Interaction: Engaging Play Anywhere

Computer games have become a cultural phenomenon. Increasingly popular, they have made their way from PC’s and consoles into the many small and sleek devices we carry with us daily, partaking of their mobility. When computers blend themselves into our daily environment, games will also move to colonize the new, ubiquitous paradigm of computation and may in this way manifest potentially through anything, anywhere. Ubiquitous games are already a popular topic of research, with focus on both technical and social aspects. Moreover they present a new and exciting challenge in interface design, as new forms of interaction are called for by a new paradigm. In this article we will see how current approaches to ubiquitous games and interaction break free of the traditional screens, mice and key pads and instead lead to reclaiming physical spaces, repurposing real objects and rediscovering social bonds – all of this while having fun.
Tiago Martins, Nuno Correia, Christa Sommerer, Laurent Mignonneau

Fashionable Technology – The Next Generation of Wearables

Wearable technologies in a mobile, networked environment will take the interface into the real world both literally and metaphorically, as our bodies become the interface, mediated through handheld, wearable, or embedded devices. Mobile, wearable media can be traced back to history f.e. with hidden cameras and wristwatches. By augmenting the physical through digital, wearable computers are constructing a new entity with its own specificities. A research in electronic textiles integrates technology into textile and thus allows it to become a dynamic interface. All wearables, objects or garments, must become more than mere mediators of perception. The future lies in a human-centered integration of man and machine.
Sabine Seymour, Laura Beloff

The Hybrid City: Augmented Reality for Interactive Artworks in the Public Space

Based on the idea of hybrid space (understood as the result of the transformation of the actual models of perception of reality through the effect of the development of technological systems), we propose to use mixed and augmented reality systems to create interactive artwork that facilitates the real and effective integration of information and communication systems into the physical public space. This will propitiate new ways of understanding and living in the city.
Clara Boj, Diego Díaz

Digital Art/Public Art: Governance and Agency in the Networked Commons

Digital art has expanded, challenged, and even redefined notions of public art and supported the concept of a networked commons. The nature of agency within online, networked "systems" and "communities" is crucial to these developments. Electronic networks enable exchange and collectivist strategies that can question existing structures of power and governance. Networks are public spaces that offer enhanced possibilities of interventions into the social world and of archiving and filtering these interventions over time in an ongoing process. Networked activism and tactical response as well as artistic practice that merges physical and virtual space and augments physical sites and existing architectures are among the practices that are important to the impact of digital public art on governance.
Christiane Paul


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