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Über dieses Buch

This book is ideal for practitioners and managers with low experience in the field. It introduces the theme of extrusion in ceramics and provides checklists, questionnaires, as well as the related literature and websites covering the topic. This Brief is written in a simple language and covers topics such as honeycombs, ceramic filters, auger geometry, wear and tear.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. How to Use This Booklet

For whom this book is intended. What the reader can and cannot expect. How the reader should utilize it and a list of the basic literature.
Frank Händle

Chapter 2. What Do We Understand by Extrusion in Ceramics?

The position of extrusion as a major method of shaping in ceramics is defined and evaluated. The process of extrusion in ceramics and the different types of extrusion units are classified focusing on extrusion by single-screw extruders. The different configurations of screw extruders, the main criteria for ceramic extrusion and the relevant components of an extrusion unit are outlined.
Frank Händle

Chapter 3. Ceramic Materials—The Malice of the Object

Ceramics are classified into two schemes according to material and applications. The main properties of ceramic bodies for extrusion like yield point, viscosity are explained.
Frank Händle

Chapter 4. A Little Bit of Theory

Two theoretical approaches within the framework of “extrusion theory” for ceramic materials are explained. There is also a table based on the formula for calculating the throughput capacity, which lists the throughput rates for those extruders commonly used in the ceramics industry. Definitions of the key basic terms necessary for a better understanding of the theoretical approaches are summarized.
Frank Händle

Chapter 5. How to Determine an Extruder and Which Data Do We Need?

To determine an extrusions plant, it is advisable to follow a structured incremental decision procedure and to have the basic data available regarding the required product, the foreseen output, the main characteristics of the body, etc. A well-proven decision process in six steps is presented as well as a basic questionnaire.
Frank Händle

Chapter 6. Plasticity or the Great Unknown

The two definitions of plasticity in ceramics and how to measure deformation pressure and rupture strength. Which factors determine the plasticity of a ceramic body? About two relevant methods to detect the consistency and extrudability of ceramic bodies and the relation of these term with plasticity.
Frank Händle

Chapter 7. Mixing and Kneading

The principles and differences between mixing and kneading with regard to the extrudability of the ceramic body are outlined as well as the most relevant terms like dispersion, micro- and macro-mixing. Mixing or kneading ahead of extrusion and following crushing and dosing is a complex process consisting of various elements like continuous or discontinuous process systems which can be arranged in different configurations to achieve the specific requirements for an optimal extrusion.
Frank Händle

Chapter 8. Extrusion as a System

Extrusion can be considered as a subsystem within a specific manufacturing system for ceramic products. The benefits of a system-oriented approach have been widely accepted in many scientific disciplines as an essential element for situation analysis and problem-solving.
Frank Händle

Chapter 9. Laminations and Chaos

The term lamination referring to extrusion is defined. The formation of laminations is explained, and the different types of laminations are described. On this basis, suggestions how to avoid laminations are proposed.
Frank Händle

Chapter 10. About the Brave New World of Sensors and Control

The requirements relative to modern measurement and control systems for extrusion plants are described and the relevant direct production data listed. The understanding of the mechatronic model helps to understand the function and interaction between sensors and actuators. The main reasons for the necessity of modern measuring and control systems are listed as well as the relevant operating data. The gain of importance by introducing so-called soft sensors is exemplary described.
Frank Händle

Chapter 11. Ancillary Equipment and Accessories

The functioning of an extrusion system depends on adequate ancillary equipment like vacuum pump, control system. The relevant ancillary systems and devices are listed and described.
Frank Händle

Chapter 12. Pressure Heads and Dies

How should the pressure head/die combination of the extruder be designed to prevent the internal stresses generated during the shaping of the ceramic body? Three prototypical examples—a highly perforated block, a stiff-extruded face brick and a ceramic honeycomb—are taken to demonstrate the difference in the design of pressure head/die combinations. Reference is made to conventional simulation methods as already adopted for the extrusion of plastics and which will be relevant in future for ceramic extrusion.
Frank Händle

Chapter 13. Extrusion Problems and How to Solve Them

The main problems of ceramic extrusion are listed together with the most probable causes for the problems and the most useful remedies.
Frank Händle

Chapter 14. Pelletizing by Extrusion

Pelletizing is well known within ceramics in the area of material preparation as well as in the shaping of different pellet geometries. The following chapter offers an overview of the various pelletizing methods for ceramic bodies and describes the relevant basics and elements of pelletizing.
Frank Händle

Chapter 15. Wear, Tear and No End

To avoid wear is one of the main tasks in ceramic extrusion. The tribological basis of wear in its different appearances is described as well as the most relevant options for wear protection. In the complex wear mechanism, the roughness of the surface of the auger and the geometry of the liner are of paramount importance as well as the control of the gap between auger and liner.
Frank Händle

Chapter 16. The Ceramic Production Laboratory

Why it is necessary to install a production laboratory? About the different types of production laboratories. The science of sampling and the possible risks of insufficient control of the ceramic body before extrusion. A list of the basic equipment for the production laboratory.
Frank Händle

Chapter 17. Does that Exist—The Optimal Extruder?

The final selection of the optimal extruder is only possible by comparing the relevant and specific technical properties of the alternative extrusion units. A checklist with the relevant properties and the preoccupation with the rich literature on decision theory should be helpful.
Frank Händle

Chapter 18. A Look-Ahead

The future of ceramic extrusion is wide open and offers great chances and challenges. Three basic strategies are outlined how to tackle the future as well as three gaps/blind spots in our know-how, theories and technology. To follow the elements of the “Smart Extrusion Concept” (SEC) might be a useful option to master the future of ceramic extrusion.
Frank Händle
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