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"This book is essential reading for researchers of tobacco policy change. Too many studies simply complain that change is too slow because tobacco companies are too powerful and politicians lack the will to challenge them. This book goes much further, to help us understand not just industry strategy but the policy processes in which policy advocates engage, learn from each other, and help create essential global tobacco policy change."
Paul Cairney, University of Stirling, UK
"This book is rare in making genuinely significant contributions across both public health and policy studies. By focusing on the battle for standardised packs, it engagingly addresses one of the most prominent recent innovations in health policy that has relevance both beyond Europe and across multiple spheres of health policy. In doing so, it also offers an innovative analysis of the role of transnational corporations in policy transfer."Jeff Collin, University of Edinburgh, UK

This book analyses the battle for standardised cigarette packaging (‘plain packaging’) in Europe, drawing on the concepts of multi-level governance and policy transfer. It analyses the strategies of policy makers, non-governmental organisations and transnational tobacco companies in attempting either to advance or to block the introduction of standardised packaging. Taking a global and multi-level approach, it analyses these struggles within European Union institutions, EU member states, and across jurisdictions, as NGOs and tobacco companies worked transnationally to counter each other. As well as presenting original empirical research detailing these policy battles, the book provides new theoretical insights into policy transfer processes, particularly within multi-level polities, showing how transnational corporations can have dramatic effects on these processes. The book will appeal equally to public health researchers, policy analysts and political scientists.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This book analyses the battle for standardised cigarette packaging (‘plain packaging’) in Europe, drawing on the concepts of multi-level governance and policy transfer. This chapter provides the global context of the policy processes examined in the book and sets out the book’s aims and structure. It explains the importance of branding and pack design to transnational tobacco companies (TTCs), and details the emergence of related tobacco-control measures outside of Europe. In particular, it focuses on the introduction of standardised packaging in Australia. It then describes TTC political strategies in opposing such measures, via trade litigation and other methods. The chapter also sets out the research methods used to collect and analyse the empirical data used in the book.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Chapter 2. Policy Transfer in the Context of Multi-level Governance

Abstract
This chapter reviews the theoretical literature relating to the core concepts used in the study: multi-level governance and policy transfer. The evolution of the concept of policy transfer is traced through discussions of associated concepts such as policy diffusion, policy convergence, policy learning and lesson-drawing. It discusses the development of these ideas through the models of Dolowitz and Marsh, and Evans and Davies. Most importantly for this book, the chapter discusses developments in the literature that consider policy transfer beyond ‘methodological nationalism’—the assumption that policy transfer involves bilateral lesson-drawing between states—to focus on the roles of international organisations and non-state actors.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Chapter 3. The EU Tobacco Products Directive

Abstract
This chapter presents the study’s findings in relation to the development, negotiation and adoption of the European Union’s 2014 Tobacco Products Directive, focusing on the activities of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in attempting to block, amend and/or delay the passage of the Directive within the European Union’s institutions. It analyses the political strategies of TTCs, and those of third parties acting for them, in lobbying the European Commission, the European Parliament and member states within the Council of the European Union.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Chapter 4. The Member-State Level: Standardised Packaging in Ireland and Beyond

Abstract
This chapter presents the study’s findings in relation to the development of standardised cigarette packaging in Ireland. Ireland was the first European Union (EU) member state to introduce standardised packaging (SP) laws, closely followed by the UK. The findings demonstrate that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) allocated considerable resources in an attempt to block the introduction of SP in Ireland, fearing that successful adoption in that country would lead other EU member states to follow suit. TTCs mobilised a range of third-party actors to attempt to block SP in Ireland. TTCs’ tactics in this case are consistent with the existence of broader, globally coordinated TTC strategies to resist the adoption of strengthened tobacco packaging laws across a range of jurisdictions.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Chapter 5. Policy Transfer and Transnational NGO Networks

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the roles of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the adoption of standardised packaging (SP) for cigarettes in Ireland and the adoption of the revised Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) by the European Union (EU). Transnational networks between NGOs and other policy actors in Australia, Ireland, the United Kingdom (UK) and at the EU level are identified as facilitating three types of policy learning between jurisdictions: horizontal-consecutive policy learning, characterising the relationship between Australian and Irish NGOs; horizontal-concurrent policy learning, characterising the relationship between Irish and UK NGOs; and vertical policy learning, characterising the relationship between NGOs active at the EU level and those based in member states such as Ireland. The latter two types of policy learning may be bi-directional.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Chapter 6. Discussion and Conclusion

Abstract
This chapter discusses the study findings in light of relevant theory on policy transfer and multi-level governance. Three theoretical conclusions are made: (1) public health policies today are often subject to a policy transfer ‘web’, in which networks of actors involving both policy-makers and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are required to navigate various different jurisdictions and levels of governance in order to ensure that a policy is successfully adopted; (2) transnational corporations have analytically-significant consequences for policy transfer processes and may act intentionally to disrupt such processes; and (3) the activities of transnational corporate actors can shape subsequent transfer processes, as policy-makers and NGOs build relationships and coalitions in an effort to adapt to, and counteract, global corporate political strategies.
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder

Backmatter

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