Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This study investigated disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic air pollutants among Asian Americans, including Asian ancestry subgroups, in four US metro areas with high proportions of Asians, i.e., Honolulu, Los Angeles, San Francisco Bay Area, and Seattle. Generalized estimating equations adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density, and clustering show that a greater proportion of Asian Americans in census tracts was associated with significantly greater health risk in all four metro areas. Intracategorical disparities were uncovered for Asian ancestry. A greater proportion Korean was positively associated with risk in four metro areas; greater proportion Chinese and Filipino were positively associated with risk in three of the four metro areas. While Asian Americans are infrequently examined in environmental justice research, these results demonstrate that Asian Americans experience substantial distributional environmental injustices in these four metro areas and that ancestry is an important dimension of intracategorical complexity.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abel, T. D., & White, J. (2011). Skewed riskscapes and gentrified inequities: environmental exposure disparities in Seattle, Washington. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 246–254. CrossRef
Abramson, D., Manzo, L., & Hou, J. (2006). From ethnic enclave to multi-ethnic translocal community: contested identities and urban design in Seattle's Chinatown-International District. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 23, 341–360.
Allen, J. P., & Turner, E. (2011). Patterns of population change in California, 2000-2010. The California Geographer, 51, 37–65.
Asian Pacific Environmental Network. (2012). Richmond, Accessed 14 February. http://apen4ej.org/what-we-do/organizing/Richmond/.
Bonacich, E., & Modell, J. (1980). The economic basis of ethnic solidarity: Small business in the Japanese American community. University of California Press.
Bullard, R. (1993). Confronting environmental racism. South End Press: Boston.
Bullard, Robert D., Paul Mohai, Robin Saha, and Beverly Wright. 2007. Toxic wastes and race and toxic wastes and race at twenty. In, edited by United Church of Christ, 175. Cleveland.
CDC. (2010). Leading causes of death by age group, race/ethnicity males, United States, 2010, Accessed 14 July 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/men/lcod/2010/lcodrace_ethnicitymen2010.pdf.
Chakraborty, J., Collins, T. W., Montgomery, M. C., Grineski, S. E., & Hernandez, M. (2014). Comparing disproportionate exposure to acute and chronic pollution risks: a case study in Houston, Texas. Risk Analysis, 34, 2005–2020. CrossRef
Chakraborty, J., Grineski, S. E., & Collins, T. W. (2016). Cancer risks from exposure to vehicular air pollution: a household level analysis of intra-ethnic heterogeneity in Miami, Florida. Urban Geography.
Chen, M. S. (2005). Cancer health disparities among Asian Americans. Cancer, 104, 2895–2903. CrossRef
Chin, M. M. (2016). Asian Americans, bamboo ceilings and affirmative action. Contexts, 15, 70–73. CrossRef
Chou, Rosalind S., and Joe R. Feagin. (2015). Myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism (Paradigm Publishers: Boulder, CO).
Clark, L. P., Millet, D. B., & Marshall, J. D. (2014). National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States. PLoS One, 9.
Collins, T., Grineski, S., Chakraborty, J., & McDonald, Y. (2011). Understanding environmental health inequalities through comparative intracategorical analysis: racial/ethnic disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in El Paso County, Texas. Health & Place, 17, 335–344. CrossRef
Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Morales, D. X. (2017). Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners. Social Science & Medicine, 191, 38–47. CrossRef
Community-Wealth. (2017). Mary Queen of Vietnam Community Development Corporation, Democracy Collaborative, Accessed February 14. http://community-wealth.org/content/mary-queen-vietnam-cdc.
Crowder, K., & Downey, L. (2010). Inter-neighborhood migration, race, and environmental hazards: Modeling microlevel processes of environmental inequality. The American Journal of Sociology, 115, 1110–1149. CrossRef
Cushing, L., Faust, J., August, L. M., Cendak, R., Wieland, W., & Alexeeff, G. (2015). Racial/ethnic disparities in cumulative environmental health impacts in California: evidence from a statewide environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1). American Journal of Public Health, 105, 2341–2348. CrossRef
Daniels, R. (2011). Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 (University of Washington Press: Seattle).
Downey, L. (2006a). Environmental inequality in metropolitan America in 2000. Sociological Spectrum, 26, 21–41. CrossRef
Downey, L. (2006b). Environmental racial inequality in Detroit. Social Forces, 85, 771–796. CrossRef
Downey, L. (2007). US metropolitan-area variation in environmental inequality outcomes. Urban Studies, 44, 953–977. CrossRef
Downey, L., DuBois, S., Hawkins, B., & Walker, M. (2008). Environmental inequality in metropolitan America. Organization & Environment, 21.
Downey, L., & Hawkins, B. (2008). Race, income, and environmental inequality in the United States. Sociological Perspectives, 51, 759–781. CrossRef
Environmental Protection Agency. (2016a). 2011 NATA: assessment results. https://www.epa.gov/national-air-toxics-assessment/2011-nata-assessment-results. Accessed 8 July 2016.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2016b). News releases by state: HAWAII. https://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/Press%20Releases%20By%20State!OpenView&RestricttoCategory=HI. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
Fisher, J. B., Kelly, M., & Romm, J. (2006). Scales of environmental justice: Combining GIS and spatial analysis for air toxics in West Oakland, California. Health & Place, 12, 701–714. CrossRef
Folch, D. C., Arribas-Bel, D., Kischinsky, J., & Spielman, S. E. (2016). Spatial variation in the quality of American community survey estimates. Demography, 53, 1535–1554. CrossRef
Fong, T. (2008). The contemporary asian american experience: beyond the model minority. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.
Garson, G. (2012). Generalized linear models and generalized estimating equations (Statistical Associates Publishing: Asheboro, NC).
Gold, S., & Kibria, N. (1993). Vietnamese refugees and blocked mobility. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 2, 27–56. CrossRef
Gordon, L., Payne-Sturges, D., & Gee, G. (2010). Environmental health disparities: select care studies related to Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. Environmental Justice, 3, 21–27. CrossRef
Grineski, S. E., Collins, T. W., & Chakraborty, J. (2013). Hispanic heterogeneity and environmental injustice: intra-ethnic patterns of exposure to cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami. Population and Environment, 35, 26–44. CrossRef
Grineski, S. E., Collins, T., Chakraborty, J., & Montgomery, M. C. (2016). Hazard characteristics and patterns of environmental injustice: household-level determinants of environmental risk in Miami, Florida. Risk Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12706.
Grineski, S. E., Collins, T. W., & Morales, D. X. (2017). Asian Americans and disproportionate exposure to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants: a national study. Social Science & Medicine, 185, 71–80. CrossRef
Hartlep, N. D. (2013). The model minority stereotype: demystifying Asian American success. Information Age Publishing: Charlotte.
Houston, D., Li, W., & Wu, J. (2014). Disparities in exposure to automobile and truck traffic and vehicle emissions near the Los Angeles-Long Beach port complex. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 156–164. CrossRef
Huang, K.-Y., Calzada, E., Cheng, S., & Brotman, L. M. (2012). Physical and mental health disparities among young children of Asian immigrants. The Journal of Pediatrics, 160, 331–36.e.1. CrossRef
Ibaraki, A. Y., Hall, G. C. N., & Sabin, J. A. (2014). Asian American cancer disparities: the potential effects of model minority health stereotypes. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5, 75–81. CrossRef
Jones, M. R., Diez-Roux, A. V., Hajat, A., Kershaw, K. N., O'Neill, M. S., Guallar, E., Post, W. S., Kaufman, J. D., & Navas-Acien, A. (2014). Race/ethnicity, residential segregation, and exposure to ambient air pollution: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). American Journal of Public Health, 104, 2130–2137. CrossRef
Kiefer, C. W. (1974). Changing cultures, changing lives: An ethnographic study of three generations of Japanese Americans. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kim, C. J. (1999). The racial triangulation of Asian Americans. Politics and Society, 27, 105–138. CrossRef
Kim, I. (2014). New urban immigrants: the Korean Community in New York. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kitano, H., & Daniels, R. (1995). Asian Americans: emerging minorities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Lam, F. K. S. (1986). Residential segregation of Chinese and Japanese-Americans in the United States suburban areas: 1960, 1970, and 1980. Purdue University.
Lee, J. (2000). Striving for the American dream: struggle, success, and intergroup conflict among Korean immigrant entrepreneurs. In M. Zhou & J. V. Gatewood (Eds.), Contemporary Asian America. New York: New York University Press.
Leong, A. (1995/1996). The struggle over parcel C: How Boston’s Chinatown won a victory in the fight against institutional expansionism and environmental racism. Amerasia Journal, 21, 99–119. CrossRef
Liang, K., & Zeger, S. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13–22. CrossRef
Liévanos, R. S. (2015). Race, deprivation, and immigrant isolation: The spatial demography of air-toxic clusters in the continental United States. Social Science Research, 54, 50–67. CrossRef
Liévanos, R. S. (2018). Retooling CalEnviroScreen: cumulative pollution burden and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities in California. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040762.
Liévanos, R. S. (2017). Sociospatial dimensions of water injustice: the distribution of surface water toxic releases in California’s Bay-Delta. Sociological Perspectives, 60, 575–599. CrossRef
Lin, J., & Robinson, P. (2005). Spatial disparities in the expansion of the Chinese ethnoburb of Los Angeles. GeoJournal, 64, 51–61. CrossRef
Logan, J. R. (2001). From many shores: Asians in census 2000. In In, edited by Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, 9. Albany, NY: University at Albany.
Logan, J. R., Zhang, W., & Alba, R. D. (2002). Immigrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. American Sociological Review, 67, 299–322. CrossRef
Marshall, J. D. (2008). Environmental inequality: air pollution exposures in California’s South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 5499–5503. CrossRef
McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs, 30, 1771–1800. CrossRef
McClintock, N. (2012). Assessing soil lead contamination at multiple scales in Oakland, California: implications for urban agriculture and environmental justice. Applied Geography, 35, 460–473. CrossRef
McGowan, M. O., & Lindgren, J. (2006). Testing the model minority myth. Northwestern University Law Review, 100.
McNamara, Keith, and Jeanne Batalova. 2015. Filipino immigrants in the United States. Migration Information Source, E Pub: Not Available.
Microsoft. 2016. (December 2016). Fast facts about Microsoft. Accessed, 8 http://news.microsoft.com/facts-about-microsoft/#sm.0001tmnrep75te8vx5d13z2rb5brw.
Mohai, P., Pellow, D. N., & Timmons Roberts, J. (2009). Environmental justice. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34, 405–430. CrossRef
Montoya, Carina Monica (2009). Los Angeles's Historic Filipinotown (Arcadia: Charleston, South Carolina).
Morello-Frosch, R., & Jesdale, B. M. (2006). Separate and unequal: residential segregation and estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics in US metropolitan areas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 386–393. CrossRef
Nee, V., & Sanders, J. (1985). The road to parity: determinants of the socioeconomic achievements of Asian Americans. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8, 75–93. CrossRef
Nelder, J., & Wedderburn, R. (1972). Generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 135, 370–384. CrossRef
Nicolaides, B. M. (2015). Introduction: Asian American suburban history. Journal of American Ethnic History, 34, 5–17. CrossRef
Nishi, S. M. (1995). Japanese Americans. In P. G. Min (Ed.), Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Oakes, J. M., Anderton, D. L., & Anderson, A. B. (1996). A longitudinal analysis of environmental equity in communities with hazardous waste facilities. Social Science Research, 25, 125–148. CrossRef
Ong, P. M., Fujita, J. T., & Chin, S. (1977). Asians in Washington: a statistical profile. Olympia, WA: Washington State Commission on Asian American Affairs.
Pais, J., Crowder, K., & Downey, L. (2014). Unequal trajectories: racial and class differences in residential exposure to industrial hazard. Social Forces, 92, 1189–1215. CrossRef
Pamuk, A. (2004). Geography of immigrant clusters in global cities: a case study of San Francisco. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28, 287–307. CrossRef
Park, L. S.-H., & Pellow, D. (2002). The Silicon Valley of dreams: environmental injustice, immigrant workers, and the high-tech global economy. New York University Press: New York.
Pastor, M., Sadd, J. L., & Morello-Frosch, R. A. (2004). Waiting to inhale: the demographics of toxic air releases in 21st century California. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 420–440. CrossRef
Pastor, M., Morello-Frosch, R., & Sadd, J. L. (2005). The air is always cleaner on the other side: race, space, and ambient air toxics exposures in California. Journal of Urban Affairs, 27, 127–148. CrossRef
Pastor, M., Sadd, J. & Morello-Frosch, R. (2007). Still toxic after all these years: air quality and environmental justice in the San Francisco Bay Area. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Justice, Tolerance & Community, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Payne-Sturges, D., & Gee, G. C. (2006). National environmental health measures for minority and low-income populations: tracking social disparities in environmental health. Environmental Research, 102, 154–171. CrossRef
Pew Research Center. (2016). The rise of Asian Americans, Accessed 25 July 2016. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/asianamericans-graphics/.
Phillip, C. (2010). Explaining the refugee gap: Economic outcomes of refugees versus other immigrants. Journal of Refugee Studies, (3), 377–397.
Pulido, L. (1996). A critical review of the methodology of environmental racism research. Antipode, 28, 142–159. CrossRef
Pulido, L. (2000). Rethinking environmental racism: White privilege and urban development in Southern California. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90, 12–40. CrossRef
Quach, T., Liu, R. L., Nelson, D. O., Hurley, S., Von Behren, J., Hertz, A., & Reynolds, P. (2014). Disaggregating data on Asian American and Pacific Islander women to provide new insights on potential exposures to hazardous air pollutants in California. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 23, 2218–2228. CrossRef
Ringquist, E. J. (2005). Assessing evidence of environmental inequities: a meta-analysis. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24, 223–247. CrossRef
Rumbaut, R. (2000). Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Americans. In M. Zhou & J. V. Gatewood (Eds.), Contemporary Asian America. New York: New York University Press.
Sakaguchi, K., Ichinose, D., Hung, B., Lee, J., Stephens, P., An Le, and Masaoka, M. (2013). A community of contrasts: Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacifc Islanders in Los Angeles County In, 36. Los Angeles, CA: Asian Americans Advancing Justice – Los Angeles
Shah, B. (2008). ‘Is yellow black or white?’ Inter-minority relations and the prospects for cross-racial coalitions between Laotians and African Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area. Ethnicities, 8, 463–491. CrossRef
Shah, B. (2011). Laotian daughters: working toward community, belonging, and environmental justice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Skop, E., & Li, W. (2005). Asians in America’s suburbs: patterns and consequences of settlement. Geographical Review, 95, 167–188. CrossRef
Sowell, T. (1981). Ethnic America: a history. Basic Books.
Su, J. G., Morello-Frosch, R., Jesdale, B. M., Kyle, A. D., Shamasunder, B., & Jerrett, M. (2009). An index for assessing demographic inequalities in cumulative environmental hazards with application to Los Angeles, California. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 7626–7634. CrossRef
Su, J. G., Jerrett, M., de Nazelle, A., & Wolch, J. (2011). Does exposure to air pollution in urban parks have socioeconomic, racial or ethnic gradients? Environmental Research, 111, 319–328. CrossRef
Su, J. G., Larson, T., Gould, T., Cohen, M., & Buzzelli, M. (2010). Transboundary air pollution and environmental justice: Vancouver and Seattle compared. GeoJournal, 75, 595–608. CrossRef
Szasz, A., & Meuser, M. (2000). Unintended, inexorable: the production of environmental inequalities in Santa Clara County, California. The American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 602–632.
Sze, J. (2004). Asian American activism for environmental justice. Peace Review, 16, 149–156. CrossRef
Taylor, Q. (1991). Blacks and Asians in a white city: Japanese Americans and African Americans in Seattle, 1890-1940. The Western Historical Quarterly, 401–429.
Tsai, S.-S. H. (1986). The Chinese experience in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
United Church of Christ. (1987). Toxic waste and race in the United States. In, 86. New York.
Vergara Jr., B. M. (2009). Pinoy capital: the Filipino nation in Daly City. Asian American history and culture. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
Walton, E. (2015). Making sense of Asian American ethnic neighborhoods: a typology and application to health. Sociological Perspectives, 58, 490–515. CrossRef
White, M. J., Fong, E., & Cai, Q. (2003). The segregation of Asian-origin groups in the United States and Canada. Social Science Research, 32, 148–167. CrossRef
Wierzbicki, S. 1997. The assimilation of Asians in Seattle. Paper presented at the Population Association of America. Washington D.C. https://csde.washington.edu/downloads/97-8.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2017.
Xu, J., & Lee, J. C. (2013). The marginalized “model” minority: an empirical examination of the racial triangulation of Asian Americans. Social Problems, 91, 1363–1397.
Yi, S. S., Kwon, S. C., Sacks, R., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2016). Commentary: persistence and health-related consequences of the model minority stereotype of Asian Americans. Ethnicity & Disease, 26, 133–138. CrossRef
Zeger, S., & Liang, K. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics, 42, 121–130. CrossRef
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y.-F., & Kim, R. Y. (2008). Rethinking residential assimilation: the case of a Chinese ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 34, 55–83. CrossRef
Zorn, C. (2001). Generalized estimating equation models for correlated data: a review with applications. American Journal of Political Science, 45, 470–490. CrossRef
- The burden of carcinogenic air toxics among Asian Americans in four US metro areas
Danielle Xiaodan Morales
- Springer Netherlands
Population and Environment
Print ISSN: 0199-0039
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-7810
Entwicklung einer Supply-Strategie bei der Atotech Deutschland GmbH am Standort Feucht