Decisions are most often based upon the results of experiments coupled with the knowledge of experts. When sampling or experimental results are available, they often constitute the major factualinformation input into the decision-making process. For example, clinicians and physicians use diagnostic tests and clinical findings along with their expert knowledge to diagnose their patients’ problems. When the physician estimates that the “risk” of a disease is high enough (here we define “risk” as both the probability and the severity), expert knowledge is again used to develop appropriate treatment plans. Toxicologists (in industry, government, and academia) use test results on live animals as well as short-term in vitro tests to study the carcinogenic potential of chemicals. If the risk of carcinogenicity for a particular chemical is high, then a pharmaceutical or chemical company may decide to stop or delay the development of the chemical, a regulatory agency may decide to ban the development or restrict the use of such a chemical, or a researcher in academia may decide to study this chemical further to examine its modes of action. In industry, quality control managers interpret results from multiple “inspectors” (humans or machines) to identify defective parts and to decide whether a defective part should be destroyed or sent to a rework station. Water resources and environmental engineers utilize results from well sampling to decide what type of action is warranted on an aquifer found to be contaminated.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- The Carcinogenicity Prediction and Battery Selection Approach
Yacov Y. Haimes
Herbert S. Rosenkranz
Fanny K. Ennever
- Springer US
- Chapter 1