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This book brings together segmental knowledge and creates new insights on the sustainability of agricultural systems, critically analyzing not only individual system components, but also focusing on interactions between them and external environments. This book is primarily devoted to (1) agricultural agribusiness, (2) policies and institutions, and (3) farming systems. The compelling collection of chapters presents critical, comparative, and balanced perspectives on what changes are needed to achieve and maintain sustainability in agricultural systems, actively leading to new ways of thinking about these complex issues. The research presented relies on an array of methods developed within complex systems science, addresses the existing gaps in the scholarship, and uses original data collected on the development of agricultural systems. Finally, the authors provide robust conclusions and recommendations for both scholars and practitioners in the field of studying, constructing, and maintaining sustainable agricultural systems. The special focus of the book is on technologies, policies, and management systems enabling sustainable agricultural development. A rich collection of practical cases could be used to move from theories to reality. The book appeals to both academics and professionals working in the field.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Agricultural Agribusiness

Frontmatter

The Effectiveness of Reserves Development to Increase Effectiveness in Agricultural Organizations: Economic Assessment

The effectiveness of agricultural production is marked with the rational use of natural and human-made resources. The main criterion for the effectiveness is the output indicator in physical and value terms per unit of production cost. Therefore, the reduction of cost production relative to the already achieved level of a plan or standard, combined with an increase in production volume, is the main task of business entities and a criterion for assessing their effectiveness. In real conditions, the effectiveness of agricultural production may depend on a whole range of factors. These factors can be controlled (the use of material and technical resources, specialization, industry orientation, etc.) and uncontrolled (natural and climatic conditions). This set of factors can reduce the actual production effectiveness compared to the potential. In this regard, it is necessary to determine the reserves for increasing effectiveness, the level, and effectiveness of the implementation of measures for their development on an economically feasible basis. Therefore, there is a growing demand for scientifically based methodological developments with allowances for the natural, organizational, and economic factors of agriculture and possible reserves for their rational use. This paper discloses methodological approaches to assessing the effectiveness of reserves development for increasing the effectiveness of agricultural organizations.

Andrey A. Polukhin, Alexandra B. Yusipova, Alexander V. Panin, Dmitriy V. Timokhin, Olga V. Logacheva

Economic Value-Added of Agricultural Business

The paper is devoted to the problem of increasing the investment attractiveness of the agricultural business, indicated in the national priorities of the state for agriculture. The paper demonstrates that this problem is hard to solve only through budgetary mechanisms for attracting financial and credit resources to the agricultural sector. The paper reveals the decrease in private investment and overall investment activity in the agricultural business against the background of borrowed capital growth on the example of the Penza Region producers. The conditions of uncertainty require effective tools, adequately describing the return on the investment process or means of supporting the adoption of investment decisions. The methodology for diagnosing the investment attractiveness of the agricultural business is generalized. It is systematized by the indicators of the method of assessing economic value-added and supplemented with models of the functional dependence of the profitability spread on invested capital, which makes it possible to substantiate the effectiveness of potential investments and show the return on invested capital. The research information resources were financial reporting data in the context of agro-industrial enterprises in the region. We considered two possible scenarios of rising prices for products: in the conditions of openness of the domestic market (Scenario 1) and the conditions of “anti-sanction” (Scenario 2). The performed analytical and model calculations show the presence of economic and financial incentives from investing financial resources in the agricultural business in both scenarios. The owners of the invested funds will receive significant value in the first scenario, and large profitability of the agricultural business in the second one. The study results will be useful to AIC management bodies for coordinating strategic decisions to create a favorable investment climate in agriculture.

Nikolay G. Baryshnikov, Denis Yu. Samygin, Nadezhda Yu. Rozhkova

Value Assessment of Shares of Corporate Issuers by Applying the Methods of Fundamental Analysis in the Stock Exchange Market

The paper describes the economic content of the category “fundamental analysis,” namely, its essence and implementation stages. It reflects the peculiarities of the securities valuation of corporate issuers and the main approaches and methods for determining the fair value of securities. The authors analyzed the infrastructure of the Ukrainian stock market, the poultry industry sector, and the financial condition of “Myronivsky Hliboproduct” PJSC. The authors, together with the expert of fundamental analysis, determined the fair value of the shares of “Myronivsky Hliboproduct” PJSC and described how to improve the valuation of corporate issuers’ securities. The paper provides recommendations for improving fundamental analysis. It is substantiated that the relevance of assessing the value of company securities by the methods of fundamental analysis is revealed through the development of the stock market, the establishment of new companies in public trading, and the introduction of the necessity for the application of the scientifically approved approach allowing to make strategic decisions regarding these companies. The authors proved that the use of fundamental analysis by investors is one of the primary methods successfully applied in the study of investment objects. It was confirmed that the fundamental analysis is popular due to its efficiency. Therefore, the research departments were established to conduct the analysis. It is proved that in the conditions of uncertainty (for example, in trade), market participants should carefully balance between optimization of performance and preparation for unpredictability. As a rule, traders tend to pay too much attention to the former and not enough to the latter. It is shown that the fundamental analysis is based on the assessment of issuer: its income, its position in the market, the value of assets and liabilities, and other indicators showing the company’s activity. The analysis is based on balances, reports, and other materials published by the company. It was also revealed that data on the state of the economy and affairs in the industry is studied during fundamental analysis. According to the research, the price of securities is too high or low compared to the real value of assets.

George D. Abuselidze, Anna N. Slobodianyk

Key Development Strategies for Small Regional Agribusinesses

Modern production and economic relations in the agricultural sector of the economy require the search for effective approaches to expanding the participation of small agribusiness entities in providing the population with the food of own production. The paper aims to substantiate the conceptual provisions for the formation of strategies for the development of small agribusiness in the implementation of state priorities. General scientific research methods are the methodological basis of the study. The study analyzes the activities of small businesses in rural areas at the regional level. The reasons hindering the development of small agribusiness are substantiated. The key factors determining the strategic guidelines for the functioning of entrepreneurship in rural areas include the state of the institutional environment, the level of state support, and the potential competitiveness of small businesses, especially their interaction through rural consumer cooperation. Different strategies of development of small agribusiness (patienta, commutata, vilenta, and experenta) are highlighted based on the different strategies of development of small agribusiness. The significant potential of the National project “The creation of a system of support for farmers and the development of rural cooperation” was noted as a tool for the progressive movement of small agribusinesses through agricultural consumer cooperation, providing the maximum synergetic effect.

Marina A. Kholodova, Svetlana G. Safonova, Marina S. Sheykhova

The Model of Budget Management Based on the Process Approach in Wine Production Industry

The paper aims to develop a model of management budget for the primary and auxiliary business processes in organizations of the wine industry. The model allows us to keep track of the costs of subprocesses and technological stages and to determine the costs of growing grapes and producing wine. It also guides the necessary information for making current and strategic decisions in achieving the planned results.

Zoya V. Udalova, Lyubov V. Postnikova, Andrey A. Udalov

Globalization of the Russian Agri-Food Sector and Market Strategies of Foreign Companies

The paper focuses on the degree of involvement of Russia as a whole and its agri-food sector, in particular in the formation of a trans boundedness network, which carries the danger of increasing the heterogeneity of the economic space and the deformation of conventional national state functions. The study analyzes the phenomenon of the expanding Russian presence in the global grain markets and the risk of increasing export orientation due to the successful implementation of the revised Federal Project “The Export of Agricultural Products” in Russia. The mechanism of foreign capital entry into the Russian market of dairy products in direct investment is considered separately. The paper assesses the market strategies of various foreign multinational companies [FMCs]. The work notes that FMCs successfully implement glocalization practices. The study reveals the combination of import, the substitution of goods, export orientation, and maximum localization of foreign capital on Russian territory as a feature of modern Russian state policy (including in the AIC). The paper concludes that the high Russian share in the global grain market and the dominance of products of multinational companies of foreign origin in the domestic market of milk and dairy products, juices, and baby food suggest a high degree of involvement of the Russian agri-food sector in the processes of globalization. Given the hierarchy of the global space, the agenda is currently focused on the qualitative changes of Russian presence in global agricultural markets, rather than on quantitative growth.

Svetlana V. Ivanova, Tatyana I. Kuzmina, Artyom V. Latyshov

The Effectiveness of Developing Branches of the Agricultural Sector in Peasant (Farm) Enterprises

The role of the farming sector in the production of agricultural products and food saw a gradual and steady increase in the modern development of the agricultural economy. According to the All-Russian Agricultural Census 2016, the number of peasant (farm) enterprises and individual entrepreneurs [P(F)E] amounted to174.6 thousand, while the area of land in their use amounted to 42 million hectares [4]. In 2003–2016, the volume of manufactured products increased 13.4 times, while its share among all agricultural products increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 12.5% in 2016. The share of farm products in total grain production in 2017 amounted to 29.1%, sugar beet—11.6%, and sunflower—31.5%. The production volume of these products increased by 3–4 times compared to 2003. However, as practice shows, a large volume of production does not always act as the primary condition for farm activity effectiveness. Thus, the authors tried to analyze the system of indicators characterizing the production efficiency of the main types of agricultural products in the P(F)E under economic conditions of a particular Russian region. During the study, the authors used analytical methods, statistical analysis, and expert assessment. The research structure includes several stages. The initial stage aims to identify the most demanded agricultural branches among farmers. The research proceeds to evaluate the efficiency of the production of the corresponding products. It analyzes the effective use of the primary production resources of P(F)Es within this combination of branches and assesses the financial and economic activities of P(F)Es. Except for a few regions, Russian P(F)Es specialize in crop production [13, 14]. The profitability of farms still needs to be increased even if the production resources are used efficiently. This development proves the high dependence of modern P(F)Es on the external economic conditions of their existence (the possibility of lending, sales of products, and relations with the state).

Svetlana S. Sushentsova, Tatyana A. Bayer, Nina I. Litvina

Innovative Approaches in Management of Agricultural Enterprises

Ensuring conditions for innovative development of enterprises is considered the primary task contributing to increasing the competitiveness of Russian enterprises and the standard and quality of life of the population. Methods of comparative and retrospective analysis were used to study past trends and compare them with the current ones. The statistics of the Federal State Statistics Service [Rosstat] were analyzed. To increase enterprises’ efficiency, comprehensive state support, introducing innovative projects for their innovative development, is crucial. The paper analyzed the social and economic situation in the Russian agricultural complex, revealed the peculiarities of the development of innovative processes inherent in this sphere, discussed the peculiarities of the development of advanced innovative enterprises in the Penza region. Currently, to ensure the prosperity of the enterprises and, as a result, improve their economic efficiency, it is necessary to provide innovative processes based on the relationship between practical activities and science, introduce advanced innovative technologies into production, develop infrastructure, form new innovative thinking by managers, entrepreneurs, and the population, and most importantly, on state support in the form of innovative projects.

Victor M. Volodin, Yousef D. Bahteev, Nataliya A. Nadkina

Integration and Diversification in Modern Agribusiness

The processes of agro-industrial integration and diversification are actively developing, take on new forms, and increase the functioning efficiency of individual agricultural enterprises and the agro-industrial complex [AIC] as a whole. The authors consider the regularities in the development of agricultural integration, the benefits of integrating agricultural production, and the processing of raw materials into finished products. Depending on the business environment, various organizational forms of integration are used with varying degrees of economic and organizational ties (from partial interaction of sub-sectors to a full-scale production chain). Currently, the basis of the national economic security of domestic agriculture is the development of high-tech production and the activation of innovative high-tech processes. Along with the introduction of new technologies and technical means, diversification is of great importance, i.e., the development of new industries related to the refinement and processing of products into ready-to-use products, along with the traditional production of agricultural raw materials. The free market establishes the volumes, nomenclature, and assortment of products. The economic significance of diversification processes in modern agribusiness is considered. The authors analyze the prerequisites and motives for diversification and its types to increase the economic viability of business. The measures for processing poultry meat into semi-finished products in a poultry farm are proposed.

Natalya V. Sergeeva, Yuliya S. Vasyukova

Digitalization Assessment in Agricultural Organizations: Prospects for Implementing a New Initiative in the Oryol Region (Russia)

The paper aims to assess, on the part of managers and specialists of specialized organizations of the Oryol Region, the understanding and relevance of the digital transformation of agriculture, as well as equipping farms with new technologies. A questionnaire of a sociological survey was developed, including 25 questions on four blocks: information and organizational, technical, technological, financial, and economical. It has been established that the greatest interest in production is caused by such technologies as electronic maps of fields and gardens, crop control and management programming systems, parallel driving systems, yield mapping, and the application of differential fertilizer. A rating of the demand for innovations is proposed for the first time in the Oryol Region. The main problems include the high cost of innovation and the lack of stable cellular communications and the Internet in remote areas of production. Based on the research results, we proposed methods of stimulating developers and suppliers of digital technologies and manufacturers that actively introduce innovations in enterprises. It was also proposed to initiate a case study, in which results will identify and justify the criteria and methods for assessing the degree of effectiveness of the digital transformation of individual enterprises and the industry as a whole.

Sergey A. Rodimtsev, Tatyana I. Gulyaeva, Elena Yu. Kalinicheva

Bankruptcy Prevention with the Unified Accounting System

Nowadays, the development of the economy is unthinkable without ensuring a proper competitive environment for many of its participants, placed in relatively equal economic circumstances. However, the involvement of subjects in business circulation is faced with problems of financial literacy, honesty, responsibility, accessibility of information, and other resources. Many of these difficulties lead to the rapid bankruptcy of an economic entity and damage to its partners in the form of unfulfilled obligations. A system of recording the facts of economic life and economical communication of its participants are called upon to help to solve such problems. Based on the study of theoretical principles, generalization, and analysis of accounting practices, the purpose of the study is to propose the organization of the accounting system in order to ensure the effective administration of a single economic space, allowing to obtain effective tools for making managerial decisions and the implementation of other administrative powers. In accordance with the goal, the prerequisites and possibilities for introducing trends in the development of the accounting system in the conditions of a single economic space were identified and studied. The issues of administering economic relations using the tools of the accounting system of a single economic space are considered in order to prevent the bankruptcy of economic entities in the digital economy; The results of the study are summarized, and a procedure for organizing accounting activities in support of stated tasks are proposed. The novelty of the study lies in the developed procedure for organizing the accounting system for ensuring the effective administration of a single economic space, which will help prevent the bankruptcy of economic entities. The contribution of the authors lies in the study of prerequisites and opportunities for implementing trends in the development of the accounting system in a single economic space, as well as in the review of the administration of economic relations using the tools of the accounting system in a digital economy for preventing the bankruptcy of economic entities.

Yuri I. Sigidov, Sergey P. Pershin, Natalya S. Vlasova, Marina A. Korovina

Accounting for Reserves to Ensure Sustainable Development of an Enterprise

The paper focuses on theoretical and methodological issues of recognition of reserves in accounting, types of reserves, methods of their reflection, following international financial reporting standards. The authors studied the methodology of creating reserves related to the depreciation of fixed assets and intangible assets, depreciation of reserves, reserves reflected through the capital, that is, related to the revaluation of fixed assets. The methodology for recording reserves for estimated liabilities, the criteria for their recognition. The results of the study can be used in practice by the heads of enterprises and organizations, accountants, and analysts. The paper provides various examples and situations of redundancy. The ways of reflection in the accounting of each described situation are demonstrated, and their influence on the financial statements indicators is shown. Practical issues of reserves accounting are considered according to the relevant international financial reporting standards. The methods of reflecting reserves in international accounting are analyzed.

Aigul U. Abdrakhmanova, Anargul S. Belgibayeva, Utegen K. Sartov, Elvira S. Madiyarova, Lyazat Z. Karimova

Nutrition of Winter Wheat in the Central Ciscaucasia

An increase in the export potential of the Stavropol Krai is impossible without increasing the productivity of the winter wheat, which is the leading crop. Our research is aimed at optimizing the nutrition of winter wheat in order to increase productivity and quality by introducing advanced developments of the chemical company “EuroChem.” As part of the tasks, we tested nutritional schemes using biomodified forms of fertilizers, as well as innovative forms of nitrogen fertilizers that contribute to the achievement of the planned indicators. As our studies showed, the highest productivity was formed on the options using biomodified ammophos 80–100 kg/ha for sowing and ammonium nitrate for top dressing, as well as on the option using UTEC carbamide 5.53–5.73 t/ha. The best indicators of economic efficiency among all the options were ensured by the introduction of 80 kg/ha of biomodified ammophos during sowing and ammonium nitrate twice in top dressing, at which the level of profitability was 136.3%.

Evgeniy V. Golosnoy, Sergey A. Korostylev, Maxim S. Sigida, Elena A. Ustimenko, Yuliya I. Grechishkina

Qualitative Assessment of an Industrial Business Entity: Economic Potential and Maximum Performance

Currently, the main factor and a necessary condition for the stable position of the enterprise is the assessment of its economic potential. The paper analyzes the etymology of the definition of the “economic potential of the enterprise.” It was found that, despite the constant attention of economists to the problem, there is no consensus on the definition of “economic potential” and the methodology for calculating it. The authors proposed a phased methodological toolkit and a system of indicators, the use of which allows determining the level of the economic potential of an economic entity. On the example of a specific industrial enterprise, a detailed calculation and assessment of its economic potential are made. It is confirmed that an industrial complex enterprise may have high economic potential, but not use it effectively enough in practice.

Victor A. Fursov, Natalia V. Lazareva, Oksana V. Takhumova, Liliy V. Semenova, Elena N. Kushch

Agricultural Enterprises Bankruptcy in the Altai Region, Russia

The activities of agricultural enterprises that carry out large investment projects mainly at the expense of borrowed funds are associated with the emergence of idiosyncratic risks. Its neglect, given the existing development of economic relations and the credit policy of commercial banks in Russia, determines the instability of the functioning of the entire agro-industrial complex and generates meso- and macroeconomic shocks. The purpose of this study is to identify the main patterns that determine the financial condition of agricultural enterprises of the Altai Region, which carried out active investment activities, but were liquidated due to financial insolvency. The novelty of the research lies in the development of methodological provisions for the express analysis of the financial condition of agricultural enterprises implementing large investment projects, based on the calculation of advancing coefficients of the main financial and economic indicators in dynamics, which allows investors to receive timely signals about the state of organizations and the formation of sufficient cash flows in them. The practical significance of the study lies in the identification of the significance of the influence of idiosyncratic shocks arising in the conditions of favorable pricing in the main agricultural markets and the increased debt load on organizations carrying out large investment projects. Thus, the liquidation of financially insolvent large enterprises has significantly improved the solvency structure of the enterprises in the region. The types of activity of the analyzed enterprises (milk production, pig breeding, growing vegetables, and grain crops) did not affect the situation, and the observed patterns were identical. The determination of balanced proportions from the consolidated financial statements for 2009–2010 showed an increase in crisis situations from 2012–2013 (in different ways in each particular organization): quick-selling assets were not enough to pay off current payments, slow-moving assets not allowing to pay off long-term loans and payments. The shortage of funds to pay all amounts payable, short-term loans, and borrowings, in some years, reached 3.4 billion rubles, which indicated that there was a rather high risk of default on credits, loans, and investments.

Viktoria V. Vorobyova, Sergei P. Vorobyov, Daria V. Rozhkova, Aleksandra S. Savchenko

Effectiveness of State Support Measures for Small Businesses in Russia

The paper analyzes the state of small business in Russia, considers the dynamics, directions, and problems of development. The main reasons for the lack of effectiveness of the applied programs and support measures for small businesses in Russia have been identified, generalized, and investigated, since support programs, as a rule, do not meet the needs of interested parties. As a result, there is an insufficient level of entrepreneurship development in Russia. In order to identify the reasons for the insufficient effectiveness of support programs for small businesses, the authors use the concept of business analysis, in particular, its conceptual model. Also, approaches and techniques of business analysis were used to identify the causes of the low efficiency of these support programs.

Julia G. Chernysheva, Irina A. Polyakova, Garii I. Shepelenko, Dmitry A. Mikhailin

Problems and Main Mechanisms for Improving Innovative Management in Insurance Companies

This paper identifies the main reasons for the low demand for voluntary types of insurance by both individuals and legal entities. We established the relationship between the level of the population’s income, unreasonably high prices for insurance services, and the intention to purchase them from commercial insurers. Proposals for the development of mutual insurance societies [MIS] are substantiated. Their non-commercial orientation not only excludes profit from the cost of insurance but can also ensure its reduction due to the possible excess of insurance premiums overpayments and income from investment activities of the company. Several objective advantages of mutual insurance compared with other forms of organization of insurance protection in Russia are highlighted. Problems are identified, the solution of which should be primarily entrusted to the state, which needs to support the development of mutual insurance societies through improving the legislative framework and effective economic measures. It is proposed to solve the problem of information closedness of the Russian insurance market, which generates inaccuracy of the information provided for the population, by introducing a single mobile application “Insurance” with access to any information on the services of insurance companies that will join the project and provide up-to-date data for placement. This application will allow the user to save time searching for the necessary insurance products and choose precisely those insurance programs that are most fully suited to his criteria.

Elvira A. Rusetskaya, Lubov V. Agarkova, Lubov K. Ulibina, Irina A. Belozerova, Yuri N. Belugin

Information Support for Evaluating Personnel Security in a Company

The study focuses on a system of personnel safety indicators based on the targeted approach to the compliance with threats. The methodological basis of the study was the fundamental principles of the theory of economic systems and economic security. When constructing systems of threats to personnel security and the corresponding models of indicators, methods of economic and mathematical modeling and logical analysis of research results in the field of personnel security of business entities were applied. As a result of the study, we identified the following causes of the imperfection of indicators in the personnel safety: the lack of systematicity and the connection with threats, the inability to quantify individual indicators. The paper presents a system of threats to the personnel security of the company built by the author based on the sources of their occurrence, reflecting adverse events or processes that are within the competence of the company’s management. A system of personnel safety indicators was built based on the proposed principles for the formation of a system of indicators, including goal matching, objectivity, measurability, complexity, permissible multicollinearity, differentiation, validity, and simplicity.

Natalia N. Karzaeva

Innovative Formation of an Effective Management System for Working Assets in Organizations of the Krasnodar Krai

Ensuring uninterrupted operational activities of agricultural organizations is directly related to the system of formation and efficient use of current assets that contribute to the best physiological processes of animals and plants. A deficiency in current assets, an ineffective system of their management, or the complete absence of such a system provokes the occurrence of several negative consequences, including a slowdown in asset turnover, degradation of liquidity and solvency of the organization, reduction in profit and profitability, which generally weakens the financial stability of the organization. Thus, the formation of an effective system for managing current assets and sources of financing represents a priority task for tactical financial management. The current situation in the domestic economy is marked with a rather high level of uncertainty, which is caused by the lability of the geopolitical situation, sanctions, and counter-sanctions policies of Western states and the Russian Federation. The high “addiction” of Russian industrial enterprises meeting the needs of agriculture from imported components naturally affected the increase in prices for their products. Similar circumstances arose a long time ago and required a search for solutions to these problems.

Anna A. Khramchenko

The Efficiency of Investments in Energy Saving Technologies

The paper provides theoretical provisions and practical examples of using the indicator of the specific efficiency of investments in energy-saving technologies. An algorithm for assessing complex, closed, and composite technologies used in various industries (housing and communal services, electricity and heat, etc.) is presented.

Olga A. Pyataeva, Elena V. Borisova

Modernization and Financial Sustainability of Agricultural Enterprises Based on the Working Capital Management of the Krasnodar Krai

The current situation in the domestic economy is marked with a rather high level of uncertainty, which is caused by the lability of the geopolitical situation, sanctions, and counter-sanctions policies of Western states and the Russian Federation. The high “addiction” of Russian industrial enterprises meeting the needs of agriculture from imported components naturally affected the increase in prices for their products. This happened against a decrease in domestic prices for agricultural products caused by the high supply, which is due to reduced agricultural imports and increased productivity. The difficult disparity in prices for agricultural and industrial products negatively affects the financial well-being of agricultural organizations, the deterioration of their financial stability, and, as a consequence, the provision with circulating assets. The lack of sources for financing current assets, especially their own, hinders the operational processes in the agricultural sector, which affects the slowdown in the turnover of assets of organizations, reducing their profitability and worsening financial stability. Similar circumstances arose a long time ago and required a search for solutions to these problems.

Anna A. Khramchenko

On the Issue of Insurance Premiums for Agricultural Producers

The paper presents the results of research on insurance premiums of agricultural producers. The authors analyze the changes in insurance premium rates for ten years. During this period, tariffs decreased and rose, which affected the formation of financial resources to ensure social guarantees. The paper considers the burden on the payroll of insurance premiums under different tax regimes. In the discussion of insurance premiums, which are set out in scientific community publications, important trends have been identified. A balance between insurance premiums and the burden on the payroll can be found in improving the taxation of agricultural producers based on the peculiarities of their functioning.

Nadezhda N. Shelemekh, Vera V. Mizyureva, Margarita A. Shadrina, Anastasiia O. Satina, Aleksandr Yu Ilyin

Improving the Methodology for Analyzing Organizational Creditworthiness Based on the Time Factor

Borrowed funds attracted by the company play an essential role in ensuring its effective functioning. However, excessive debt can significantly reduce its financial stability. Therefore, the company should have information about the degree of creditworthiness and liquidity of the balance sheet. The purpose of the research is to substantiate recommendations for improving the current methodology of credit analysis and to find measures for improving the financial stability and creditworthiness of the organization. During the study, analytical, comparative, descriptive, theoretical, and prognostic methods were used. Specific problems of the current analysis methodology were identified. The retrospective nature of the methods and models of analysis is one of the keys since a more accurate assessment of the creditworthiness of an economic entity involves the prediction of its financial condition, which becomes especially crucial for long-term lending, since, over time, the level of creditworthiness can change. Particular attention is paid to calculating forecast indicators of the borrower’s creditworthiness in investment lending, which is characterized by a long-term circulation period. This technique will increase the accuracy of the analysis and assessment of the creditworthiness of an organization and can be used by commercial banks.

Lubov V. Agarkova, Elvira A. Rusetskaya, Marina K. Chistyakova, Angelika B. Dudareva, Natalya V. Alentieva

Methodology for Assessing Bankruptcy Risks and Financial Sustainability Management in Regional Agricultural Organizations

Ensuring financial stability in current economic conditions is the main task of agricultural organizations and the topic of scientific discussion. The crisis increases the risks of the bankruptcy of agricultural organizations. At the same time, the goal of the concept of import substitution is the production of competitive products. Therefore, the development of methods for assessing financial stability is an element of the system of stabilization and development of agricultural production. The developed methodological approaches to the formation of information support for financial stability management will allow for timely identification of risks.

Irina V. Taranova, Irina M. Podkolzina, Fatima M. Uzdenova, Oksana S. Dubskaya, Alla V. Temirkanova

Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: Strategies and Prospects

The most important task of priority and progressive socio-economic transformations in Russia is the development of entrepreneurship. The most urgent is precisely the transformation of the agro-industrial complex [AIC] with the development of agricultural production and agricultural producers both for Russia and for its regions. Sustainable development of this sector of the economy is impossible without the formation of entrepreneurial ecosystems, innovative forms of market actors. These systems can accumulate significant economic resources, so they can effectively use them and attract investment. This paper discusses the concept and significance of the “entrepreneurial ecosystem.” The authors pay particular attention to the analysis of small forms of entrepreneurship as the basis for the functioning of agricultural and business ecosystems. The main problems of developing small agribusiness in the region and promising directions for its improvement are highlighted.

Victoria V. Prokhorova, Elena M. Kobozeva, Tatyana G. Gurnovich, Alexandr A. Mokrushin, Oksana N. Kolomyts

Universalization of Organizational and Methodological Approaches to Setting Environmental Management Accounting

In the modern world and in the context of accounting reform, the environmental and economic requirements for the production activities of business entities pose serious tasks for the entire science and accounting community to develop environmental management accounting. One of the problems of sustainable development of environmental and economic processes is the lack of unity of views regarding the place of environmental accounting in the accounting system. One more problem is the lack of rules for maintaining and organizing environmental management accounting, which leads to inaccuracies in the information and analytical database of socio-environmental reporting. The relevance of the issues of accounting and analytical support for the control of environmental safety costs defines the tasks for ensuring the adoption of timely management decisions not only in terms of environmental management but also for the structures of the financial sector. The paper proposes a fundamentally new approach to the formation of universally applicable information of socially-oriented environmental accounting reports and analyzing the environmental activities of an enterprise. The authors substantiated the proposals for the practical application of the organizational and methodological aspects of environmental management accounting, based on the modernization of synthetic and analytical accounts for recording and controlling the costs of environmental business processes. These aspects also provide for the comprehensive accounting of environmental income and expenses. The practical use of research results by managers and accountants can significantly contribute to a more reliable determination of the effectiveness and efficiency of environmental activities of organizations.

Natalia N. Balashova, Anna S. Gorbacheva, Elena V. Tokareva, Nadezhda V. Chernovanova, Elena V. Yagupova

A Cognitive Approach to Determining the Effectiveness of Teamwork

The paper considers approaches to the concept of team effectiveness. The work aims to consider approaches to the concept of team effectiveness. This paper proposes to use cognitive simulation modeling as a tool for assessing personnel in teamwork. Team effectiveness is facilitated by the ability of its members to work together over an extended period. The efficiency also depends on the volume of work performed by the team, the amount of knowledge and skills that can be used in work, the compliance of the strategies for completing tasks, available resources, and the availability of suitable tools and equipment.

Alexandra V. Voronina, Oksana G. Sorokina, Olga V. Elchaninova, Alexander V. Okhotnikov, Tatyana A. Kiyaschenko

Implementation of an Innovative Audit Strategy in Human Resources

The paper discusses the implementation of an innovative strategy in the personnel potential of the organization for various sectors of the economy that can be applied in their activities. Currently, the innovative development of the personnel potential of the organization became a very popular topic for the leadership of an economic entity. Its goal is to improve the work of personnel in the organization. The paper analyzes personnel audits in organizations. The approaches to conducting a personnel audit using an innovative HR strategy are proposed.

Tatiana Y. Bezdolnaya, Alexey V. Nesterenko, Elena M. Puchkova, Olga N. Nikulina, Svetlana V. Kutarova

Developmental Prospects of Management Accounting in Russia

This study aims to identify the scale of application of the management accounting system and its elements in the practical activities of economic entities that are part of a complex socio-economic system of the region and the state. The paper compares the opinions of accounting and scientific workers regarding the priority of the functioning of individual management accounting tools, aimed at ensuring sustainable development of the economy. The research purpose is formulated based on the relevance and scientific validity of continuous monitoring of the dynamics of distribution and implementation of management accounting and its components to identify promising development areas in Russia. The key research method is the questioning of respondents (accounting workers and scientists). The authors identified management accounting technologies of interest to accounting and scientific workers. They are budgeting, management reporting, forecasting, management analysis, and accounting of certain cost activities.

Nelly P. Agafonova, Elizabeth A. Medvedeva, Alexey A. Serdyukov, Andrew A. Kempf, Olga G. Kalashnikova

Building an Effective System of Material Incentives for Human Resources in Trade Organizations

The paper discusses ways of solving the problem of ensuring the outstripping growth of the trading efficiency in relation to the growth of the remuneration of sales personnel. The main link in the structure of a trading enterprise, which solves the issues of increasing the sales volume, is the commercial department, which includes various specialists to promote the sale of goods. The study of the general problem of material incentives for sales personnel revealed several criteria ensuring the optimality of the material incentive system. To ensure the effectiveness of the system of material incentives, the list of indicators for evaluating the work of personnel must fully comply with the indicators of an enterprise as a whole. One of the problems is to ensure the objectivity of the system of material incentives for sales personnel when establishing the baseline values of performance indicators of managers, for exceeding which bonuses are paid. Since all the performance indicators of the sales personnel are quantitatively assessed, all the parameters of the system of material incentives for managers are summarized in an Excel table. The Excel table automatically calculates the payroll when the basic and actual values of the indicators of the performance of managers are entered. The procedure for uploading the data on the actual results of managers from an accounting computer program into a formalized system of material incentives was implemented, i.e., system reporting data are generated automatically. The developed system of material incentives for the sales personnel was introduced into the activities of regional distributors of the food market in the South of Russia. It ensured the outstripping growth in the effectiveness of trading activities of organizations compared with the growth in the remuneration of the sales personnel.

Victor S. Yakovenko, Ruslan H. Ilyasov, Galina S. Marahovskaya, Kira A. Artamonova, Tamara V. Skrebtsova

Innovative Aspects of Personnel Training for the Agrarian-Oriented Region: Problems and Prospects

The current state of staffing organizations of the agro-industrial complex [AIC] of Russia causes serious concern of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, in whose department there are agricultural educational institutions and the heads of educational agricultural organizations engaged in the training of specialists. The analysis allowed the identification of the main problems in this direction, which are social in nature due to the decrease in agro-industrial organizations in the countryside engaged in the production of agricultural products and their processing, and the demographic crisis of the 90s. It is believed that only agricultural institutions can fill the personnel gaps that appeared as a result of the economic crisis of the 2000s and revive agricultural organizations that are the locomotive of the development of the food, light, and heavy industries in the country. It is educational institutions of secondary, vocational, and higher education that currently determine innovative areas of work and develop curricula with the primary goal of motivating potential applicants in choosing an educational institution, faculty, and their future profession. The Government of the Russian Federation and departmental structures determined measures to promote the development of infrastructure and social stability for young and promising specialists in agriculture. The considered stages of stabilization of this scientific direction will ensure the sustainable development of the Russian AIC.

Alexey V. Nesterenko, Tatiana Y. Bezdolnaya, Elena N. Kushch, Ruslan H. Ilyasov, Julia I. Germanova

The Essence and Economic Content of Income and Expenditures in the Accounting System of an Economic Entity

This paper aims to analyze the economic content of the accounting categories “income” and “expenses” in the accounting system of an organization. The relevance of our study is explained by the dominant role of income and expenses in the activities of economic entities, their reflection in the reporting to obtain a reliable idea of the scale of activities, and the financial condition of an organization. Income and expenses, as components of the organization’s financial result and parameters characterizing the scale of the activities of the organization, must certainly be reflected in financial, management, and tax accounting with varying degrees of detail. Thus, scientific novelty is in the substantiation of the significance of the categories “income” and “expense” in the accounting practice of an economic entity, linking them to specific periods. Their classification within the existing features of each of the presented types of accounting.

Lubov V. Postnikova, Sergey A. Tunin, Natalia V. Kulish, Olga E. Sytnik, Victoria S. Germanova

Features of Professional and Psychological Training of an Accountant-Analyst for Making Management Decisions in an Economic Crisis

In modern conditions of crisis processes in the economy and the need to make optimal management decisions associated with increased responsibility, risk, and uncertainty, the requirements for the professional training of an accountant-analyst increase to achieve sustainable development of complex socio-economic systems. The scientific novelty of the research was the development and methodological substantiation of introducing new methods of professional and psychological training of future employees of accounting specialties for making managerial decisions in an economic crisis to achieve sustainable development of economic systems. The authors developed an interdisciplinary training course “Psychology of behavior of an accountant-analyst in conditions of risk and uncertainty,” intended for students of the direction of training in “Economics.” It was created based on an effective methodology and a set of management accounting tools developed over a long period in relation to crisis processes in the economy, which are successfully used in leading enterprises of the agricultural sector of the Stavropol Krai. Additionally, proven professional psychotechnics and techniques that increase labor efficiency and stabilize mental processes from employees of accounting professions were used as the basis of the training course. The result of the implementation of the developed educational course will be the formation of a complex of professional and psychological competencies that allow the future accountant-analyst to effectively perform professional tasks and constructively make decisions in conditions of uncertainty and risk associated with crisis processes in the economy.

Alexey N. Bobryshev, Genaz S.-H. Dudaev, Natalya F. Krivorotova, Maria A. Vahrushina, Lyudmila A. Meshcheryakova

Foreign Economic Activity of Agricultural Organizations in Russia: Risk Assessment

Foreign economic risks include possible adverse events that can occur and lead to losses and material damage for foreign trade participants. The authors classified risks of foreign economic activity of agricultural organizations, assessed risks of foreign economic activity, and considered methods of reducing the onset of risks. When the organizations of the AIC carry out foreign economic activities, the risks associated with it are still supplemented by the specific manifestation and impact on the results of the production of financial risks for agriculture.

Lubov V. Postnikova, Lyudmila I. Khoruzhy, Daria D. Postnikova, Lyudmila V. Urazbakhtina, Yuliya A. Myrksina

Digital Transformation of Accounting and Control Functions in Agricultural Holdings

The paper focuses on the relevance of the development of digital technologies in agriculture, and in particular, in agricultural holdings. The main features of agricultural holdings are presented. The possibilities of the digital transformation of accounting and control functions in agricultural holdings are determined using the example of one of the largest agricultural holdings in the Volgograd Region—the agricultural holding “Helio-Paks.” The features of interaction in an agricultural holding were studied, taking into account territorial remoteness, economic, organizational, personnel, and financial heterogeneity, diversification of capital and assets, and the degree of motivation and responsibility. The simplification of the possibilities of digitalization due to the synergistic effect is considered. The authors described the advantages of the introduction and use of the “GeliopaxGeo” system for continuous monitoring of the state of crops in the agricultural holding. The application of the software 1C: Satellite Monitoring was studied. It is concluded that the “GeliopaxGeo” system and the 1C: Satellite Monitoring software used in the agricultural holding allow for continuous internal accounting and control, which, in turn, includes the collection and analysis of information on the current activities of the agricultural holding, and the adoption of management decisions aimed at increasing the efficiency of financial and economic activities of the agricultural holding.

Svetlana M. Bychkova, Daria O. Zabaznova

Optimization Decisions in Accounting

In this study, we aim to justify and confirm the need for optimizing decision-making in the accounting of agricultural enterprises, especially regarding general taxation. The paper reveals the interconnections between the essence of sustainable development and tax sustainability, gives evidence of the sufficiency of the research methodology (deductive, inductive, systematic, and special scientific approaches), and confirms the practical usefulness of recommendations for improving accounting and the elements of taxation in business entities. As a result of this study, we developed methodological provisions for eliminating the shortcomings and contradictions in the existing accounting policies of agricultural enterprises. We provided ways of implementing these provisions in profit taxation systems, using, in contrast to existing methods, a block architecture of systematic optimization decisions. The proposed provisions, which have multi-purpose effectiveness, aim to increase the sustainability of economic activities in enterprises.

Roman V. Nuzhdin, Anna N. Polozova, Irina N. Maslova, Natalia I. Ponomareva, Lyudmila N. Sotnikova

Auditing the Settlements of Loan Liabilities in Accordance with International Standards: Methodological Approach

Borrowed capital is a significant part of the capital structure of commercial enterprises. Borrowed capital affects their financial stability and solvency. The high risk of material misstatement justifies the detailed testing of borrowed capital during the audit. The adaptation of Russian audit practice to the international standards actualizes the development of methodological support for loan operations audit. Based on the analysis of existing methodological developments, we identified the areas in which Russian audit practice contradicts the international one and the ways of improvement. The paper proposes an algorithm for planning audit procedures via risk assessment. We proposed the method of identifying and assessing the risk of material misstatement, the plan formation process, the settlement audit program of loan liabilities, and the list of audit procedures on the financial statements. These recommendations take into account the international standards and the experience of Russian audit practice. They can be used as an internal methodological support for planning loan settlement audit.

Tamara I. Logvinova, Elena Yu. Dyachenko, Natalia A. Gorlova, Maria N. Tatarinova, Ludmila I. Fedulova

Methodological Tools to Account for Long-Term Investments in Agricultural Organizations

The multifaceted nature of long-term investments and their accounting support define the relevance and novelty of this research. In this study, we aim to develop methodological tools for long-term investment accounting in agricultural enterprises. We employed the methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, observation, description, and comparison. The paper reflects the results of the analysis of normative acts and periodicals on the accounting of capital investment. We developed methodological elements for the internal local acts of an agricultural enterprise, improved the structure of Account 08 “Investments in Non-Current Assets” and Account 01 “Fixed Assets.” Additionally, we formed working schemes of accounting records for accounting in horticultural enterprises. We also developed a model of reporting on investments into perennial plantations. The developed elements of accounting long-term investments in agricultural enterprises justify improvements to the accounting system, namely its information and control functions.

Vladimir G. Shirobokov, Elena Y. Dyachenko, Marina V. Feskova, Tamara I. Logvinova, Natalia A. Gorlova

Analytical Procedures in the Audit of Finished Products in Agricultural Enterprises

In this study, we justify using analytical procedures at the planning stage during the finished goods audit. These procedures allow determining the most critical areas of an inventory of finished goods, which deserve more attention in the future during the audit. The paper presents a set of simple quantitative analytical procedures, which are less labor-intensive and more applicable to agricultural enterprises. We compiled a universal algorithm for using these analytical procedures. Applying analytical procedures can improve the quality of the audit, save time by focusing on more important details, identify unusual or incorrectly reflected facts of economic activities, and determine the direction of the finished goods audit. The results of this study may be practically applied by the audit firms and internal audit services.

Elena E. Golova, Marina N. Gapon, Irina V. Baranova

Organizational and Economic Mechanisms to Develop Joint Business in the Stavropol Region of Russia

The emergence of joint ventures in Russia is due to the economic transformations that have arisen with the development of forms of entrepreneurial activity, which stimulates the attraction of foreign investment in the economy. A joint venture is one of the most important subjects of the economic process. During this process, innovative technologies necessary for production and management emerge, and markets develop. The development of joint ventures can be the solution to many socio-economic problems. A joint venture is an integral part of public order, including generally recognized measures of interaction between people, the elimination of social inequality, and the formation of a rational, sectoral, and territorial structure of the economy. Based on the preceding, a joint venture is considered one of the factors for strengthening and developing an efficient business environment, providing markets with goods and services, paying taxes to regional and local budgets, reducing unemployment, strengthening the position of the middle class, increasing wages, and stimulating the growth of investment costs.

Alexey N. Gerasimov, Oksana P. Grigoryeva, Stanislav A. Molchanenko, Yuri S. Skripnichenko, Dmitriy I. Karlov

Strategic Partnership of Business and Education in Management Accounting: Global and Russian Trends

In this study, we examined the integration of applied management tools and educational standards in the training of management accountants in Russia and abroad. The paper presents the main approaches to management accounting and stresses the importance of professional communities in the strategic partnership of businesses and education. The global development of regulations in management accounting was mainly caused by commercial interest in its tools. This led to the creation of management accounting institutions (CIMA and IMA) and appropriate working standards. These institutions train management accountants according to the working standards. In this study, we analyzed the Russian job market and the skill requirements that the employers set in job listings for accountants. The analysis has shown that business and education still do not cooperate in Russia, even though companies continue to impose increasingly high requirements on accountants. We also examined Russian educational programs for accountants and concluded that they do not fully meet the market demands. This is caused by the lack of a professional standard for management accounting in Russia. This problem can be solved by introducing a national professional standard and creating professional communities that promote the integration of business and education while factoring in the relevant world practices. This will allow businesses and educational institutions to understand the development of interconnected complex socio-economic systems.

Elena N. Makarenko, Nikolay T. Labyntsev, Elena A. Sharovatova, Irina A. Omelchenko

Economic and Legal Aspects of Taxation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Entities

Currently, the taxation of small and medium-sized businesses is an object of heated debates in the media. Their development depends on the tax burden, while their tax contributions are important to federal and local budgets. The small and medium-sized business structures have several advantages. These are: (1) stability and efficiency in decision-making, (2) rapid adaptation to external influences, (2) receptiveness to innovations, (4) rapid money turnover, and (5) high level of specialization in production and labor. As a rule, the functioning of small and medium-sized enterprises in several states has unique features determined by their historical development. However, their development is influenced by the current political trends and economic environment, tax regulations in particular. Legal regulation of small and medium-sized enterprises functioning is determined by the provisions of the general legislation on the development of the entrepreneurial activity and special legislation that regulates them while factoring in their features and their performed functions. The study defines the criteria and place of small and medium-sized businesses within the Russian economy and the specifics of their taxation. The research results presented in this study can be used to improve the taxation of small and medium-sized businesses.

Larisa V. Kuleshova, Natalia V. Splavskaya, Inna V. Kobeleva, Irina V. Oseledko, Viktoriya V. Korosteleva

Accounting Practice and Accounting Information Disclosure on Intellectual Capital: Systematization of International Approaches

This paper reviews and systematizes the modern international research on the accounting of intellectual capital in organizations and its reporting disclosure. As a result of the meta-analysis of national standards, projects, and initiatives developed in the period from the late 1980s to the present, we concluded that there is no unified concept of the intellectual capital report in the global world, which reduces the quality of its analysis by interested stakeholders. The paper identified the national features of presenting this data based on the analysis of foreign secondary literature from 10 countries on intellectual capital disclosure. The paper reveals the role of management accounting in solving the problem of forming intellectual capital reports in foreign countries.

Maria A. Vakhrushina, Alina A. Vakhrushina

Consulting Service as a Tool to Support Decision-Making by Rural Producers

Information and consulting organizations are one of the most effective tools for supporting the decision-making of rural producers and are an integral part of the mechanism for managing the acceleration of innovative and sustainable development of rural territories.

Vladimir V. Makovetskiy, Valery M. Koshelev, Larisa E. Kresova, Maria A. Sukharnikova, Andzhelika V. Sharapova

Current Financial Stability of Agricultural Producers in Southern Russia

The paper describes the current financial stability of agricultural organizations in the region. The authors note that the assessment of the financial stability of agricultural organizations acts as a solid foundation of an economic entity. The assessment initiates the increasing independence of economic entities in implementing financial policy and provides access to international markets, which have changed the conditions for organizational activity. This change led to new challenges, one of which is to ensure stable economic development. The paper substantiates the crucial role of financial stability in the country. The development of financial stability based on financial management will ensure further functioning and development of economic entities. Therefore, it will ensure their sustainable economic development, which predetermines the relevance of the chosen research topic. The formulated scientific problem is relevant and practically significant. The paper studies the financial stability of agricultural producers and develops a set of measures to improve and increase it. Theoretical substantiations and development of organizational and methodological recommendations for improving the management of the financial stability of agricultural producers indicate the academic novelty of the study.

Igor Y. Sklyarov, Yulia M. Sklyarova, Fatimat A. Mambetova, Salambek Kh. Sulumov, Movsar M. Mustaev

Smart Methods in Management Decisions-Making in the Agro-Industrial Complex

The paper focuses on the use of fuzzy modeling to assess the risks of the bankruptcy of an enterprise. The authors provided a brief overview of the traditionally used international and domestic techniques. Their limited application in the conditions of increased uncertainty of the enterprise functioning environment is noted. An alternative approach to solving the problem of assessing bankruptcy risk based on a fuzzy description of uncertainty and risk is proposed. A fuzzy statement and solution of the studied problem are presented. The calculations are made based on the financial information of a specific agro-industrial enterprise.

Valentina E. Parfenova, Galina G. Bulgakova, Konstantin I. Kostyukov, Svetlana Yu Shamrina, Asya Ts Ionova

Policies and Institutions

Frontmatter

The Analysis of the Size and Methods of Accumulation of the Population’s Savings in Russia

Under proper management, savings of the population can become an essential resource for economic growth. Meanwhile, currently, the process of using citizens’ savings in Russia has considerable drawbacks and, in the authors’ opinion, is not developed enough for allowing complete command of the financial system over this source of liquidity. The Russian population, on average, saves up about 10% of the total money received, but this value saw a decline during the last 3–4 years because of a significant drop in the size of real wages and other incomes. Bank deposits make up about two-thirds of the total savings, and the share of direct investment of the population in the economy accounts for less than 15%. In the authors’ opinion, the main reserve for improving the process of accumulating the savings of the population lies in the development and improvement of the diversity of forms and methods of such accumulation.

Tatiana V. Sabetova, Ludmila A. Zaporozhtseva, Julia V. Narolina

Depreciation Policy: Objective and Subjective Approaches

The paper focuses on the problems of the depreciation fund and the laws of its formation. Following the change in the quality of machines during their use, the depreciation fund is considered as a part of the problem in the circulation and turnover of material capital in the technical means of the AIC. The establishment of scientifically based depreciation rates assumes that the service life of the fixed capital elements is determined by taking into account physical and moral depreciation. The paper presents leveling accruals that objectively reflect the changing quality of machines and are offered for use when adjusting depreciation methods. It is recommended to use a two-stage depreciation method, in which the entire initial cost will be transferred to the depreciation fund while adequately reflecting the changing quality of the machine.

Elena V. Kovaleva

Creating High-Performance Sectors in the Agro-Industrial Complex Under Digital Economy as a National Development Goal of the Russian Federation

The paper focuses on the interrelation of such Russian national goals as the creation of a high-performance sector in the agro-industrial complex [AIC] and the development of the digital economy. The study indicated the main directions for the use of modern digital technologies in the AIC. The authors emphasize that creating a high-tech AIC is impossible without the active use of digital technologies in forecasting, production, storage, and marketing of agricultural products. Currently, agricultural production does not always show a profit. Hence, its development requires state support not only in the form of economic backing (benefits and grants) but with organizational involvement. According to the authors, the conservative nature of agricultural production requires targeted efforts on the state’s part to “digitalize” it. The introduction of digital technologies in the production cycle involves the robotization of this cycle, including the creation of automated processing lines controlled by artificial intelligence. Additionally, it involves the development and implementation of “unmanned” ground equipment (tractors, combine harvesters), the use of drones for irrigation and pest control, the introduction of artificial intelligence in the greenhouse irrigation system, etc. Successful development in this direction will help to increase agricultural workforce productivity and agricultural production. The implementation of digital technologies will allow for the prediction of climate risks and yields while helping to determine the number of necessary products of various types. The digitalization of the AIC can be carried out in several stages. These stages are as follows: the development of the required digital technologies for the AIC and tools for their effective use; the introduction of digital technologies in agriculture, robotization, and automation of production based on artificial intelligence [AI]; training of operating personnel for new digital technologies in agriculture. The paper underlines the priority of rural education development since professionals within modern high-performance AIC must have the knowledge and expertise required to use modern digital technologies.

Dmitriy A. Pashentsev, Aleksandra A. Dorskaia, Datkajim A. Abdieva

Innovation-Oriented Government Support of Agricultural Industry

We examined the government support for agriculture on the example of dairy cattle husbandry. The improvement of dairy cattle husbandry in Russia is hindered by: (1) difficult macroeconomic conditions, (2) high price disparity, (3) the use of inefficient dairy production technologies, (4) ineffective selective breeding, and (5) high dependence on foreign equipment. The current system of state support mainly aims to compensate for negative factors. The government subsidies are not used for introducing innovative technologies into dairy farming. We proposed an innovation-oriented mechanism that provides targeted differentiated support for dairy enterprises. The competitive selection of subsidy recipients allows supporting only the most efficient enterprises that implement resource-saving technologies of dairy production. We also substantiated the application of complex estimates for choosing subsidy recipients.

Margarita A. Grudkina, Tatyana I. Grudkina, Tatyana S. Kravchenko

Differentiations in Educational Services in Urban and Rural Areas in the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia)

In this article, we focused on the importance of education in the socio-economic development of the country. We analyzed the government statistics of the Russian Federation, the experience of other countries, and the scholarship of Russian and foreign researchers. Based on this analysis, we established the basic differences in the level of educational service in the rural and urban areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan. We concluded that even though the government objective is to increase the birth rate and keep young professional workers in rural areas, the number of pre-school educational institutions in rural areas is declining, and the infrastructure of rural pre-school education lags behind the urban one. The difference in education quality of rural and urban schools creates unfavorable conditions for rural university applicants. The dire state of rural education increases the rate of rural flight. Young people move from rural areas to the cities of Bashkortostan, other regions (especially to Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Kazan), and other countries. This contributes to brain drain and creates serious issues in the socio-economic development of rural areas of Bashkortostan.

Dilara I. Yapparova, Alfiya R. Kuznetsova

Directions and Forms of Public–Private Partnership in Agriculture

This paper discusses the main anti-crisis measures for agricultural regulation applied to large agricultural producers of strategic importance and supporting medium-sized agricultural producers.

Zlata A. Ivanova

Youth Unemployment in the Labor Market of Uzbekistan: Problems and Ways of Solution

This paper focuses on the issues of youth employment in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The relevance of the problem is highlighted. The problems of youth employment in Uzbekistan are revealed. The lack of professional knowledge, lack of necessary labor skills, and abilities among youth are considered as factors of youth unemployment. The legal foundations of socio-economic reforms in Uzbekistan are studied. The recommendations to solve the problem associated with the improvement of the education system were developed.

Madina Kh. Saidova, Azizahon M. Maksumkhanova, Khabiba Kh. Karimova

On the System of State Support for the Dairy Subcomplex in Russia

The development of the dairy industry is one of the priorities of the state policy in the country’s agriculture due to its high importance associated with the need to provide the population with irreplaceable dairy products of domestic production, solving the problems of food independence, improving the efficiency of labor resources, and improving the social conditions of the rural population. It should be noted that although the State program for the development of agriculture and regulation of the market of agricultural products, raw materials, and food for 2013–2020 and other legal documents brought positive results, they do not fully contribute to the development of the dairy subcomplex and provide the population with milk and dairy products. Therefore, we believe that the sufficiently high importance of state support for the subcomplex, the need for its prolongation, increasing the volume of subsidies, and improving the mechanisms for providing subsidies, also requires the development of new approaches to the management of the subcomplex, concerning the macroeconomic (adoption of federal and regional decisions on the regulation of the industry) and the microeconomic level (decision-making on the strategy and tactics of managing the activities of economic entities), which will be reflected in further studies.

Alesya N. Anishchenko, Daler I. Usmanov, Konstantin A. Zadumkin

The Features of Cooperation in the Republic of Tatarstan

Agricultural cooperation is in demand in the economy, which is due to the unattractiveness of the agricultural sector for investment, restrictions on attracting wage labor, increased risk, and an extensive social base. Due to the specifics of the external and internal conditions for the emergence and development, agricultural cooperatives have standard features that determine the extent of their distribution, the internal nature of the organization, and the prospects for modern development. The purpose of the study is to show the features of the development of the cooperative movement in the Republic of Tatarstan. It is concluded that the cooperatives of Tatarstan have a high potential for the development of cooperation as small forms of farming in the countryside. The measures applied to support the cooperative movement at the regional level are also different.

Alsu R. Nabiyeva

Poverty in Russia: Problems and Solutions

The purpose of the study is to describe poverty and show the depth of this problem using statistical indicators, which is especially pronounced in rural areas. The paper presents the main features of poverty in Russia: poverty of the working population, its dependence on household size, place of residence, and the presence of children. The consequences of the managerial influence of regional authorities on the socio-economic situation of the region are also indicated. The ways of solving the problem of poverty are proposed.

Elena I. Semenova, Natalia V. Bykovskaya, Alexey I. Afonin

Development of IFRS for Food Security

Specialists pay great attention to the development of land asset accounting. Nevertheless, the specificity of agriculture is practically not reflected in scientific papers. At the international (IFRS) and national (RAS) level, issues of land accounting in agricultural organizations remain open. The paper presents practical recommendations on the organization of accounting for agricultural land. For quality accounting, it is proposed to introduce an account that considers the result of the transformation of land assets and land relations. Further development of IFRS is required to maintain land fertility as the primary condition for food security in the country and the world.

Tatiana Y. Bobovnikova, Tatiana M. Vorozheykina

The National Technological Initiative FoodNet Market: Regional Perspectives

The paper considers the tasks and prospects of state policy in the framework of the development of the National technology initiative “FoodNet Market.” The main stages and expected results of the formation of a personalized food market at the regional level are determined.

Ekaterina G. Agalarova, Julia A. Gunko, Olga N. Kusakina, Olga A. Cherednichenko, Zuhra S. Dotdyeva

HR Management in Russian Higher Educational Institutions: Mechanisms to Foster Sustainable Development of Regional Socio-economic Systems

The paper focuses on the changes in the volumes of academic mobility of Chinese students in Russia. These changes, in a certain way, also result in changes in the pace of sustainable development of socio-economic systems of the Russian regions. These transformations are new challenges for top management of both universities and the regions where these universities are located. With effective management of these trends, these new challenges will also become a stimulator of transformation in the issues of HR management of these higher educational institutions.

Sergey M. Kosenok

Demographic Problems with Human Resources for Agricultural Production in the Region

The paper analyzes the demographic processes taking place in the Stavropol Krai, one of the largest agricultural regions of the country. The study was conducted based on municipal statistics, departmental statistical monitoring of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Stavropol Krai, and a questionnaire survey of agricultural workers in the region. It was revealed that, for the period 2010–2018, the natural increase in the population declined; the migration outflow of the population, especially youth, intensified; an increase was noticed in the coefficient of demographic burden, primarily due to people of working age. The municipal areas with most active depopulation processes and areas characterized by an influx of rural population are identified. A qualitative analysis of migrants was carried out. The deficit of permanent workers of agricultural organizations of the region has been identified and quantified. The structure of demand for personnel was determined. The analysis of the need for specialists and workers in mass professions by municipal areas was carried out. The discrepancy between the personnel potential of the village and agricultural production introducing digital technologies has been established. The most urgently needed skills and competencies are identified, which absence hinders the innovative development of agriculture.

Marina G. Leshcheva, Tatyana N. Steklova, Tatyana N. Uryadova, Arif G. Ibragimov, Vyacheslav G. Borulko

Tax Payments Optimization for Agricultural Producers

The optimization of tax payments of agricultural producers contributes to the efficient use of financial resources. It should be implemented only within the framework of current tax legislation. It involves an analysis of existing tax systems, taxes, and the use of such schemes and methods to reduce the tax burden on agricultural producers, taking into account their size and scope of activity.

Olga. A. Moiseeva

Diversification of Regulatory Powers in Social, Environmental, and Economic Relations as a Factor for Stimulating Regional Development

The paper discusses the socio-environmental and economic aspects of the current environmental practices in Russia. The authors analyzed the relationship between environmental management and human capital indicators. The authors substantiate proposals regarding the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation of social, ecological, and economic relations in promoting sustainable development of Russian regions.

Tatiana Yu. Anopchenko, Elena I. Lazareva, Anton D. Murzin, Roman V. Revunov, Evgeniya V. Roshchina

Economic Growth in Russia: Main Problems at the Current Stage

The study aims to identify the problems of economic growth in Russia at the present stage of economic development. The study was conducted based on the analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators of economic growth of Russia and international statistics. The paper assesses the quality and determines the causes of low economic growth in Russia. As a result of the study, it was found that in the structure of gross domestic product [GDP] in Russia, consumer spending occupies the main share, while the share of investment spending is insignificant, which impedes the improvement and renewal of fixed capital and production growth. The rates of Russian economic growth are lower than the rates in the world and are not sustainable. Low indicators of the quality of economic growth are observed. Moreover, the indicated problems include the stagnation of real income of the population, high growth in lending, uneven distribution of national income among members of society, and relatively high poverty. The main problems of economic growth are the continuing raw material orientation of the Russian economy, low investment activity, increased tax burden, social tensions caused by raising retirement ages, and economic sanctions and geopolitical conflicts arising in the world. The social orientation of the economic policy of the state is necessary to increase quantitative and qualitative economic growth indicators. The following tasks are of particular importance: increasing human capital, improving social infrastructure, effectively redistributing national income, emphasizing the economy of innovation, stimulating investment activity, and digitalizing all sectors of the economy.

Viktoriya V. Rakhaeva

Innovative Activity in Organizations in the New Technological Order: International Perspectives

The paper defines the relationship between innovative activities and the susceptibility of business entities and the state of the innovation climate and innovative potential of the country (region), which affect their innovative behavior. The authors pay special attention to digital technologies that significantly impact the forms and methods of conducting modern business. The author substantiated the necessity of introducing digital strategies into the activities of organizations, including a new approach to the formation of human resources. The introduction of digital technology requires changing models of innovative development of modern organizations.

Olga N. Kusakina, Svetlana V. Levushkina, Yulia V. Narolina, Tatiana V. Sabetova, Galina V. Tokareva

Assessing Design Decisions in Agriculture

The relevance of the research is due to the situation in training agricultural engineers with the appropriate professional competencies. According to statistics, the industry currently lacks highly qualified specialists in agricultural engineering. The study of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technical and economic evaluation of design decisions in agricultural engineering is the main direction of training competitive personnel and ensuring the innovative development of agricultural production in Russia.

Oksana G. Karataeva, Oleg P. Andreev, Olga V. Chekha, Mihail V. Stepanov, Lidiya M. Trushina

Spline Analysis of Flow Correlation in Economic Systems

The effectiveness of process control in complex socio-economic systems requires a significant increase in accuracy in mathematical modeling of the dynamics of the studied indicators. When searching for interconnections between processes, there often arises the problem of comparability of data representing the static and dynamic components in economic systems (stocks and flows). If in a discrete representation, data transformation is possible by calculating chain gains, then it is necessary to differentiate the stock function in systems with continuous time. Thus, by analogy with physical movement, the first derivative or rate of change of stocks becomes a stream. Given the functional relationship between the dynamics of stocks and their flows, it is essential to maintain accuracy when modeling the dynamics of stocks and their subsequent transformation into flows. The proposed methodology for the spline approximation of economic dynamics with absolute coincidence at the nodal points of empirical and model equivalents allows us to preserve the accuracy of the data. The differentiability of the splines solves the problem of data conversion. The paper investigates the efficiency of the apparatus of spline functions in modeling the dynamics of different “quantities” in the economy by the example of an analysis of the relationship between the flow of oil exports and money supply in the Russian economy. The proposed methodology of analytical data transformation with the search for the relationship between continuous paths of acceleration and deceleration of processes determines the scientific novelty of the study. The study results can be useful in solving the problems of managing stocks and flows in the economy, when searching for the relationship between flows, and studying the seasonality and cyclical nature of flows.

Ruslan H. Ilyasov, Victor S. Yakovenko

Economic Foundations for Developing Human Resources in the Stavropol Region of Russia

Modern economic realities lead to the fact that the role of human resources in ensuring the sustainable development of the Stavropol Krai increases. They predetermine the primary vector of economic development—the achievement of a competitive, innovative, self-sufficient, export-oriented region. The conditions of the formation and development of modern economic realities are the primary trend of socio-economic development. The conducted analytical study of the economic situation made it possible to identify positive and negative conditions affecting the formation and development of human resources in the Stavropol Krai. The favorable conditions include the positive dynamics of the socio-economic development of the region, making it possible to improve several rating positions of the Stavropol Krai among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, investment attractiveness, and growth in the number of employed people. Simultaneously, the imbalance in the labor market and the lag of rural areas from the city in terms of people’s well-being and infrastructure development is an obstacle that can stop all the renewal and transformation attempts.

Tatyana N. Uryadova, Marina G. Leshcheva, Tatyana N. Steklova, Natayia P. Adintsova, Elena P. Zhuravleva

Improving the Mechanism of Taxation Within State Environmental Policies

The paper focuses on the problems of environmental accounting and taxation in the interests of environmental accounting in Russia. It examines the essence of environmental taxes and payments, their various types and functions, their application in Western countries, the stimulating effect on the economy and business entities, and their significance for the environment. The paper also discusses the concept of environmental taxation and the economic essence of resource rental taxation, the tools used for the extraction of natural rent used in developed countries, and the mechanism for the extraction of natural rent in force in the Russian Federation. The paper proposes and substantiates a new methodology for calculating environmental payments.

Elena V. Kouzmina, Tatyana P. Satsuk, Olga V. Koneva, Alla A. Geizer, Alexandr A. Frolov

The Algorithm for Assessing Regional Foreign Trade Relations

The paper focuses on the issues of assessing regional foreign trade relations based on four blocks of indicators: assessing the commodity structure of foreign trade turnover, assessing the level of foreign trade openness, assessing the innovative effectiveness of foreign trade, and assessing the intensity of foreign trade. To assess the effectiveness of measures to support foreign trade at the regional level, it is proposed to use the shift analysis.

Svetlana N. Bludova, Olga V. Elchaninova, Elena V. Filimonova, Irina N. Kiseleva, Gulnara I. Alekseeva

Social Health of Students Studying at the Stavropol State Agrarian University

The progressive socio-economic development of society is defined by the ideal functioning and behavior of people. One of the elements that provide the ideal functioning of humans is high health potential. In this paper, we analyzed secondary literature and examined the approaches to studying social health (philosophical, sociological, psychological, pedagogical, and medical approaches). Social health is understood as: (1) a socio-cultural activity, (2) the ability to differentiate social phenomena according to moral criteria, (3) the ability to actualize intellectual and personal activities, (4) the ability to identify oneself with a social group, (5) the ability to self-organize and interact with the society, (6) the ability to self-reflect, and (7) the ability to adaptation in social groups. We present a survey called “Social Health of a Person,” conducted at the Stavropol State Agrarian University. Moreover, we described a system of intra-education measures for forming the social health of the students.

Svetlana I. Tarasova, Tatyana N. Dukhina, Olga O. Limonova, Natalia B. Drozhzhina, Evgenia V. Taranova

Management of Complex Socio-Economic Systems on the Example of the Mining Industry

A growing share of economic activities uses digital technologies or direct digital management. In this study, we justify the need to transform the management of the complex socio-economic systems in the mining industry. The mining industry is an excellent example of the divide between digital management models and traditional production. Digitalization (i.e., the process of transitioning every aspect of economic and social interactions to using digitally stored data) causes the emergence of a new type of economy. New challenges in managing the mining industry and other forms of subsurface resource usage require a prognostic analysis of using new technologies. In these conditions, the management system of the industry should develop fundamentally different and innovative methods. Management becomes a multitasking system; new relationships emerge within its boundaries; its structure and the established connections change significantly.

Inna V. Zhukova, Aleksandr E. Zubarev

Eurasian Agricultural Technological Platform for Technical and Technological Modernization of Agriculture in the EAEU Member States: Thematic Research

In order to ensure the normal functioning of any branch of the economy in the country, it must be provided with an innovative infrastructure. Innovative infrastructure is a set of development institutions providing participants access to various resources, creating favorable conditions, and establishing various services, allowing to reduce the total costs of obtaining the result of scientific and technical activities and its commercialization. The research objective is to consider the issues of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex based on the creation of new institutional forms that ensure the formation of a balanced and sustainable R&D sector in agriculture of the Eurasian Economic Union (e.g., the Eurasian Agricultural Technological Platform [EATP]). The authors proposed the classification of development institutions, presented the organizational structure of the EATP, and justified the creation of the department of technology transfer. The paper substantiated the expediency of registration of the EATP in the form of a legal entity and proposes the design of a domestic regulatory legal instrument to create consortia to perform research and development work and commercialize research results. The authors considered the technology transfer as an essential function of non-financial institutions of development. The author’s definition of “technology transfer” was given. Additionally, the authors studied the R&D project aimed at the EATP for further expert examination and implementation.

Vasiliy I. Nechaev, Sergey A. Arzhantsev, Pavel V. Mikhailushkin, Lyudmila I. Khoruzhy, Tatiana G. Bondarenko

Labor Resources in Agricultural Regions of the South of Russia: Assessment, Trends, and Development Patterns

The study of agricultural labor resources is necessary for the sustainable functioning and development of socio-economic systems. The dynamic innovative development of the agricultural sector, the attraction of highly qualified personnel, and the efficient use of labor resources necessitate continuous monitoring of the existing personnel policy of agricultural organizations and the study of factors affecting its change. Based on the foregoing, we developed an algorithm to identify trends and patterns in the development of agricultural labor resources, the peculiarity of which is a combination of expert and formalized methods. The theoretical and methodological basis of this research consists of fundamental and applied studies of domestic and international scholars, as well as thematic publications in the periodicals devoted to the problems of assessment, formation, and use of labor resources in agriculture.

Alexey N. Gerasimov, Evgeniy I. Gromov, Yuri S. Skripnichenko, Ekaterina I. Lelikova, Viktoriya Yu. Skripnichenko

Managing the Development of Innovative Regional Industries Using Field of Forces Analysis

This study examines the management tools of innovative industries in the Rostov Region economy, based on force-field analysis. The paper aims to identify the effective mechanisms and tools for managing the development of innovative sectors in the Rostov Region. We assume that producing intellectual factors is a synergetic and dynamic process that requires analyzing the susceptibility of the economic system to innovation. This research is based on the cognitive human capital theory, evolutionary economic theory, and political-economic analysis. The latter allowed us to determine the main forces of innovative development and the critical and key factors for the success of the innovative development within the region. Based on cognitive human capital theory and the expert survey method, we present a “force-field” model for the innovative development of the region. The paper builds a logical diagram for the dependence of the management strategy on the subject potential. This study can become a foundation for managing complex and unpredictable socio-economic systems.

Alexey V. Scherbina, Mikhail V. Grechko

Accounting as a Tool for Achieving Global Sustainable Development Goals

In the past two centuries, globalization and industrialization brought many social benefits to society. They have contributed to addressing sustainable development issues, including poverty, hunger, climate change, and other ethical and moral issues. The 17 sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations represent a universal set of policies aimed at the social and economic development of economic entities. The paper judges the contribution of accounting to achieving these goals. Based on the theoretical analysis, the paper focuses on the essential role of accounting in the economy at all stages of its development and various economic entities worldwide. The study examines the accounting contribution towards achieving eight specific accounting goals defined by the International Federation of Accountants. The study contains information on existing goal-supporting activities and initiatives within accounting.

Olga E. Sytnik, Natalia V. Kulish, Sergey A. Tunin, Aleksandr V. Frolov, Viktoria S. Germanova

Financial Market Development Trends

The paper is devoted to reviewing trends of financial market development, mainly the use of digital financial technologies. We note that the development of the Russian financial market is one of the priorities of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, where modern digital activities are is a special factor of the development. The use of new technologies contributes to the decentralization of the financial system, which has both positive aspects and the risks of global financial instability. The content of the paper describes the problems of Russian financial startups, mainly the use of blockchains in banking, Near Field Communication, P2P lending, B2B sales, and big data cloud services. The paper notes that the current financial market is marked with actively functioning “neobanks” established by financial organizations specializing in e-commerce generally operating only through the Internet without offices. The paper concludes that the use of digital financial technologies is the main necessary factor for the development of the financial market.

Olga N. Uglitskikh, Irina I. Glotova, Yuliya E. Klishina, Elena P. Tomilina

Problems of Assessing the Debt Sustainability of Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation

The increasing debt burden of the budgets of the Russian federal subjects has increased the relevance of assessing debt sustainability. The paper is devoted to the analysis of the dynamics and structure of Russian regional debt burdens. Financial assistance does not ensure the sustainability of regional budgets. The problem of debt sustainability has a significant impact on the economic security of the region since it requires constant monitoring. An effective way to reduce debt dependency is to issue government securities. The government also needs to implement a stimulative policy within the regions so that most debt obligations are formed due to market borrowing. The use of exchange auctions will help minimize the cost of borrowing in the regions. The levels of debt sustainability indicators stipulated by the budget legislation and the ranking system for Russian Federal subjects will allow monitoring the debt situation and timely applying the relevant restrictions and requirements. These measures are primarily aimed at supporting the regions. The parameters of the Stavropol Krai state debt allow us to conclude the average level of debt sustainability and the effective debt policy pursued by the Ministry of Finance of the Stavropol Krai. Given the current situation, the region could achieve high debt sustainability by the end of 2019. In general, the existing approaches to assessing the debt sustainability of the Russian Federal subjects require further development.

Irina I. Glotova, Elena P. Tomilina, Yuliya E. Klishina, Olga N. Uglitskikh

Increasing the Availability of Financial Services as a Factor in Ensuring Socio-economic Stability in the Region

Sustainable regional development is an important issue for all countries. Still, its specifics strongly depend on regional features and many other factors, with close attention given to financial inclusion. This paper aims to determine the role of financial services in the socio-economic stability of Russian regions. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of financial inclusion by methodically supplementing the existing criteria with a banking index system for providing banking, microfinance, insurance, and investment services to the population and enterprises. The paper determines the coverage of banking services in Stavropol Krai. In this study, we developed a set of innovative mechanisms and digital tools for increasing the availability of financial services by expanding their coverage (particularly concerning people with special needs, the elderly population, and people in remote or sparsely populated areas).

Elena N. Lapina, Artur A. Orazaliev, Anastasia Y. Kalnaya, Irina N. Kiseleva, Irina V. Oseledko

Developing the International Regulation System of Organic Agriculture

The paper focuses on developing conceptual approaches to improving the mechanisms for regulating organic agricultural production based on the experience of different countries in standardization, accreditation, and certification of products. The authors analyzed (1) the features of the institutional organization and (2) documentary support of the production and marketing of organic production and its delivery to consumers. The paper assesses the formation of the organic farming sector in various countries and provides detailed information on certification schemes. The authors described the joint guarantee system as an alternative for certification that gives access to the world market of organic products to producers from countries with insufficiently developed national legislation. Moreover, they analyzed the prevalence of joint guarantee system in the global economic space. The paper established an imbalance between the location of organic agricultural land and the development of organic raw materials and food markets. The authors identified factors hindering the development of the world market for organic products, eliminating which will help achieve harmonization in organic agriculture. The paper analyzed the indicators of the world market for organic agricultural raw materials and food. The analyzed indicators include the volume of retail sales, consumption per capita in the most developed national markets, etc. The paper systematizes the institutional features of state regulation of organic farming in foreign countries.

Tatyana G. Gurnovich, Natalia R. Saifetdinova, Alexander R. Saifetdinov

Farming Systems

Frontmatter

The Influence of Concentration of Nutrients on the Productivity of Red Beet with Inner Jet Intra-soil Irrigation of Seeds During Sowing

The study aimed to determine the effect of the concentration of nutrients on field germination and yield of red beet during jet intra-soil irrigation of seeds when sowing. The studies were conducted in the Central irrigated zone of the Rostov region on meadow chernozem soils in 2016–2018. The generally accepted methods developed by B. A. Dospekhov, V. F. Moiseichenko, V. N. Pleshakov, M. K. Kayumov, and Federal State Budget Science Institution “Federal Williams Research Centre of Forage Production and Agroecology” were applied. During the research, we used the device, technology, and irrigation standards for this method of irrigation developed by employees of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Russian Research Institute of Land Reclamation Problems.” The studies showed that the most rational concentration of nutrients is 5%, where the highest rates of plant growth and development were obtained: field germination—86.6%, plant height—73.7 cm, leaf surface area—58.9 thousand square meters per hectare, yield—67,300 tons per hectare. The obtained results made it possible to establish the effect of the concentration of nutrients on the field germination and on the yield of beet during jet intra-soil irrigation of beet seeds when sowing.

Alexander N. Babichev, German A. Senchukov, Dmitry V. Martynov

Obtaining a Fast and Reliable Diagnostic Result of Acidovorax Citrulli with the Sample Enrichment Method

The diagnostics of pathogens of bacterial diseases of plants, in particular, Acidovorax citrulli, need to develop methods for obtaining fast and reliable results. When used separately, existing diagnostic methods are not sensitive enough to guarantee confidence in the presence or absence of a phytopathogen in a sample. The reliability of the results is achieved by applying a set of methods. This process is marked with high costs of cash, labor, and time resources. Increasing sensitivity is possible using the method of sample enrichment. However, the technique of this procedure for routine diagnostics is not described. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for enriching a sample of cucurbit crops for the diagnosis of Acidovorax citrulli. The paper presents the results of artificial inoculation of plants and parts of the fruits of cucurbit crops with a suspension containing the target bacteria in viable and non-viable states in known concentrations. During the study, an incubation step was carried out, followed by an assessment of the change in the concentration of phytopathogen cells in plant tissues. The number of copies of the target bacterial cells in the sample was determined by counting colonies of Acidovorax citrulli on an agarized nutrient medium, as well as using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR-RA). As a result of the study, the authors developed a sample enrichment method that will allow obtaining reliable data for the detection of Acidovorax citrulli rather quickly and economically.

Olga Y. Slovareva, Konstantin P. Kornev, Galina N. Bondarenko

The Productivity of Spring-Planted Potatoes Depending on Doses of Mineral Fertilizers Used on Irrigated Land in the South of Russia

The paper aims to study the effect of different doses of mineral fertilizers on the productivity of spring-planted potatoes under irrigation conditions in the south of Russia. The studies were conducted at the test site of the Biryuchekutskaya vegetable breeding experimental station. This station is a branch of the FSBIS “Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing” of the Bagayevsky district of the Rostov Region on ordinary medium chernozem. We used the methods of B. A. Dosphekhov, V. F. Moiseichenko, and M. K. Kayumov. Doses of mineral fertilizers were calculated using the program for electronic computers No. 2018663750 “Calculation of doses of mineral fertilizers” for the planned yield. The results allowed us to establish that during the increase in the dose of mineral fertilizers, the yield gain of tubers was reduced from 92.5 to 77.1 (kilograms per kilogram of the active substance of mineral fertilizers). The conducted studies allowed us to establish the effectiveness of irrigation water depending on the doses of mineral fertilizers, described by the coefficient of water consumption. According to the experiment variants, the coefficient varied from 100.1 to 202.6 cubic meters per hectare. As a result, the yield dependencies on total water consumption and water consumption coefficient were established with different availability levels of mineral fertilizers.

Sergey M. Vasilyev, Valeriy A. Monastyrskiy, Vyacheslav D. Gostishchev

The Adaptation of In Vitro Potato Materials Applying Microbiologic Substances

The use of growth-regulating chemicals in its cultivation technology acts as a significant factor in increasing the crop of original potatoes. The paper assessed the studied growth regulators and determined their influence on plant performance. The midseason potato varieties “Zagadka Pitera,” “Sirenevy Tuman,” “Maiysky Tsvetok,” and “Gusar” are the object of our research. The research was conducted in 2018 in the laboratory of clonal micropropagation in plants and at the experimental site of the Velikolukskaya State Agricultural Academy. Data on the development of plants in natural conditions was obtained as a result of the research. It was found that the use of phytoregulators increases the productivity of potato plants. The most effective chemicals are Vitanolla and Mival-Agro, used in combination with amino acids. The analysis shows that processing stimulates tuberization and leads to an increase in the reproduction rate.

Julia N. Fedorova, Nadezhda V. Lebedeva, Larisa N. Fedorova

Potato Selection and Seed Production as a Sustained Unified Process of Accelerated Development in the Potato-Product Subcomplex of the Russian Agro-Industrial Complex

Currently, 83–95% of open field vegetables in Russia are produced in personal subsidiary plots, farms, and small agricultural companies. These products are in demand among Russian citizens. However, large trading organizations refuse to distribute the products of these farms due to the alleged low economically valuable qualities of root crops. Due to the limited distribution channels of their products, small agricultural organizations cannot increase their production. We propose solving this problem by implementing a set of measures aimed at reorienting the breeding and seed production areas of potatoes and other vegetables for the needs of small agricultural producers. At the same time, it is necessary to produce specialized agricultural products, organize trade cooperatives, construct seed and food storage facilities accessible to farmers. The implementation of these measures will provide an opportunity to meet the needs of the Russian population and partner states.

Sergey V. Zhevora, Vladimir V. Tulcheev, Elena V. Oves

New Canned Products for Dietetic Nutrition Based on Animal Hearts

To improve the regeneration of elastic tissues, a person needs to consume at least 5 g of amino acids producing collagen on an everyday basis. The products made from collagen-containing raw materials can serve as the source of this element. The destruction of collagen-containing raw materials occurs under the influence of high temperatures used when manufacturing canned products. During sterilization, the triple helices of collagen are disaggregated, forming peptides that are well absorbed by the human body. Hearts of farm animals are promising raw materials. Their collagen content in the total amount of proteins is 4.5–4.8%, which significantly exceeds its amount in the proteins of beef and pork. The technology and recipes for new types of canned food made of hearts of pigs and cattle were developed. Beans and vegetables are served as additional ingredients. Combined canned food based on animal hearts and vegetable raw materials is marked with high organoleptic characteristics. Its protein content amounted to 10.7–12.6%, fat content −7.6–9.1%. The content of collagen-forming amino acids, proline, and hydroxyproline, per 100 g of canned food amounted to 0.85±0.5 g, which provides the human body with 16.5±0.5% of the daily consumption norm. New types of canned food additionally serve as a source of iron. Its amount is equal to 2.9±0.3 g/100 g of product. Canned food based on the animal heart is recommended as a specialized product for the dietetic nutrition of older people and people with reduced elastic tissue regeneration.

Olga A. Mitryashkina, Lidija V. Shulgina, Yuriy P. Shulgin

Applying the Precision Irrigation Technology to Address the Deficit of Water Resources in the South of Russia

The development of precision irrigation is caused by the need to account for soil, climate, water, organizational, and economic specifics of the fields and plots. Precision irrigation reduces the consumption of water, energy, and other resources. It increases the effectiveness of tending to crops, raises the productivity of plants, and maintains even soil moisture on all plots. In 2019, we conducted a two-factor field test on the territory of the “Biryuchekut Olericulture Experimental Station”—a branch of the “Federal Research Centre of Vegetable Production.” In the test, we planted spring potatoes. As a result, we established the following technical characteristics: crop yield, total water consumption, irrigation norm, and water balance coefficients. We established the dependency of spring potato yield on the total dose of fertilizers and water consumption in precision irrigation. We analyzed the field experiment results and concluded that precision mineral fertilization and precision irrigation are the most effective methods of growing spring potatoes.

Sergey M. Vasilyev, Alexander N. Babichev, Vladimir I. Olgarenko

The Effectiveness of Plant Growth Regulators with Fungicidal and Antibacterial Properties Used on Soybean

Silver and its compounds occupy a unique place among biologically active substances. Silver does not belong to the list of vital elements, but in a controlled dosage, it can have a noticeable positive effect on the course of the plant’s physiological processes. Thus, silver can be used as an active substance of plant protection products. Growth regulator “Zerebra Agro” (500 mg/l colloidal silver and 100 mg/l polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride), provided practical confirmation of silver's biological effectiveness on higher plants. It is the world's first officially registered pesticide based on chemically modified silver particles. The substance was tested on soybean in the Krasnodar Krai. The study proves that the use of growth regulators with mineral fertilizers provided a significant economic effect—the best economic indicators were obtained when “Zerebra Agro” was used in a dose of 75 ml/t + 120 ml/ha + 120 ml/ha; the cost of seeds decreased by 179 rubles, while the level of profitability increased by 39.0%.

Olga A. Shapowal, Irina P. Mozharova, Maria T. Muhina

Numerical Analytical Study of Hydroturbines with Flexible Blades

It is possible to use hydro turbines with a sufficiently high coefficient of water energy use and low costs compared to other hydro turbines to supply power to agricultural facilities remote from the source of electricity and located along rivers with low flow rates. The authors propose to apply in agriculture a hydro turbine with flexible blades that convert the stream energy. The study aims to develop a methodology for calculating the parameters of such a hydro turbine. It is shown that it is possible to perform numerical calculations of the flow around such a hydro turbine and find the power characteristics in real flows. Concerning the annular section of a flexible blade, the problem of flow around a flexible arc with an ideal flow for finding the shape of the arc is considered. The problem is solved numerically, with the additional fulfillment of the Laplace condition along the arc. The shape of the arc is found during the iteration process. In relation to a hydro turbine, the problem of the numerical solution of the flow around a grid of flexible arcs is considered. The problem uses the green integral equation for a grid of rigid profiles of arbitrary shape. The power characteristics of a hydro turbine are found, taking into account the viscosity of a real medium. The results of field experiments are presented, and numerical calculations and field experiments are compared. The developed methodology for calculating hydro turbines with flexible blades is consistent with the experimental results and allows developing such hydro turbines for given parameters.

Aleksey G. Terentyev, Ivan I. Maksimov, Nikolay A. Fedorov

The Effect of Fertilizers on the Formation of the Symbiotic Apparatus and the Productivity of Sowing Peas

The results of an experimental study carried out as part of a cultivation test on the effect of increasing doses of nitrogen (factor C—N0 (control); N0,05; N0,10; N0,15; N0,20; N0,25) and pre-sowing seed inoculation with bio preparation “Rizotorfin” (factor B—without inoculation; with inoculation) for the formation of the symbiotic apparatus and the yield of sowing peas. The cultivation of the experimental culture was carried out under conditions of sod-podzolic soil of different levels of cultivation (factor A—poorly cultivated; medium cultivated). The effectiveness of the joint use of the bio preparation “Rizotorfin” for the pre-sowing inoculation of seeds and the introduction of mineral nitrogen into the soil was noted. The use of inoculation contributed to a more intensive manifestation of symbiotic activity. As a result, plants used soil nitrogen reserves less actively. The optimal dose of nitrogen when cultivating peas for green mass on medium and poorly cultivated sod-podzolic soil was 0.05 g/kg of absolutely dry soil. When cultivating peas for grain, the effectiveness of the use of mineral nitrogen was noted only in medium cultivated soil—the maximum increase of 0.96 g/vessel was obtained by adding nitrogen at a dose of 0.20 g/kg of absolutely dry soil. The introduction of mineral nitrogen above 0.05 and 0.10 g/kg of absolutely dry soil, respectively, has a depressing effect on the formation of the symbiotic apparatus of peas in weakly and medium-cultivated sod-podzolic soil.

Matvei A. Alyoshin

Changing Compositions of Sourdough with Prolonged Fermentation

Sourdough is an intermediate product, the result of microbiological processing of wheat, rye, and other flour. During the long-term fermentation of dough in both small bakeries and large industrial enterprises, several vital changes take place in the composition of biopolymers, low molecular weight metabolome, and the microbial community. Therefore, it leads to a change in the properties of the final bakery products. It is shown that the changes that occur depend both on the primary components and the environmental parameters. The dynamics of these changes is poorly studied. However, in some cases, it was possible to isolate new strains of lactic acid bacteria and biologically active substances from the sourdough of long-term fermentation. In Russia, a project to study the dynamics of rye sourdough changes during long-term fermentation is carried out by the project team, which includes employees of the St. Petersburg branch of the Research Institute of the Baking Industry and the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Farm Animals.

Vadim K. Khlestkin

Using Non-traditional Organic Waste During Vermicomposting in Closed Ground and Humic Formation in the Northern Cities

The paper discusses the use of non-traditional types of organic waste, beer pellets, and sewage sludge in vermicomposting in the territory of the middle taiga forest zone of Western Siberia in the closed ground. Two series of experiments were carried out in 2018–2019. They showed positive results in an increase in humus.

Nikolay V. Nakonechnyy, Marina V. Ptukha, Dinara V. Ibragimova

Problems and Prospects of Using Artificial Intelligence to Monitor Phytosanitary Conditions of Crops

Recently, there was an increase in the incidence of crops by diseases. It led to crop shortages of up to 30% or more. An urgent task is the timely detection of diseases to take measures on plant protection and prevent the spread of harmful organisms. Due to the complexity and large scale of the ongoing work to identify and account for diseases of crops, the use of modern digital technologies and AI in this area looks promising. For this purpose, most often, algorithms of the neural network are used, namely, the convolutional neural network algorithm, which has multi-layer and most accurate output information. However, the use of these technologies is also fraught with several difficulties, in particular with the differentiated diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious plant diseases that require different protective measures, the inability to diagnose diseases of the plant root system, and the high cost of creating a database of affected plants. However, these problems can be solved. AI has great prospects in monitoring the phytosanitary state of crops.

Elena V. Khudyakova, Irina V. Slastya, Victoria S. Semenyuk

Productive Use of Cows in Dairy Cattle Breeding

The paper studies the productive use of dairy cattle. It analyzes the indicators of cow use by breeding organizations for four dairy breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein, Sychevskaya, and Russian Black Pied) commonly used in the Smolensk Region. As a result of the holsteinization of graded domestic breeds, the number of Holstein cows increased. The productive use is marked with a decrease in calving age and the reduction in dairy herd cost recovery during herd replenishment.

Nikolay N. Shumeiko

Optimum Feed Balance for Livestock Development

In the presence of significant areas of natural fodder land, Russia did not manage to create a stable livestock feed supply sufficient in size and structure of components. It would allow us to steadily increase the productivity of animals and increase the production of livestock products. Recently, the share of the cheapest feed in them slightly decreased, i.e. a change in the feed balance structure was accompanied by its appreciation.

Vladimir M. Kosolapov, Lidia P. Silaeva, Sergey A. Alekseev

Production of Environmentally Friendly Hop Raw Materials

The paper aims to justify the production of environmentally friendly hop raw materials. It is possible to obtain ecologically pure raw materials of hops at its primary processing, taking into account the industry ecologization, the introduction of production technology for obtaining high-quality products, the preservation of the ecological balance in nature, and preventing environmental pollution. The ecologization of the production of hop raw materials is achieved through the use of environmental methods for the production and processing of hops, taking into account the zonal features of culture, new energy-saving technologies for growing high-quality planting material, and the installation of modern equipment. It is necessary to approach the ecologization of production of hop raw materials from a position of cultivation of ecologically pure production, its processing, preservation in a safe condition of the environment, and its restoration.

Oksana G. Karataeva, Nicholas I. Malin, Abdurahman G. Gamidov

The Effect of Juniper Supplements on the Quality and Nutritional Value of Bread

The paper examines the quality of dough and bakery products when using powder from the fruits of juniper common (Juníperuscommúnis) for intensifying dough making. The quality of the experimental and control samples of the dough from wheat flour was determined on a farinograph according to a standard method. When assessing the quality of bread, organoleptic indicators, moisture, acidity, and porosity of the crumb, the mass fraction of protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy value, and the content of vitamins and minerals were determined according to generally accepted methods. As a result, it was found that the use of powder in an amount of 4% by weight of flour does not cause deterioration of the organoleptic characteristics of bread, the taste becomes spicy, with no bitterness, there appears a light aroma of needles; the rate of lightness decreases slightly, the rate of yellowness and redness increases. It is shown that bread obtained in an accelerated manner with the addition of powder from juniper fruit meets the requirements of GOST in terms of humidity, porosity, and acidity. Compared with the control, the prototype exceeds it in terms of porosity by 1.5%, which indicates a more intense gas evolution. A slight increase in the energy value of bread samples was found due to an increase in the mass fraction of carbohydrates. The mass fraction of protein and fat in the dough sample was identical to the control sample. The degree of satisfaction with the daily requirement of vitamin PP is 23.90%, and vitamin E is 12.67%. Among minerals, one can note the highest satisfaction with the daily needs of the body for iron (15%), potassium (11.9%), and magnesium (8.8%). In general, the results of the study showed that the quality of bread produced by accelerated technology, in many respects, exceeds the quality of bread produced by traditional technology.

Valentina I. Krishtafovich, Dmitry V. Krishtafovich, Valentina V. Bronnikova, Olga V. Savina

Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery: How to Integrate Traditional and Alternative Methods of Economic Evaluation?

This paper focuses on the traditional and alternative methods of the economic evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of machinery and the tractor fleet, provides diagnostics of existing methods. The analysis shows that, nowadays, in addition to the high level of mechanization of agricultural production, competent optimization and modernization of the machine and tractor fleet, modern methods of economic evaluation as a new agenda for economic development are becoming essential in the structure of pressing problems of economic efficiency. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the fundamental and applied research of domestic and foreign schools in the field of economics, thematic publications on assessing the economic efficiency of the machine and tractor fleet, and reference books. The paper provides a critical analysis of traditional and alternative methods. The paper proposes a new integrated system and new indicators for assessing the economic efficiency of using the machine and tractor fleet and the need for its optimization. The development of suggestions for improvement and the adjustment of the studied methods is both scientifically-methodical and practically applied. This will allow a more objective assessment of the effectiveness of the use of machine and tractor fleets of agricultural enterprises.

Andrey V. Malakhov, Artem A. Borisov

Technologies for the Production and Application of Organic Fertilizers in Agriculture

The paper analyzes the condition of soil resources in organic agricultural production and systems for their restoration. A system of methods for restoration and improvement of soil fertility is proposed: the use of green manure, organic fertilizers, precision farming systems, the implementation of scientifically based zonal crop rotation, the technogenic impact of machinery and equipment on the arable layer of land; the use of new varieties of grain crops, taking into account zonal features, the management of technological processes of restoration and improvement of soil fertility. The purpose of the study is to develop a technology for the production and use of organic fertilizers and a system of machines for their implementation in the agricultural sector based on innovative approaches. Particular attention is paid to the consideration and development of technologies for processing liquid manure and, on its basis, the production of high-quality liquid and solid, concentrated organic fertilizers [COF] using biologically active additives [BAA]. The principles of constructing a system of machines for the restoration of soil resources are substantiated. The technological characteristics of the basic machines for the production of solid COF are given: a mobile unit for local processing of liquid manure with a capacity of up to 45 m3/h for initial manure; tiller agitator with equipment for dosing the application of dietary supplements with a capacity of up to 400 t/h, a machine for making solid COF with a pneumocentrifugal distributing body for their application on the surface with doses up to 4 t/ha. The basic machine for the preparation and application of liquid COF is a mobile unit based on machines for the application of liquid organic fertilizers [MALF] with autonomous equipment for mixing dietary supplements with liquid manure and applying it in the doses from 1 to 4 t/ha. The use of liquid and solid COF in low doses allows not only to improve the soil production layer by biochemical parameters but also to recoup the costs of their production by the resulting increase in grain and forage crops.

Anatoly M. Bondarenko, Lyudmila S. Kachanova, Aleksey V. Baryshnikov, Sergey A. Novikov

The Impact of Agricultural Activities on the Substitution of Chemical Elements in the Black Soils of the North Caucasus Federal District

In order to justify the reasons for the decrease in the fertility of chernozems of the North Caucasus Federal District in long-term stationary experiments (from 12–20 years of using arable land), the authors, on typical chernozem and ordinary chernozem of the warm southern facies, studied the direction of change in the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements in connection with the duration of exposure of crop rotation and permanent crops. We analyzed soil samples taken from full-profile soil sections. The content of the elements was determined by flame photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The research results confirm the destructive effect of prolonged exposure on the soil of anthropogenic factors on the series of chemical elements. The results also indicate the importance of timely detection of areas of chernozems with a violation of chemical composition. For the first time, based on the analysis of long-term data, we indicated the orientation and conditions of migration of mobile elements that determine the productive power of the chernozems of Ciscaucasia. The decisive influence of the type of crop rotation on the content and ratio of chemical elements in comparison with the fractional composition of chernozems is proved. It is proposed to compensate for the negative effect in intensive crop rotation on typical chernozem, to plow straw, stalks, tops of agricultural crops, and to introduce organic fertilizers. Monitoring and timely recording of soil changes in agro-ecologically similar territories will optimize the timing of observations of changes in the parameters of chernozems and reduce the volume and cost of resources, as well as the cost of work. The frequency and priority of determining elements in the 12–20-year range in similar agroecological territories with a disturbed ratio of elements, identifying leaders and their satellites, series of substitution, their mutual influence within the system are presented for the first time.

Olga Yu. Lobankova, Alla A. Belovolova, Natalia V. Gromova, Anastasia O. Kravchenko, Aleksander V. Voskoboynikov

Influence of Soil Salinity and Fertilizers on Seed Germination and Formation of Vegetative Organs of Sunflowers

The paper focuses on the effect of high concentrations of soil salts on the germination of seeds and vegetative organs of sunflowers. The factors stimulating the development and functional activity of the root system of the plant were identified. The periods and phases of sunflower vegetation were noted, the positive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on the development of the root system and the total root biomass were identified. In the Stavropol region, saline soils occupy about 1.8 million ha. The greatest damage to agriculture in the region, due to a decrease in yield and deterioration of its quality, is caused by saline soils in the chernozem zone, where climatic conditions favor the cultivation of a wide variety of crops. The area of soil salinity is 631 thousand ha, including 450 thousand ha under arable land. The vastness of the areas of distribution and the need for the practical use of saline soils for the cultivation of crops determines the urgency of increasing their productivity through the use of mineral fertilizers. Sunflower is a culture of early spring sowing; the germination of seeds begins at temperatures 4–5 ℃. Although yields of sunflowers are not high, they are stable. To a large extent, this is explained by the moisture supply of this crop, which, taking into account the amount of precipitation and evaporation during the growing season, is 82–84%, which ensures a yield of sunflower seeds of 20.0 kg/ha or more.

Alla A. Belovolova, Alexander N. Esaulko, Natalya V. Gromova, Yuliya I. Grechishkina, Olga Yu. Lobankova

Shelterbelts of the 3rd Agroclimatic Zone in the Stavropol Region, Russia

Forest reclamation should be the first step in the development of agricultural land. The formation of sustainable forest management systems is one of the primary tasks of forestry and rural agriculture. Sustainable management is aimed at purposefully, temporarily, and economically advantageous interactions between people and forest systems. Forest resources and forest areas should be used on a straightforward basis to satisfy the current and future needs of people. The indicators for the sustainable use of forest ecosystems are actively developed.

Alexander V. Loshakov, Margarita G. Kasmynina, Stanislav V. Odintsov, Sergey Yu. Gorbachev, Lyudmila V. Kipa

Indicators of Natural Resistance in Chicken Organism

The influence of Argodez on the indices of natural resistance and the organism of chickens of the egg direction of the Lohmann-Brown cross was established. As a result of our studies, it was found that the preparation “Argodez” increases the activity of blood neutrophils of 30, 60, and 90-day old chickens. It has the activating ability of the protective and antimicrobial properties of the body.

Anna A. Menkova, Evgeny M. Tsygankov, Ilya M. Oleynikov, Olga V. Vikarenko, Tatyana. A. Kazimirova

Vertigenesis of Alkaline-Compacted Soils in the Central Ciscaucasia

The energy of vertigenesis was considered as an example of changes in the humus state of soils, pH, sodium content from the absorption capacity, and granulometric composition of such soils as alkaline compacted, chernozem compacted weakly alkaline, compacted medium alkaline, and compacted strongly alkaline. Alkaline-compacted soils developed in almost the same climatic conditions as the chernozems of the Central Ciscaucasia, but on saline, non-carbonate clay rocks. Weakly alkaline soils are most provided with organic matter. All soils are characterized by a weak alkaline reaction of the medium from the surface, which becomes alkaline in the middle of the profile and strongly alkaline in the lower part. This is a consequence of the features of soil formation and vertigenesis. The formation of compacted soils occurs on clay terrigenous rocks in the absence of effective drainage during periodic changes in the energy fluxes of matter during the growing season—electron in the anaerobic phase and proton in aerobic. The change of periods of waterlogging, drying does not allow the system of newly formed clay minerals to “age”, supports them in a state of isotropy. The repetition of anaerobic and aerobic cycles leads to the accumulation of smectites up to a threshold of 20–30% or more of the composition of clay minerals, in which the soils acquire the whole complex of properties inherent to compacted soils.

Valery S. Tshovrebov, Vera I. Faizova, Vera Y. Lysenko, Alexander N. Maryin, Andrey A. Novikov

Licensing as a Tool for Maintaining and Improving Soil Fertility

The authors state that one of the results of agricultural production, which should be evaluated and partially paid for by society (represented by the state), is the change in soil fertility. It is proposed to give agricultural lands the status of the public domain legislatively. The interpretation of the concept of “food security” as a public good is substantiated, which basis is the socio-economic development of rural settlements and the natural fertility of soils. Maintaining the natural fertility of soils, including humus balance, is becoming one of the strategic goals in the agricultural policy of developed countries. The provision of public goods and commons is carried out based on public institutions, including the institution of licensing. It is shown that, in developed countries, the institute of licensing agricultural land use exists implicitly in the form of restrictions, including the availability of special education and the residence near the acquired plot. In agricultural land use, one should distinguish between licenses for the right to conduct professional (entrepreneurial) activities and the right to use soil as a natural resource. It is proposed to introduce a general and current (annual) license. The current license indicates the obligations of the entrepreneur and government agencies to implement measures to maintain soil fertility. It is advisable to apply the licensing procedure to entrepreneurs engaged in so-called organic farming as an initial stage.

Victor Yu. Rogov, Olga N. Kuznetsova, Viktoriia Yu. Deich, Olga I. Deich, Irina G. Sharapieva

The Design of a Seeder for Sowing Cereal Crops with Local Application of a Moisture-Absorbing Ameliorant

Improving the quantity and quality of agricultural products is one of the primary tasks in agriculture. Significant areas occupied with grain crops in the southern regions of the country (the Volgograd, Rostov, and Stavropol regions) belong to areas with risky agriculture. However, the introduction of the latest technologies and techniques allows us to obtain relatively high and stable crops. The paper describes a method of introducing a moisture-absorbing ameliorant when sowing grain crops; the design of a unit for its implementation is proposed. Since this method is used for the first time, there is no unit for its implementation. Therefore, it was necessary to create a seeder to sow seeds of grain crops with a simultaneous local application of a moistened hydrogel granules. Possible options and the process of selecting the optimal method for granule application are also described. The authors describe some design features of the proposed seeder and the results of laboratory tests. Quantitative parameters of the proposed design are given.

Viktor V. Timoshenko, Maxim V. Ulyanov, Alexander N. Matasov, Alexander V. Kharlashin

The Ameliorative Role of Forest Strips in Crop Yield Conservation

Protective forest plantings have an invaluable reclamation and conservation value. It is manifested in protecting the soil from erosion and crops from adverse natural factors and reducing moisture losses for evaporation, protecting the field from snowdrifts and deflation products. Performing protective functions, forest strips improve the microclimate and increase crop yields. The Stavropol Krai is geographically located in the arid zone of risky agriculture, where the most dangerous phenomena are periodic droughts and dust storms. About 50% of the territory is subject to water erosion, which leads to flushing and erosion of the soil, which further leads to the unsuitability of land and removal from the category of agricultural use. The only way to increase land productivity is through land amelioration and reclamation. That is why we conducted the research in the zone of unstable moisture on the influence of forest strips on crop productivity. The paper presents data proving the effectiveness of forest strips on soil moisture, phenology, and crop productivity.

Lyudmila V. Trubacheva, Olga V. Mukhina, Olga I. Vlasova, Elena B. Drepa, Alexander V. Loshakov

Application of the Electric Drive of the Power Unit of the Small Traction Tractor

Nowadays, one of the tasks in the agricultural industry is the use of tractors in indoor facilities. Greenhouses and indoor farm premises impose increased toxicity requirements for tractor ICE. This paper considers a solution to this problem by using electric traction on small traction tractors. When developing such machines, an essential element is the justification of its parameters, which are usually laid based on the tasks of a tractor. An essential part of the issue is the choice of the layout of a power unit and the type of energy used by it. Based on the work tasks, we analyzed the application of electric drive with consideration of the traction features of the tractor. The paper provides a comparative assessment and general provisions on this issue.

Anton V. Bizhaev, Valery L. Chumakov, Oleg P. Andreev, Alexandr G. Levshin, Nikolay E. Kabdin

Theoretical Studies of the Method of Electromagnetic Mechanical Activation

The paper focuses on the current state of the problem associated with increasing the energy efficiency of mechanical activation processes in the hardware-technological systems of the AIC. It was revealed that the priority direction is the electrophysical intensification of processes in devices with a magnetic fluidized layer. It was established that traditional mechanical activation methods in devices with a vortex electromagnetic field are energy-intensive and do not provide product particles with a given technology of dispersion and high selectivity. An unconventional method of mechanical activation using the energy of a constant electromagnetic field is proposed. The mechanism of its formation was revealed by the method of high-speed fixation (ultra-rapid). The regularities of the emergence and destruction of clusters of a magnetically fluidized layer with the creation of adjustable energy-stressed shock-abrasive loads in contact systems of ferromagnetic elements were established. The basic theoretical principles of the method are formulated based on the development of the hypothesis of J. K. Maxwell about the dipole interaction of spherical metal bodies in a magnetic field. As a result of theoretical and experimental research, mathematical models were obtained that describe the physical and mechanical processes of the formation of power contacts in the working volumes of electromagnetic mechanical activators. The description of the magnetic field was carried out using the ANSYS software package. The results of experimental studies confirm the adequacy of physical and mathematical models to real processes. The basic theoretical provisions and mathematical models formulated in the paper are of great practical importance and allow designing devices that meet the requirements of production, both in terms of selectivity and processing quality, and in terms of energy intensity.

Marina M. Bezzubceva, Vladimir S. Volkov, Natalya Yu. Krishtopa, Maksim A. Mastepanenko, Shaliko Zh. Gabrielyan

The Innovative System of Soil Resources Restoration in Organic Agrarian Production

Obtaining high and stable yields of ecologically safe agricultural products is possible with the development of organic agricultural production. Agricultural land is the primary means of production. Its fertility requires constant restoration and improvement. The technologies applied for this, especially the production of high-quality organic fertilizers, are not effective enough due to the reduction in the output of organic waste from livestock. We proposed a system for artificial restoration of soil fertility. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing the effectiveness of the resource restoration system in its application to organic agriculture. We tested the method in the arid conditions of the South of Russia. The stable functioning of the developed innovative complex system is intended to enhance the effectiveness of organic agricultural production in its interaction of economic, social, political, and ecological linkages. The proposed calculation method combines organic agriculture and animal husbandry with the soil resource restoration system into a single agricultural system. The testing of the method allowed us to identify and rank the efficiency of five possible modifications to the current soil restoration system. The most efficient one has the lowest cost, provides a fertility level sufficient for obtaining high yields, increases the net income by about 27 mln. RUB per hectare. The application of the method of defining the effectiveness confirms the economic feasibility when applying an innovative soil resource restoration system as an element of the organic agricultural production system.

Anatoly M. Bondarenko, Tatyana I. Gulyaeva, Vladimir I. Savkin, Lyudmila S. Kachanova

Winter Wheat Grain Production in the Conditions of the Central Ciscaucasia: Improving the Efficiency with Application of Calculated Rates of Mineral Fertilizers to the Planned Yield Level

The article presents materials on increasing the production of winter wheat grain in the conditions of Central Ciscaucasia through the application of calculated rates of mineral fertilizers to the planned yield of 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 t/ha. On average, according to experiment in the three studied varieties (Vassa, Grom, Dolya), depending on the rate of mineral fertilizers, the crop yield relative to the control increased by 1.6, 3.85, and 5.36 t/ha, which contributed to an increase in profit by 16,637, 38,568, and 50,808 rubles with a profitability of 85, 129, and 140%.

Aleksandr N. Esaulko, Alena Yu. Ozheredova, Anatoliy I. Podkolzin, Victor G. Sichev, Dmitriy E. Galda

The Milking Unit Adapted to the Physiological Requirements for Machine Milking of Cows

The technical perfection of milking equipment primarily determines the efficiency of dairy cattle breeding in terms of the best fit with the physiological requirements of animals and the technology of machine milking. However, despite many years of research and development in this field, there are no milking units fully adapted to animals. The paper focuses on one of the options to ensure the operation of the milking unit towards the best fit with the physiological requirements for machine milking of cows. The solution to the problem is provided by a constructive improvement of the pulsator to minimize the negative impact of teat rubber on the tissues of animal teats. The authors established that a maximal effort from teat rubber is provided in the teat sphincter zone and decreases to its basis. This is the primary cause of milk backflow in the teat cannel. When using an experimental electrical pulsator, the authors increased the duration of the transient phase from a sucking period to a compression period by 30–35% due to uniform air seepage in inter-wall chambers of cups. This change eliminates a sharp closure of the teat rubber and, therefore, the negative factors associated with this phenomenon. The authors determined methods to reduce the negative impact of the milking machine on the mammary gland due to the correct selection of teat rubber and the reduction of its impulse on the teat tissue during the transition from sucking to compression. The physical and mechanical properties of the teat rubber and the correspondence of its geometrics to the teat size are essential. Reducing the impulse (shock) action of the teat rubber on the teat tissue can be achieved by increasing the phase of the transient process from the sucking period to the compression period, during which atmospheric air enters the inter-wall chamber of the milking cup. Technically, this problem is solved by using the electrical pulsator with ripple frequency and ratio between the periods corresponding to the physiological requirements for the process of machine milking of cows.

Ivan V. Kapustin, Elena I. Kapustina, Dmitry I. Gritsay, Vitaly A. Alekseenko, Igor I. Shvetsov

Influence of Direct Seeding Technology and Forecrops on the Agrophysical and Agrochemical Properties of Dark Chestnut Soils and Winter Wheat Yield

The food security of Stavropol Krai depends on the annual stability of the crop yield. Winter wheat is the leading crop cultivated on the majority of farms. Growing technology, cover, crops variety, and other conditions affect its productivity. The choice of a soil treatment system is based on the crop requirements to the soil, weather, climate, and the changes caused by soil processing. The newly available no-till technology provides optimal air, water, nutrition, and heat regimes for cultivated crops, and increases the erosion resistance of soils. This research studies the influence of no-till technology and cover crops on soil fertility changes and productivity of winter wheat in the arid zone. These technologies are supposed to increase the main crop yields, slow down soil degradation, and restore soil fertility. We conducted an experiment on the territory of JSC “Agrohleboprodukt.” This enterprise does not till the soil but instead covers it with a layer of crop residue mulch. Mulching reduces moisture evaporation and helped accumulate additional moisture. Since the introduction of these technologies in 2014, the enterprise has abandoned soil steaming and expanded the range of cultivated crops. Studies have shown that the no-till method does not compact winter wheat; these values lie within the optimal (0–10 cm of the soil layer—1.14 g/cm3 in the mature stage). The presence of plant residue mulch ensures the accumulation of productive moisture in the soil (49.0 mm and 43.9 mm in the mature stage for chickpeas and sunflowers, respectively). However, the agrochemical properties of soils must be monitored more closely (mainly labile phosphorus and NO3-nitrogen).

Elena V. Pismennaya, Margarita Yu. Azarova, Vladimir A. Stukalo, Vera M. Perederieva, Irina A. Volters

Transport Navigation Systems in Agriculture of the Oryol Region, Russia

This paper examines the use of global satellite navigation systems by the agricultural machinery of the Oryol Region as a solution to remote monitoring of transport and technological operations. The statistical study uses data provided by the Municipal District Council of the Oryol Region covering more than 400 agricultural enterprises. This paper establishes that the GLONASS/GPS equipment is used by 35% of the Oryol Region agricultural machinery. For individual municipal districts, the use level varies from 4 to 73%. The impact income level of an enterprise positively affects the number of vehicles equipped with navigation systems. This correlation is statistically significant. In terms of agricultural machinery type, all types of tractors and motorized transport are the most commonly equipped with satellite navigation systems. However, self-propelled sprayers and fertilizer spreaders, which are essential to farming operations, are poorly equipped with navigation systems. Using quantitative diagnostics (for the first time in the Oryol Region), we classification the municipal districts by the “availability of satellite-navigation-equipped machinery” index. We concluded that 75% of municipal districts in the Oryol Region are average or above-average by this index.

Sergey A. Rodimtsev, Tatyana I. Gulyaeva, Aleksey V. Krasov, Yuriy A. Yudin

Sustainable Phytosanitary Development of the Host-Parasite System on the Example of Head Blight of Winter Wheat

The territory of Stavropol Krai falls into the category of Fusarium head blight distribution areas. The analyzed period demonstrates that the disease developed on an area of more than 200 thousand ha, indicating the need to establish principles for sustainable phytosanitary functioning of the “winter wheat – Fusarium head blight infectious agent” system. Route surveys in the Kochubeyevsky district (the zone of average disease severity) and laboratory analysis of samples allowed us to establish that the dominant species of Fusarium fungi isolated from winter wheat seeds is Fusarium graminearum Schwabe. Corn agrocenoses, in which the pathogen multiplies annually, causing red rot on the cobs, implement the evolutionary-ecological tactics of the pathogen reproduction (P-tactics). At the same time, plant residues of corn, which do not pass mineralization and biological self-purification, act as the object of phytopathogen transfer to new plants (the so-called survival tactics or S-tactics). Winter wheat varieties susceptible to Fusarium head blight are sources of nutrients and energy for the phytopathogen population. Thus, the phytopathogen implements its evolutionary and ecological tactics of trophic connections (T-tactics). The analysis of internal factors (the so-called driving forces of the epiphytotic process) allows us to identify the adjustable elements of the general technology for winter wheat cultivation, thus reducing the risk of epiphytotic development. The cultivation of resistant varieties is the touchstone of study since the absence of a susceptible host plant disrupts the chain of internal factors stalling the epiphytotic process even with a sufficiently high infectious background under favorable conditions for the development of phytopathogens.

Anna P. Shutko, Elena G. Shek, Lyudmila V. Tuturzhans, Lyudmila A. Mikhno, Elena V. Pashkova

Decision Support System in Precision Irrigated Agriculture Based on a Combination of Electromagnetic Moisture Measurement, Thermography of the Underlying Layer, and Agro-Hydrological Modeling

The paper deals with the issues of creating a decision support system in precision irrigated agriculture. Existing soil moisture measurement methods do not allow obtaining the spatial and temporal information required for the digitalization of irrigated agriculture. To solve this problem, we propose to combine the methods of electromagnetic moisture measurement with thermography of the underlying layer (subsoil) and agro-hydrological modeling.

Anatoly M. Zeyliger, Olga S. Ermolaeva, Alexandr I. Golyshev, Tatyana F. Cherevatova

Intelligent Authentication System Based on Machine Learning Algorithms

Remote work, social networks, Internet Commerce, e-government, and any other activity related to the current digital transformation trend of complex socio-economic systems primarily requires reliable user authentication. In modern conditions of growing threats to information security, the role of developments that provide stable and secure authentication when accessing information resources is significantly increased. These developments must provide a security level that corresponds to the importance of the protected data and the level of risk of the user’s current actions. At the same time, the authentication system should be user-friendly and have the lowest possible cost of ownership. The paper considers one of the options for creating software that meets this set of requirements based on machine learning technology. The first section of this study describes the problems (including those related to the current crisis driven by the COVID-19 pandemic) that the organizations face when building reliable user authentication systems. It also analyzes existing technologies and concludes that it is necessary to use an adaptive approach based on machine learning. The second section presents the mathematical model of an adaptive algorithm and describes the assumptions and estimates that drastically simplify the computational complexity of the algorithm. The third section considers the practical implementation option and the principles of building and functioning of the adaptive authentication system. The fourth section discusses possible scenarios for using this approach in commercial systems. The fifth section is dedicated to conclusions on the productivity and prospects of using the described technology.

Ludmila Yu. Noginova

Biological Efficiency of Protective Measures for Winter Wheat Crops in the Central Ciscaucasia

Recently, the phytosanitary state of winter wheat agrobiocenoses in the Central Ciscaucasia began to deteriorate noticeably. In this regard, the study of new fungicides is of great importance in protecting winter crops from diseases. The paper aims to determine the biological effects of the new fungicide Elatus Ria in winter wheat crops in the weather and climatic conditions of the Central Ciscaucasia. After 21 days, in the variants with the fungicide Elatus Ria with application rates of 0.5 and 0.6 l/ha, high biological efficiency was recorded in winter wheat crops against fungal infection, which, in terms of prevalence and degree of development, depending on the pathogen, was within 97.0–100.0%. The research indicated the reliable protection of winter wheat crops with the fungicide Elatus Ria with the studied consumption rates from pathogenic fungal microflora (Septoria spp., Helmintosporium tritici-repentis, Erysiphe graminis, Fusarium spp., Puccinia recondite). Additionally, the authors proved that the fungicide Elatus Ria has a beneficial effect on plants under extreme conditions of growth (soil and air drought) in the natural climatic conditions of the Central Ciscaucasia.

Natalya N. Glazunova, Yuliya A. Bezgina, Lyubov V. Maznitsyna, Anna N. Shipulya, Denis V. Ustimov

Innovation in Mushroom Production

The priority development direction of the mushroom industry is in line with the provision of the updated Doctrine of Food Security of Russia. The paper analyzes the production volumes and the market of mushroom products for 2014–2019 according to the import substitution program. Demand exceeds supply and has prospects for further development. The main factors and difficulties hindering the innovative development of the mushroom industry are identified. The mushroom industry depends on the import of compost and substrate. The authors indicated the advantages of the innovative development of mushroom production. The innovative development of the Russian mushroom industry solved several problems at once: import substitution, support of farms, the development of related industries and technology suppliers, the development of exports, and the maintenance of a healthy diet. In the future, the mushroom industry will allow the development of the food, pharmaceutical, and furniture industries. The mushroom industry combines many sciences: microbiology, biochemistry, botany, mycology, microelectronics, etc. In order to solve the personnel issue, it is proposed to apply for specialized training programs in Germany (program “Farm Management”—field commanders) or the project “Agrokebet.”

Tatyana I. Ashmarina, Tatiana V. Biryukova, Natalya V. Sergeyeva, Andrey N. Romanov

Analytical Determination of Technological Parameters in the Work of a Self-driving Machine for Soil Loosening and Weeds Removing

The paper analyzes the most common types of weeds in the Volgograd region. The main physiological and physical-mechanical features of weeds are described. The authors identified the most harmful weeds and features of their growth. The results of studying the technological process of removing weeds together with the root system with the simultaneous high-quality loosening of the soil are presented. The technological process of operation of an auto-driven sectional working body is described. The paper describes the movement trajectory of the knives of front and rear rotors during the operation of the unit. The hole dimensions were determined when cultivating the soil with a knife of the front rotor of an auto-driven working body. The dependence of the gear ratio between the front and rear rotors, the long root extracted to the field surface, and the speed of the unit were established. As a result of experimental studies, it was found that the optimal gear ratio between the rotors of the self-driving tillage unit should be in the range from 3.5 to 3.8, while the forward speed of the unit is 2.5–3.5 m/s. These technological parameters are the fundamental factors in creating a complex technological process of combing out weeds from the soil in place of the root and laying them on the surface.

Alexander N. Matasov, Aleksey N. Ceplyaev, Maksim V. Ulyanov, Viktor V. Timoschenko, Alexander V. Harlaschin

Methodical Approach to Evaluating Quality Indicators of the Power Supply System at Early Development Stages

The paper provides methodological materials related to the technical and economic assessment of alternative options for power supply systems. The stages of scientific research and sketch studies during the selection of the preferred structure are considered. The list of particular indicators of the quality of power supply installations was formulated. The authors developed an analytical apparatus allowing for the necessary calculations. The features of the use of this approach in relation to power supply systems are considered. Conclusions are made.

Ivan V. Atanov, Vladimir Ya. Khorolsky, Maksim A. Mastepanenko, Shaliko Zh. Gabrielyan, Vitaly N. Shemyakin
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