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The petrochemical industry is a sub-sector of the chemical industry which has been engaged in using petroleum as raw materials to produce chemicals. In a broad sense, it also includes the natural gas-based chemical sector. Its major raw materials are various petroleum fractions and refinery gas generated in the process of petroleum refining as well as associated gas and natural gas. Light petroleum fractions and natural gas can be used to produce synthetic ammonia and synthetic methanol through steam reforming. Alkenes can be used to produce various kinds of alcohol, ketone, aldehyde and acid compounds as well as epoxy compounds. Along with technological development, the abovementioned alkenes and arenes can be processed to produce polymer products including synthetic resin, synthetic rubber and synthetic fiber as well as a series of fine chemicals like surfactant. Therefore, the petrochemical industry has reached out to a majority of the sectors in the polymer chemical industry and the fine chemical industry. In addition to the petrochemical industry, this chapter also involves the general chemical industry.
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