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The chapter stresses the point that collective bargaining is the central and essential component of employer–employee interaction. We show that India has typically played a dual role in this—on some fronts there is a strong tradition of collective bargaining but in some other vital respects Indian collective bargaining institutions are weak and particularly detrimental to precariously placed workers such as contract workers. In this context, it is shown that both India and China have problems with ILO—India and China have not ratified some of the ILO Conventions, albeit for different reasons. Nevertheless, we see that the grassroots collective bargaining institutions in China seem to be stronger than the case in India.
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