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Today, telecommunication systems are expanding and evolving at a remarkable rate, with the aid of fiber optics, satellites and comput­ erized switchboard systems. Airline systems are providing faster and more efficient networks for world-wide human transportation. Com­ puters are now generally accessible to virtually all industries and many households. But perhaps the most important factor is that education systems are expanding the knowledge base for city populations, thus resulting in increased efficiency in the use of computers, telecommuni­ cations and rapid transportation systems. The revolutionary age of logistical networks is upon lIS. Logistical networks are those systems which facilitate the movement of knowl­ edge, commodities, money, and people in association with thE; produc­ tion or consumption of goods and services. Logistical networks form a set of important infrastructure which serve as hard and soft means to sustain all kinds of movement, transactions and diffusion within and between global networks of cities. Major structural changes in the re­ gional and urban economy, culture and institutions are triggered by slow but steady changes in global logistical systems.



Logistical Dynamics, Creativity and Infrastructure

Chapter 1. Logistical Dynamics, Creativity and Infrastructure

Few would doubt that we are presently in the midst of an era of fundamental change. The powerful motor driving this latest revolutionary transformation of the post-industrial economies is generally thought to be technological. But such an explanation seems too narrow. The revolutionary age in which we now find ourselves is also a cosmo-creative one. Cosmo-creative activities, such as global research and development programs, are expanding as a result of the ongoing transition towards a knowledge-intensive society and some fundamental changes to the world’s logistical networks.
Åke E. Andersson, David F. Batten, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa

Cosmo-Creativity in the Knowledge Society

Chapter 2. Economic Structure of the 21st Century

A number of mathematical studies have shown that predicting the future with the assistance of non-linear models can be an exceedingly risky task. Even dynamic simulation models with a not too complex structure can give rise to unpredictability, meaning that even a very small change of some parameter or initial value can lead to a completely different prediction. Non-linearity breeds chaos.
Åke E. Andersson

Chapter 3. The Creative Person

The term creativity, as used in psychology, has become chic. Many trend-setting terms live a short and hectic life and are soon forced to make room for new devices in the public show-windows. Not long ago a prominent creativity researcher asked if her beloved subject might also go out of fashion one day soon. But behind the term creativity one encounters an abyss of questions that ensnares us, at the same time tempting and frightening. The creative person, with whom we would like to identify, is commonly regarded as being filled to the brim of his mind with new ideas and projects: he views life from strange belvederes, formulates problems contrary to traditional beliefs, and turns accepted and seemingly self-evident conceptions upside-down. He may seem stimulating to those who work with him, an indispensable asset, but also exasperating, ego-centric, unreliable, and inconvenient. We usually accept a creative attitude as a constituent part of literary and artistic work, research, and technical construction. But creativity permeates all aspects of human activity, including our everyday business and communication.
Gudmund J. W. Smith

Chapter 4. Synergetics as a Theory of Creativity and Its Planning

Quite often the word ‘creative’ refers to a single person who produces outstanding kinds of work, such as music, paintings, poetry, technical innovations, or scientific ideas. How a creative person makes his or her achievements is one of the great mysteries of the human mind. In the context of this Chapter, the meaning of the word creativity encompasses a much wider scope. It refers to the creativity of a whole community, not only a city, but even a large important area. While it is practically impossible to plan the creativity of a single person, planning that of a whole community may be feasible. This is because a large group of people may produce ideas or products by their cooperation. This then leads one to the question where we can find guidelines or paradigms for organizing the creativity of large groups. Such guidelines may possibly be found if we look at nature.
Hermann Haken

Chapter 5. High Technology Worker Mobility

The most important institution and the driving force of Francis Bacon’s utopian society Bensalem was a scientific foundation called Salomo’s house. Hopefully, science will never become as dominant as Bacon prophesied. However, the ongoing structural transformation of the world economy certainly indicates a strongly increasing knowledge orientation.
Christer Anderstig, Björn Hårsman

Logistical Network and Chaotic Dynamics

Chapter 6. Some Consequences of ‘Recurrence and Expansion’: What Can We Learn about Logistic Networks from Chaos?

Understanding a logistic network involves developing an appreciation for the complexities associated with the component parts of a network. This includes an understanding of the movement of money, of commodities, of people, and of the production and consumption of goods and services. (See, for instance, Andersson and Johansson, 1984). The essence of many of these component parts can be captured by seemingly simple models. However, even simple models admit consequences that are surprisingly complex! Paradoxes abound, dynamical motion that intuitively should be ‘simple’ can be highly erratic, and small changes in assumptions can cause radically different conclusions. At first glance, this complexity is surprising if only because much of economics and decision theory is based upon concepts of aggregation and optimization — concepts that one might expect to introduce stability, reliability, and predictability to the conclusions of the resulting model. Yet, this need not be the case. Why?
Donald G. Saari

Chapter 7. The Complexity of Economic Decisions — Anticipatory Human Behavior

During the past three decades, studies of nonlinear and unstable phenomena in various evolutionary systems have deepened our understanding of dynamic evolution (e.g., Haken, 1977, 1983; Prigogine and Stengers, 1984; Andersson, 1986, 1987; Zhang, 1988, 1989, 1990). Our thinking about evolutionary systems has been changed by the scientific concept of bifurcation. It has become clear that complicated forms of behavior such as chaos are not exceptions but rather universal phenomena in evolutionary systems. Rather than linearity, we have non- linearity; rather than unique equilibrium, we have multiplė equilibria; rather than stability, we have instability; rather than predictability, we have unpredictability; rather than simplicity, we have complexity and chaos. Chaotic phenomena have caused great and even inflated interest among mathematicians, natural scientists and economists. But it is our wish that an understanding of chaotic evolution should not bring chaos into our thinking. The new vision about the evolution of dynamic systems should make it possible for us to systematically recognize the limitations and validity of classical scientific work. We have to organize and re-interpret existing knowledge in order to obtain new insights into the world.
Wei-Bin Zhang

Chapter 8. Incomplete Information and Logistical Network Equilibria

In his stimulating book ‘Infinite in All Directions’, F.J. Dyson manifested the possibility of new frontiers for the ‘Science of Diversity’, and presented a disputable hypothesis on the evolution of organisms (Dyson, 1988). According to his arguments, the most fundamental mechanism for catalyzing the evolutionary process should be sought in the fact that biological synthesis is ingeniously accomplished by interactions between the hardware and software of genes. The preservation of the species can be accomplished only by perfectly-functioning hardware. No error is allowed in the replication mechanism of genes. On the other hand, each species, surprisingly enough, has shown infinite diversity in its individuality (software) as can be easily demonstrated in humankind. Thus, the separation of the hardware and software of the organism enables every species to create immensely complicated systems and to retain the compatibility between the perfection in its replication process and the infinite dimensions in its diversified individuality.
Kiyoshi Kobayashi

Network Dynamics with Cosmo-Creativity

Chapter 9. Entrepreneurship in the New Technological Regime

What is meant by entrepreneurship? Is it changing due to the new dominant technological regime which is fostering a cosmo-creative climate?
Norio Okada

Chapter 10. Network Cities Versus Central Place Cities: Building a Cosmo-Creative Constellation

In today’s global network economy, knowledge corridors link major knowledge-intensive nodes or hubs to form network cities. European examples include the Cambridge-London and Stockholm-Uppsala corridors as well as Randstad Holland. The Kansai region of Japan is another example of a network city. Analytical tools for the analysis of knowledge exchange processes between different centers are also under development (see, among others, Batten, Kobayashi and Andersson, 1989; Batten and Törnqvist, 1990; Kobayashi, Batten and Andersson, 1991).
David F. Batten

Chapter 11. Economic Evolution and Urban Infrastructure Dynamics

Infrastructure is often thought of as an arena for social and economic activities. The subsequent analysis considers infrastructure in the form of the built environment and associated networks, which function as systems for economic interaction. One central idea of this Chapter is that the development of product concepts, experimentation with young products, and routinised processing of mature and ageing products, all constitute distinct categories of activities such that each has its specific interaction characteristics and thus demands for particular combinations of infrastructure attributes of the built environment, in which it is located.
Börje Johansson

Infrastructure for the Cosmo-Creative Society

Chapter 12. Information Technology and Urban Spatial Structure

The recent striking progress in information-communication technology has made it possible to store, process, and transmit a large amount of information in a short time at a cheap cost. In fact, many firms and households are equipped with the installations for information technology. This tendency is called ‘Johoka’ (informationization) in Japan. Even parts of the public sector, such as local governments, have started to establish the infrastructure for telecommunications with the hope that it will promote the regional economy. Improvements in information technology will cause some changes in a city or region since the behaviour of agents operating and residing there, such as firms and households, will be affected. However, what will change to what extent is not unambiguous. Various statements have been made concerning the probable impacts of progress in information technology. Most of them, however, seem just conjecture, or wishful thinking which is not necessarily predicted in a scientific way. Thus, they may be ‘unsubstantiated assertions’.1
Komei Sasaki

Chapter 13. Impacts of Developments in Telecommunication Systems on Travel Demand and the Location of Office Firms

Office firms must communicate with other firms, mainly via face-to- face contacts. It has been understood that the need for such contacts is the driving force behind the agglomeration of office firms in the downtown area of cities; see, for example, O’Hara, (1977); Fujita and Ogawa, (1982); Tauchen and Witte, (1983, 1984).
Se-il Mun

Chapter 14. Spatial Equilibria of Knowledge Production with ‘Meeting-Facilities’

One of the essential roles of the Agora in ancient Athens was to serve as a meeting place. The Agora consisted of an open square surrounded by a collection of buildings, which formed a focal point for the citizens’ social interactions. The Agora was the civic centre for all. The activities surrounding the Agora, e.g., taverns, amusement places, etc. used to have social properties beyond their primary objectives. One of the central properties of the Agora was that of a collective good shared by all. The Agora, however, was not merely a public good. It was also a significant device to catalyze social interactions which facilitate the diffusion of new knowledge and information among citizens.
Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Seishin Sunao, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa

Chapter 15. Dynamic Change of Urban Housing Stock, Construction and Demolition

The population of most major cities in developed countries has not increased very much in the past decade. Due to this phenomenon, these cities could be expected to become mature and stable. However, the stable condition of the population does not mean that cities have ceased to grow or change. Even those cities in which the population is declining enlarge their areas of development and change their land use patterns. The cities which we will study in developed countries do not grow rapidly, but their form changes intensively.
Masuo Kashiwadani

Chapter 16. Optimal Regional Investment Control Using Hallmark Events

During the 80’s, the main objective of regional development policy in Japan gradually shifted from the creation of facilities for industrial activities to the creation of a comfortable atmosphere for leisure and recreation activities. The Comprehensive Recreation Area Development Act of 1987 and the Special Fund for Local Community Development of 1988/1989 eloquently reflect this objective shift and the growing importance of software in regional development. The great variety of hallmark events that has come to be introduced into regional development projects is related to this shift.
Makoto Okumura, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Eizo Hideshima

Planning and Policy Perspectives

Chapter 17. Creative Renaissance of the Osaka Bay Area — Towards a Cosmo-Creative Region in the 21st Century

Civilization first began and then developed along waterways, rivers and the seas. It was the ‘port’ that served as the primary gateway to the rest of the world. Through the ‘port’ passed a variety of commodities such as foods and commercial goods for urban life, as well as artists and craftsmen. It was used by all types of citizens, merchants, politicians, and even soldiers. The ‘port’ was a meeting and transit point, where a great deal of information was exchanged, and a variety of commodities were traded. It served exactly the same function as areas we now call centres of commerce, culture, and communication.
Kazuhiro Yoshikawa


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