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Über dieses Buch

The author is indebted to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and to the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota for financial aid. This permitted visits with quite a few old Cowlespeople, reproduction of documents, and some reduction in teaching commitments. The many who responded with information and suggestions cannot be blamed for the shortcomings of the book. Faculty and staff at the Cowles Foundation were particularly helpful. Dori Clifton, Business Manager, and Karlee Gifford, Librarian, were always resourceful in locating people and documents. Michael Intrilgator, Leonid Hurwicz, and Martin Beckmann fur- Intriligator also nished perceptive comments on an earlier draft. obtained my access to the Marschak archives at UCLA. Wendy Williamson, the librarian at the Jacob C. Schmookler Library at the University of Minnesota cheerfully and efficiently handled lots of (sometimes vague) requests for reference materials and produced neat and timely drafts from very trying scratchpaper. Appropriate parts of my correspondence and some copies of documents will be placed in a Cowles Commission archive at the Cowles Foundation, Vale University.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The Cowles Commission for Research in Economics was founded in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1932 and moved to the University of Chicago in 1939. In 1955, the Commission was reorganized as the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics and moved to its present home at Yale University.
Clifford Hildreth

Chapter 2. Simultaneous Equations

Abstract
To draw statistical inferences from an observation y a researcher assumes that y is a realization (or drawing of a passible value) of a random object, say Y, governed by a probability measure PY. PY is unknown but assumed to belong to a collection ρ of probability measures. ρ is called the statistical model or specification. Typically y is a vector or matrix of numerical observations and Y is a corresponding array of random variables.
Clifford Hildreth

Chapter 3. Activity Analysis

Abstract
When Koopmans joined the Cowles Commission in 1944, he had worked for two years as a statistician for the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board, a cooperative British-American group studying merchant shipping problems during World War II. He had made preliminary formulations of several models which later became known as versions of the transportation problem (see Koopmans 1947b; Koopmans and Reiter 1951), a problem of routing carriers to achieve a stated objective at lowest cost or to achieve as much as possible with resource limitations. He continued studying these models at Chicago and was visited early in 1947 by George Dantzig (see Dant- zig 1963, 1982) who was a mathematical advisor to the Comptroller of the United States Air Force and had, along with Marshall K. Wood and Murray A. Geisler, formulated models of Air Force procurement and deployment activities. The formal structures of the Koopmans and Air Force models were similar.
Clifford Hildreth

Chapter 4. Related Topics

Abstract
During the 1948–9 academic year, Arrow presented six discussion papers on social choice at Cowles seminars and staff meetings. His basic thesis had been developed at Rand the previous summer following discussions with Olaf Helmer, Abraham Kaplan, David Blackwell, and J.W.T. Youngs. The papers were received with much excitement and with some surprise that essentially scientific reasoning could be effectively applied to a basic question of social ethics. Excitement became widespread with the publication of Arrow’s study in the Journal of Political Economy in 1950 and, amplified and slightly revised, as Cowles Commission Monograph 12 in 1951.
Clifford Hildreth

Chapter 5. Further Observations

Abstract
It seems unnecessary to try to write an overall evaluation of the Cowles Commission contribution. This has already been provided by the profession. For example, the 33 people who held research associateships for a year or more in the 1939–55 period have been awarded five Nobel Prizes (Arrow, Koopmans, Simon, Klein, Debreu)1 and have been elected to eleven memberships in the National Academy of Sciences and to twenty-two presidencies of major professional associations.
Clifford Hildreth

Backmatter

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