Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
In this chapter, we provide a framework to specify how cheating attacks can be conducted successfully on power marketing schemes in resource constrained smart micro-grids. This is an important problem because such cheating attacks can destabilise and in the worst case result in a breakdown of the micro-grid. We consider three aspects, in relation to modelling cheating attacks on power auctioning schemes. First, we aim to specify exactly how in spite of the resource constrained character of the micro-grid, cheating can be conducted successfully. Second, we consider how mitigations can be modelled to prevent cheating, and third, we discuss methods of maintaining grid stability and reliability even in the presence of cheating attacks. We use an Automated-Cheating-Attack (ACA) conception to build a taxonomy of cheating attacks based on the idea of adversarial acquisition of surplus energy. Adversarial acquisitions of surplus energy allow malicious users to pay less for access to more power than the quota allowed for the price paid. The impact on honest users, is the lack of an adequate supply of energy to meet power demand requests. We conclude with a discussion of the performance overhead of provoking, detecting, and mitigating such attacks efficiently.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
A. Kayem, C. Meinel, and S. D. Wolthusen, “A smart micro-grid architecture for resource constrained environments,” in In proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 31st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA, (Taipeh, Taiwan), pp. 857–864, IEEE, Mar. 2017.
G. K. Weldehawaryat, P. L. Ambassa, A. M. C. Marufu, S. D. Wolthusen, and A. Kayem, “Decentralised scheduling of power consumption in micro-grids: Optimisation and security,” in Security of Industrial Control Systems and Cyber-Physical Systems - Second International Workshop, CyberICPS 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 26–30, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 10166 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (Heraklion, Greece), pp. 69–86, Springer, Sept. 2016.
P. L. Ambassa, A. Kayem, S. Wolthusen, and C. Meinel, “Secure and reliable power consumption monitoring in untrustworthy micro-grids,” in Future Network Systems and Security (R. Doss, S. Piramuthu, and W. ZHOU, eds.), vol. 523 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 166–180, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
P. L. Ambassa, A. Kayem, S. D. Wolthusen, and C. Meinel, “Secure and reliable power consumption monitoring in untrustworthy micro-grids,” in International Conference on Future Network Systems and Security, pp. 166–180, Springer, 2015.
A. M. C. Marufu, A. Kayem, and S. D. Wolthusen, “A distributed continuous double auction framework for resource constrained microgrids,” in ritical Information Infrastructures Security - 10th International Conference, CRITIS 2015, Berlin, Germany, October 5–7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 9578 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 183–198, Springer, 2015.
A. M. C. Marufu, A. Kayem, and S. D. Wolthusen, “Fault-tolerant distributed continuous double auctioning on computationally constrained microgrids,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, ICISSP 2016, Rome, Italy, February 19–21, 2016., pp. 448–456, SCITEPRESS, 2016.
A. M. C. Marufu, A. Kayem, and S. D. Wolthusen, “Power auctioning in resource constrained micro-grids: Cases of cheating,” in 11th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, SPRINGER, 2016.
A. M. C. Marufu, A. Kayem, and S. D. Wolthusen, “Circumventing cheating on power auctioning in resource constrained micro-grids,” in 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 14th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS), pp. 1380–1387, IEEE, Dec. 2016.
P. Paĺka, W. Radziszewska, and Z. Nahorski, “Balancing electric power in a microgrid via programmable agents auctions,” Control and Cybernetics, vol. 41, 2012.
J. Stańczak, W. Radziszewska, and Z. Nahorski, “Dynamic pricing and balancing mechanism for a microgrid electricity market,” in Intelligent Systems’2014 - Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems IS’2014, September 24–26, 2014, Warsaw, Poland, Volume 2: Tools, Architectures, Systems, Applications, pp. 793–806, Springer, 2015.
Z. Tan, Market-Based Grid Resource Allocation Using A Stable Continuous Double Auction. PhD thesis, The University of Manchester, 2007.
H. Izakian, A. Abraham, and B. T. Ladani, “An auction method for resource allocation in computational grids,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 228–235, 2010. CrossRef
A. Sobe and W. Elmenreich, “Smart microgrids: Overview and outlook,” CoRR, vol. abs/1304.3944, 2013.
V. L. Smith, “An experimental study of competitive market behavior,” The Journal of Political Economy, pp. 111–137, 1962.
C. Preist and M. van Tol, “Adaptive agents in a persistent shout double auction,” in Proceedings of the first international conference on Information and computation economies, pp. 11–18, ACM, 1998.
S. H. Clearwater, R. Costanza, M. Dixon, and B. Schroeder, “Saving energy using market-based control,” Market-Based Control: A Paradigm for Distributed Resource Allocation, pp. 253–273, 1996.
R. H. Guttman, P. Maes, A. Chavez, and D. Dreilinger, “Results from a multi-agent electronic marketplace experiment,” in Poster Proceedings of the Eighth European Workshop on Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World (MAAMAW’97), pp. 86–98, Citeseer, 1997.
H. Ma and H.-F. Leung, “An adaptive attitude bidding strategy for agents in continuous double auctions,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 383–398, 2008. CrossRef
P. Vytelingum, The structure and behaviour of the Continuous Double Auction. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, UK, 2006.
H. K. Nunna and S. Doolla, “Multiagent-based distributed-energy-resource management for intelligent microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1678–1687, 2013. CrossRef
H. K. Nunna and S. Doolla, “Energy management in microgrids using demand response and distributed storage- a multiagent approach,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 939–947, 2013. CrossRef
H. K. Nunna, A. M. Saklani, A. Sesetti, S. Battula, S. Doolla, and D. Srinivasan, “Multi-agent based demand response management system for combined operation of smart microgrids,” Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, vol. 6, pp. 25–34, 2016. CrossRef
J. Rust, J. Miller, and R. Palmer, “Behavior of trading automata in a computerized double auction market,” The double auction market: Institutions, theories, and evidence, pp. 155–198, 1993.
D. K. Gode and S. Sunder, “Allocative efficiency of markets with zero-intelligence traders: Market as a partial substitute for individual rationality,” Journal of political economy, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 119–137, 1993. CrossRef
D. Cliff, “Minimal-intelligence agents for bargaining behaviors in market-based environments,” Hewlett-Packard Labs Technical Reports, 1997.
D. Cliff, “Evolutionary optimization of parameter sets for adaptive software-agent traders in continuous double auction markets,” HP LABORATORIES TECHNICAL REPORT HPL, no. 99, 2001.
S. Gjerstad and J. Dickhaut, “Price formation in double auctions,” in E-Commerce Agents, Marketplace Solutions, Security Issues, and Supply and Demand, vol. 22, pp. 106–134, Elsevier, 2001.
G. Tesauro and R. Das, “High-performance bidding agents for the continuous double auction,” in Proceedings 3rd ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce (EC-2001), Tampa, Florida, USA, October 14–17, 2001, pp. 206–209, ACM, 2001.
G. Tesauro and J. L. Bredin, “Strategic sequential bidding in auctions using dynamic programming,” in The First International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2002, July 15–19, 2002, Bologna, Italy, Proceedings, pp. 591–598, ACM, ACM, 2002.
M. He, H. F. Leung, and N. R. Jennings, “A fuzzy-logic based bidding strategy for autonomous agents in continuous double auctions,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and data Engineering, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1345–1363, 2003. CrossRef
P. Vytelingum, R. K. Dash, E. David, and N. R. Jennings, “A risk-based bidding strategy for continuous double auctions,” in Proceedings of the 16th Eureopean Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI’2004, including Prestigious Applicants of Intelligent Systems, PAIS 2004, Valencia, Spain, August 22–27, 2004, vol. 16, pp. 79–83, IOS Press, 2004.
D. Cliff, “Zip60: an enhanced variant of the zip trading algorithm,” in The 3rd IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce Technology. The 8th IEEE International Conference on and Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce, and E-Services, pp. 15–15, IEEE, 2006.
P. Vytelingum, S. D. Ramchurn, T. D. Voice, A. Rogers, and N. R. Jennings, “Trading agents for the smart electricity grid,” in 9th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2010), Toronto, Canada, May 10–14, 2010, Volume 1–3, pp. 897–904, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2010.
J. Trevathan, “Security, anonymity and trust in electronic auctions,” Crossroads, vol. 11, pp. 2–2, May 2005. CrossRef
J. Trevathan, Privacy and security in online auctions. PhD thesis, James Cook University, 2007.
J. Trevathan and W. Read, “Undesirable and fraudulent behaviour in online auctions.,” in SECRYPT 2006, Proceedings of the International Conference on Security and Cryptography, Setúbal, Portugal, August 7–10, 2006, SECRYPT is part of ICETE - The International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications, vol. 6, pp. 450–458, INSTICC Press, 2006.
R. Porter and Y. Shoham, “On cheating in sealed-bid auctions,” Decision Support Systems, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 41–54, 2005. CrossRef
C. Wang and H. F. Leung, “Anonymity and security in continuous double auctions for internet retails market,” in System Sciences, 2004. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on, p. 10, IEEE, Jan. 2004.
J. Trevathan, H. Ghodosi, and W. Read, “An anonymous and secure continuous double auction scheme,” in System Sciences, 2006. HICSS’06. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on, vol. 6, p. 125, IEEE, 2006.
S. Adepu and A. Mathur, “Generalized attacker and attack models for cyber physical systems,” in 40th IEEE Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2016, Atlanta, GA, USA, June 10–14, 2016, vol. 1, pp. 283–292, IEEE, 2016.
Z. Tan and J. R. Gurd, “Market-based grid resource allocation using a stable continuous double auction,” in Proceedings of the 8th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid Computing, GRID ’07, (Washington, DC, USA), pp. 283–290, IEEE Computer Society, 2007.
A. Haque, S. M. Alhashmi, and R. Parthiban, “Continuous double auction in grid computing: An agent based approach to maximize profit for providers,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, IAT 2010, Toronto, Canada, August 31 - September 3, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 347–351, IEEE, 2010.
I. Koutsopoulos and G. Iosifidis, “Auction mechanisms for network resource allocation,” in Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), 2010 Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on, pp. 554–563, IEEE, 2010.
U. Kant and D. Grosu, “Double auction protocols for resource allocation in grids,” in International Symposium on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC 2005), Volume 1, 4–6 April 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp. 366–371, 2005.
K. Raymond, “A tree-based algorithm for distributed mutual exclusion,” ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), vol. 7, pp. 61–77, 1989. CrossRef
Z. Zhang, F. Nait-Abdesselam, and P. H. Ho, “Boosting markov reward models for probabilistic security evaluation by characterizing behaviors of attacker and defender,” in Availability, Reliability and Security, 2008. ARES 08. Third International Conference on, pp. 352–359, IEEE, 2008.
D. Gollmann, P. Gurikov, A. Isakov, M. Krotofil, J. Larsen, and A. Winnicki, “Cyber-physical systems security: Experimental analysis of a vinyl acetate monomer plant,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security,CPSS 2015, Singapore, Republic of Singapore, April 14 - March 14, 2015, pp. 1–12, ACM, 2015.
P. Liu, W. Zang, and M. Yu, “Incentive-based modeling and inference of attacker intent, objectives, and strategies,” ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 78–118, 2005. CrossRef
A. Teixeira, D. Pérez, H. Sandberg, and K. H. Johansson, “Attack models and scenarios for networked control systems,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on High Confidence Networked Systems, HiCoNS ’12, pp. 55–64, ACM, 2012.
A. Sedaghatbaf and M. Abdollahi Azgomi, “Attack modelling and security evaluation based on stochastic activity networks,” Security and Communication Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 714–737, 2014. CrossRef
T. Amenaza, “Fundamentals of capabilities-based attack tree analysis,” Calgary, Canada, November, 2005.
A. Buldas, P. Laud, J. Priisalu, M. Saarepera, and J. Willemson, “Rational choice of security measures via multi-parameter attack trees,” Critical Information Infrastructures Security, pp. 235–248, 2006.
T. M. Chen, J. C. Sanchez-Aarnoutse, and J. Buford, “Petri net modeling of cyber-physical attacks on smart grid,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 741–749, 2011. CrossRef
B. Chen, Z. Kalbarczyk, D. M. Nicol, W. H. Sanders, R. Tan, W. G. Temple, N. O. Tippenhauer, A. H. Vu, and D. K. Yau, “Go with the flow: Toward workflow-oriented security assessment,” in Proceedings of the 2013 workshop on New security paradigms workshop, pp. 65–76, ACM, 2013.
S. Jajodia and S. Noel, “Advanced cyber attack modeling analysis and visualization,” tech. rep., DTIC Document, 2010.
P. Vytelingum, D. Cliff, and N. R. Jennings, “Strategic bidding in continuous double auctions,” Artificial Intelligence, vol. 172, no. 14, pp. 1700–1729, 2008. CrossRef
M. De Luca and D. Cliff, “Human-agent auction interactions: Adaptive-aggressive agents dominate,” in IJCAI 2011, Proceedings of the 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, July 16–22, vol. 22, p. 178, Citeseer, 2011.
D. Vach and M. A. Marsnales, “Comparison of double auction bidding strategies for automated trading agents,” Master’s thesis, Charles University in Prague, 2015.
P. Chaudhuri and T. Edward, “An algorithm for k-mutual exclusion in decentralized systems,” Computer Communications, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 3223–3235, 2008. CrossRef
A. S. Kyle, “Continuous auctions and insider trading,” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, pp. 1315–1335, 1985.
K. Sallhammar, S. J. Knapskog, and B. E. Helvik, “Using stochastic game theory to compute the expected behavior of attackers,” in 2005 IEEE/IPSJ International Symposium on Applications and the Internet Workshops (SAINT 2005 Workshops), 31 January - 4 February 2005, Trento, Italy, pp. 102–105, IEEE, 2005.
M. Niitsoo, “Optimal adversary behavior for the serial model of financial attack trees.,” in Advances in Information and Computer Security - 5th International Workshop on Security, IWSEC 2010, Kobe, Japan, November 22–24, 2010. Proceedings, pp. 354–370, Springer, 2010.
B. B. Madan and K. S. Trivedi, “Security modeling and quantification of intrusion tolerant systems using attack-response graph,” Journal of High Speed Networks, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 297–308, 2004.
O. M. Dahl and S. D. Wolthusen, “Modeling and execution of complex attack scenarios using interval timed colored petri nets,” in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Information Assurance (IWIA 2006), 13–14 April 2006, Egham, Surrey, UK, p. 12, IEEE, 2006.
M. Kiviharju, T. Venäläinen, and S. Kinnunen, “Towards modelling information security with key-challenge petri nets,” in Nordic Conference on Secure IT Systems, pp. 190–206, Springer, 2009.
- The Design and Classification of Cheating Attacks on Power Marketing Schemes in Resource Constrained Smart Micro-Grids
Anesu M. C. Marufu
Anne V. D. M. Kayem
Stephen D. Wolthusen
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com