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This book examines the policies, conducts, and performances of organizations tasked with developing medium and high technologies in Iran. This collection assists readers in understanding the interaction between different players involve in the process of Iran’s science, technology, and innovation development in specific technology areas over the last two decades. Chapters from expert contributors are organized into three themed parts: science and technology policy formulation and implementation, outcomes, and evaluation, including recommendations for further development of technological learning in Iran.



Chapter 1. Introduction

During the last three decades, the institutional transformation in Iran has brought about major changes in the technological orientation of the country, from a mere purchaser of foreign machinery and equipment to a country that strives to be an innovator in the emerging technologies.
This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the prominent role of the state in the economic development of the emerging economies. Next, the chapter places a great deal of emphasis on unraveling the roles the non-market institutions play in Iranian industrial technology educational activities. Finally, it provides an overview of the other chapters in the book.
Abdol S. Soofi, Mehdi Goodarzi

Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies and Institutional Framework


Chapter 2. Science, Technology, Innovation Laws, and Policies in Iran: Evolution or Revolution?

Iran has engaged in intensive activities in building its national innovation system in recent decades. To achieve its ambitions to become an innovative nation, it has enacted many laws and adopted a variety of policies. This chapter analyzes the evolution of science, technology and innovation laws and policies of last 25 years in the country. This chapter also discusses the future of STI (science, technology and innovation) policies and the challenges the country faces in technological development. This chapter confirms the view that government could play a determining role in the supply side of the national system of innovation by the provision of a well-developed scientific and educational infrastructure for the development of technology.
Mehdi Goodarzi, Hossein Rezaalizadeh, Jalil Gharibi

Chapter 3. Fostering New Technology-Based Firms in Iran: Inspiration of World Models in Solving Domestic Challenges

This chapter presents a short history of the development of New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) and the governmental supports for their development in Iran. The historical review deals with the optimistic view of the Iranian S&T policy makers who strongly believe in the emergence of many potentially successful knowledge-based enterprises in the country.
Mehdi Kanani, Mehdi Goodarzi

Chapter 4. National Framework for Knowledge Management Strategies: The Case of the National Comprehensive Scientific Roadmap (NCSR) in Iran

This chapter is the first work in the English language to describe the processes of development of the National Comprehensive Scientific Roadmap (NCSR) of Iran (SCCR, Supporting documents for comprehensive scientific plan, 2010). The chapter deals with a number of important questions that had to be answered when formulating the framework for the NCSR, including: What was the framework for knowledge management in the development of an NCSR? What were the relationships between the agents and what methods were used in transferring knowledge among them? What methods were used for organizing and managing knowledge during the process of creating the NCSR? And what tools were applied in the formulation of strategic documents to expedite the processes of producing, extracting, organizing, sharing, disseminating, and applying knowledge?
Behrooz Tahmaseb Kazemi

Outcomes of Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies


Chapter 5. Growth of Scientific Publications in Iran: Reasons, Impacts, and Trends

This chapter examines the scientific achievements of scholars and researchers in Iran in terms of the number and growth of publication of research papers in the international English-language journals. The chapter covers the debates among Iranian experts on the reason for such a high position and explores the mismatch between advances in scientific output and the inadequate technological development in the country. The chapter supports the view that while the education and science policies of Iran have been very successful, the rise in scientific achievements, however, has not led to technological learning in the industries. However, the national education system has been continually supplying well-trained human resources to industries in Iran and, through the brain drain, to the rest of the world.
Mohammad Naghizadeh, Reza Naghizdeh

Chapter 6. Technology Development in Iranian Petroleum Industry: Approaches, Achievements, and Challenges

This chapter will examine the technological, managerial, and economic achievements as well as challenges faced by the petroleum, natural gas, and petrochemical industries in Iran. The chapter argues that the significance of these industries in the Iranian economy, and the overall increase in the technological competency of the country have motivated the leaders of the industries to identify the challenges in the path of further development of the industries and develop a strategic path for their technological progress. Furthermore, the chapter suggests policies for the achievement of the key strategic goal of converting the practical-oriented industries to knowledge-based industries.
Fatemeh Hoshdar, Seyed Farhang Fassihi

Chapter 7. Development of Science and Technology in the Iranian Electric Power Industry: Challenges and Future Progress

This chapter examines four key segments of the electric power industry in Iran: generation, transportation, distribution and consumption. It reviews the method, development, and evolution of electric power generation in the country. Specifically, the chapter reviews the structure of the electric industry, the main players, institutions, standards as well as laws, human resources, technology, the export and import markets, and engineering management of the industry in the country. Finally, the challenges facing the industry will be identified and policy suggestions to remedy the problems will be provided.
Majid Zandi, Mehdi Goodarzi

Chapter 8. Technological Learning in the Iranian Railroad Industry

In spite of its rapid development toward modern rail systems like electric and magnetic trains in most of the European and Far Eastern countries, the technological performance of the rail industry in Iran has been lagging. In this chapter, authors will analyze the factors that contributed to the inadequate growth of railroad network, the reliance on obsolete technology, and the lack of innovation in the industry in the country. They will enumerate and examine technological and managerial challenges the state-owned railroad enterprise faces, and recommend policies to remedy the issues.
Ali Maleki, Alireza Babakhan

Chapter 9. The Pharmaceutical Industry in Iran: Background and Technology Trends that Will Reshape the Market

Scientific and technological advances, socio-demographic changes, increasing demand for affordable new medicines, and global trade liberalization are shaping the pharmaceutical industry in Iran. This chapter reviews technological development in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry by examining the scope of R&D in pharma and biotech firms, states the progress of molecular research in the industry, and discusses university–industry cooperation as well as government–firm collaborative activities.
Alireza Zaharee, Fatemeh Davami

Chapter 10. Innovation in the Computer Game Industry in Iran

In recent years, the Iranian government has begun a systematic effort to make the computer game industry in Iran one of the drivers of the country’s social and economic development. This chapter discusses the development of the computer game industry in Iran and concludes that overzealous government policies to counter Western cultural influences in the Islamic Republic have worked as a constraining force for the full development of the industry.
Siavosh Malekifar, Mahdi Omidi

Chapter 11. Development of Fuel-Cell Technology in Iran

The chapter reviews the history of the development of fuel-cell technology in Iran during three periods: The start of scattered fuel-cell development technological activities (1993–2000); the development of limited resources (2001–2007); and the emergence of technological challenges that were not perceived before (2008–2014). This chapter concludes that the National Plan for Development of Fuel Cell Technology may have failed to achieve its goals.
Nasser Bagheri Moghaddam, Mohammad Mahdi Jafari, Seyed Moslem Mousavi Dorcheh, Mohammad Zamani Miandashti

Chapter 12. Technological Capability Building in the Satellite Communications Industry in Iran

This chapter discusses the history of the acquisition of satellite communication technology for the development of the Internet banking system in the country, and details the technological capability building of a state-owned enterprise (SOE) under duress because of the imposition of economic sanctions by the USA. The chapter shows how by reverse engineering the SOE was able to develop the second largest network of satellite communication systems in the world after that of the USA.
Mehdi Namazi

Policy Evaluation and the Path to Further Technological Learning


Chapter 13. Improving Iran’s First Integrated Evaluation of Science and Technology

This chapter critically examines the current government R&D funding systems in Iran and proposes a more effective national evaluation system for the allocation of government funds for R&D in the country. In this regard, a systematic evaluation of S&T is employed based on optimized budget allocation, accountability, control, and learning improvement. Accordingly, this chapter uses Phaal’s meta-framework for analyzing the typology of international S&T evaluation practices to draw lessons for the design of the R&D evaluation system in Iran.
Mahdieh Farazkish

Chapter 14. The Long-Term Impact of Economic Sanctions on the Technological Development of Iran

The chapter presents the results of a recent study measuring the impact of the Western economic sanctions against Iran on the technological development of the country. Using the Delphi method, the author conducted three rounds of interviews of a group of experts so that he could identify the positive and detrimental effects of the sanction policies on the Iranian industrial-economic development. Based on these interviews, the author identified 13 positive and detrimental effects Western sanctions have had on Iranian technological development.
Hussein Fakhari

Chapter 15. Technological Learning: Lessons from the Industrial Policy States of East Asia

This chapter discusses the role of the state in economic development in general and emphasizes the pivotal role of the state in rapid industrialization by adopting the appropriate industrial policy. In the way of providing specific policy recommendations, the chapter reviews the methods and outcomes of the industrial policies of South Korea and mainland China and identifies the specific challenges the Iranian technology planners face in creating suitable conditions for rapid technological learning.
Abdol S. Soofi


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