Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter deals with the new way of nominating party leaders in Western democracies. The topic of leader selection has been the subject of great attention by a growing body of political science literature, with a particular focus on the effects of such changes on both intra-party power and the relationship between leaders and party affiliates. On the one hand, comparative research has shown a significant tendency towards the adoption of a more open method in nominating party candidates for public office, especially through the use of primary elections. On the other hand, in new personal parties, the leader founds and creates his party and then he is confirmed leader by means of acclamation. As a result of such trends, party heads are reinforcing their position in the organizations they lead, starting from the increase in their popular legitimation.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adler, Nancy J. 1996. Global Women Political Leaders: An Invisible History. An Increasingly Important Future. Leadership Quarterly 7 (1): 133–161. CrossRef
Bale, Tim, and Paul Webb. 2014. The Selection of Party Leaders in UK. In The Selection of Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies, ed. Jean-Benoit Pilet and William Cross, 12–29. London: Routledge.
Barberà, Óscar, and Rodríguez J. Teruel. 2015. The Internal Consequences of Introducing Party Primaries in Spain. 65th Annual Conference of the Political Studies Association, Sheffield, March 30–April 1.
Biorcio, Roberto, and Paolo Natale. 2013. Politica a 5 Stelle: Idee, Storia e Strategie del Movimento di Grillo. Milan: Feltrinelli.
Blondel, Jean, and Jean-Louis Thiébault. 2010. France: The Personalisation of Leadership and French Political Parties. In Political Leadership, Parties and Citizens: The Personalisation of Leadership, 141–171. London: Routledge.
Bolgherini, Silvia, and Fortunato Musella. 2010. La partecipazione. In Il Partito Democratico di Bersani. Persone, profilo, prospettive, ed. Gianfranco Pasquino and Fulvio Venturino, 103–120. Bologna: Bononia University Press.
Bordignon, Fabio, and Luigi Ceccarini. 2013. Five Stars and a Cricket. Beppe Grillo Shakes Italian Politics. South European Society and Politics 18 (4): 427–449. CrossRef
Cain, Bruce E., Russell J. Dalton, and Susan Scarrow, eds. 2003. Democracy Transformed? Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Calise, Mauro. 2015. The Personal Party: An Analytic Framework. Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 45 (3): 301–315. CrossRef
Campus, Donatella. 2013. Women Political Leaders and the Media. London: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Carty, Kenneth R., and William Cross. 2010. Political Parties and the Practice of Brokerage Politics. In The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics, ed. John C. Courtney and David E. Smith, 191–207. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castells, Manuel. 2015. Network of Outrage and Hope. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Cavalli, Luciano. 1984. Plebiscitary Democracy in the West: The Socialist Case in Italy. Florence: University of Florence Press.
Ceasar, J. 1979. Presidential Selection: Theory and Development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chiaramonte, Alessandro, and Vincenzo, Emanuele. 2015. Party System Volatility, Regeneration and De-institutionalization in Western Europe (1945–2015). Party Politics, published online August 25.
Chiru, Mihail, Anika Gauja, Sergiu Gherghina, and Juan Rodríguez-Teruel. 2015. Explaining Change in Party Leadership Selection Rules. In The Politics of Party Leadership: A Cross-national Perspective, ed. William Cross and Jean-Benoit Pilet, 62–87. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Corbetta, Piergiorgio, and Elisabetta Gualmini. 2013. Il partito di Grillo. Bologna: Il Mulino.
Cross, William P., and André Blais. 2012. Politics at the Centre: The Selection and Removal of Party Leaders in the Anglo Parliamentary Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Cross, William P., and Richard S. Katz, eds. 2013. The Challenges of Intra-party Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dalton, Russell J. 2013. The Apartisan American: Dealignment and Changing Electoral Politics. New York: CQ Press.
Dalton, Russell J., and Martin P. Wattenberg. 2000. Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davis, James W. 1980. Presidential Primaries. Road to the White House. Westport: Praeger.
Denham, Andrew. 2012. From Ted to Ed: Electing British Party Leaders. The Political Quarterly 83 (3): 576–584. CrossRef
Di Mascio, Fabrizio. 2012. Partiti e Stato in Italia: le nomine pubbliche tra clientelismo e spoils system. Bologna: Il Mulino.
Duverger, Maurice. 1951. Les partis politiques. Parigi: Armand Colin.
Fasano, Luciano M., and Antonella Seddone. 2016. Selecting the Leader, Italian Style. Contemporary Italian Politics 8 (1): 83–102. CrossRef
Gallagher, Michael, and Michael Marsh. 1988. Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics. London: Sage.
Green, Jeffrey Edward. 2008. Max Weber and the Reinvention of Popular Power. Max Weber Studies 8 (2): 187–224. CrossRef
Hazan, Reuven Y., and Gideon Rahat. 2010. Democracy within Parties: Candidate Selection Methods and Their Political Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Heppell, Timothy. 2010. Choosing the Labour Leader: Labour Party Leadership Elections from Wilson to Brown. London: I.B. Tauris.
Hloušek, Vit. 2015. Two Types of Presidentialization in the Party Politics of Central Eastern Europe. Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 45 (3): 277–299. CrossRef
Hopkin, Jonathan. 2001. Bringing the Members Back in? Democratizing Candidate Selection in Britain and Spain. Party Politics 7 (3): 343–361. CrossRef
Hopkin, Jonathan, and Caterina Paolucci. 1999. The Business Firm Model of Party Organisation: Cases from Spain and Italy. European Journal of Political Research 35 (3): 307–339.
Ilonszki, Gabriella, and Réka Várnagy. 2013. Stable Leadership in the Context of Party Change: The Hungarian Case. In The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies, ed. Jean-Benoit Pilet and William Cross, 156–171. London: Routledge.
Ingle, Stephen. 2008. The British Party System: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
Jensen, Jane S. 2008. Women Political Leaders. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair. 1995. Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party. Party Politics 1 (1): 5–28. CrossRef
———. 2009. The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement. Perspectives on Politics 7 (4): 753–766. CrossRef
Kenig, Ofer. 2009a. Democratization of Party Leadership Selection: Do Wider Selectorates Produce More Competitive Contests? Electoral Studies 28 (2): 240–247. CrossRef
———. 2009b. Classifying Party Leaders’ Selection Methods in Parliamentary Democracies. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 19 (4): 433–447. CrossRef
Kenig, Ofer, Gideon, Rahat, and Reuven Y. Hazan. 2013. Leadership Selection versus Candidate Selection in Parliamentary Democracies: Similarities and Differences. Paper presented at the ECPR General Conference, Sciences Po, Bordeaux, September 4–7.
Kittilson, Miki C., and Susan Scarrow. 2003. Political Parties and the Rhetoric and Realities of Democratization. In Democracy Transformed? Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies, ed. Bruce E. Cain, Russell J. Dalton, and Susan Scarrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kostadinova, Tatiana, and Barry Levitt. 2014a. Toward a Theory of Personalistic Parties: Concept Formation and Theory Building. Politics and Policy 42 (4): 490–512. CrossRef
———. 2014b. Introduction to Symposium: New Research on Personalist Leadership. Politics and Policy 42 (4): 483–489. CrossRef
Kovács, András. 2013. The Post-communist Extreme Right: The Jobbik Party in Hungary. In Right Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse, ed. Ruth Wodak, Majid KhosraviNik, and Brigitte Mral, 223–233. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Kristjánsson, Svanur. 1998. Electoral Politics and Governance: Transformation of the Party System in Iceland, 1970–96. In Comparing Party System Change, ed. Lane Jan-Erik and Paul Pennings, 167–182. London: Routledge.
LeDuc, Lawrence. 2001. Democratizing Party Leadership Selection. Party Politics 7 (3): 323–341. CrossRef
Lendvai, Paul. 2012. Hungary: Between Democracy and Authoritarianism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lisi, Marco. 2010. The Democratisation of Party Leadership Selection: The Portuguese Experience. Portuguese Journal of Social Science 9 (2): 127–149. CrossRef
Low, M. 2014. Parliamentary Candidate Selection in the Conservative Party: The Meaning of Reform for Party Members and Membership Parties. British Politics 9 (4): 401–429. CrossRef
Loxbo, Karl. 2013. The Fate of Intra-party Democracy Leadership Autonomy and Activist Influence in the Mass Party and the Cartel Party. Party Politics 19 (4): 537–554. CrossRef
Mandák, Fanni. 2015. Jobbik on the Way to Become a People’s Party? Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo 17 (3): 673–694.
Manow, Philip, and Holger Döring. 2012. Parliament and Government Composition Database (ParlGov). Bremen: University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research. Version 12.
Mariotti, Claudia. 2011. Berlusconism: Some Empirical Research. Bulletin of Italian Politics 3 ( 1): 35– 57.
Marsh, Michael. 1993. Introduction: Selecting the Party Leader. European Journal of Political Research 24 (3): 229–231. CrossRef
Massari, Oreste. 1987. Le trasformazioni nella direzione del PSI: la direzione e i suoi membri (1976–1984). Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 17 (3): 403–450.
———. 2015. The Absence of Party Presidentialization in Italy. In The Presidentialization of Political Parties, ed. Gianluca Passarelli, 215–234. London: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Mayer, William G. 2011. Primary Elections. In International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, 12011–12014. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
McDonnell, Duncan. 2015. Populist Leaders and Coterie Charisma. Political Studies, published online February 13.
Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand, Ina Kubbe, and Michelangelo Vercesi. 2014. Becoming Prime Minister in Europe: Gendered Paths to Political Power? Paper presented at ECPR Joint Session, Salamanca, April 10–15.
Musella, Fortunato. 2014. A Premier without Parliament. The Legislative Process in the Italian Second Republic. Journal of Comparative Politics 7 (1): 4–17.
———. 2015. Personal Leaders and Party Change. Italy in a Comparative Perspective. Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 45 (3): 227–247. CrossRef
Orsina, Giovanni. 2014. Berlusconism and Italy: A Historical Interpretation. London: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Pakulski, Jan. 2012. The Weberian Foundations of Modern Elite Theory and Democratic Elitism. Historical Social Research 37 (1): 38–56.
Pakulski, Jans, and András Körösényi. 2012. Toward Leader Democracy. London: Anthem Press. CrossRef
Parsons, Talcott. 1964. Introduction. In The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, ed. Max Weber, 3–86. New York: Free Press.
Pasquino, Gianfranco. 2011. Primary Elections in Italy. An Episode in Institutional Imitation. Journal of Modern Italian Studies 16 (5): 667–684. CrossRef
———. 2013. Finale di partita. Tramonto di una repubblica. Milan: Università Bocconi Editore.
———. 2015. Cittadini senza scettro. Milan: Università Bocconi Editore.
Pasquino, Gianfranco, and Marco Valbruzzi. 2016. Primary Elections Between fortuna and virtù. Contemporary Italian Politics 8 (1): 3–11. CrossRef
Pasquino, Gianfranco, and Fulvio Venturino, eds. 2010. Il partito democratico di Bersani. Persone, profilo e prospettive. Bologna: Bononia University Press.
———, eds. 2014. Il Partito Democratico secondo Matteo. Bologna: Bononia University Press.
Paterson, P. 1967. The Selectorate: The Case for Primary Elections in Britain. London: MacGibbon & Kee.
Pilet, Jean-Benoit, and William Cross. 2014. The Selection of Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies. London: Routledge.
Poli, Emanuela. 2001. Forza Italia: Strutture, leadership e radicamento territoriale. Bologna: Il Mulino.
Punnett, Robert M. 1992. Selecting the Party Leader: Britain in Comparative Perspective. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. CrossRef
———. 1993. Selecting the Party Leader in Britain. European Journal of Political Research 24 (3): 257–276. CrossRef
Pytlas, Bartek. 2016. Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: Mainstream Party Competition and Electoral Fortune. London: Routledge.
Quinn, Thomas. 2004. Electing the Leader: The British Labour Party’s Electoral College. British Journal of Politics & International Relations 6 (3): 333–352. CrossRef
———. 2010. Membership Ballots in Party Leadership Elections in Britain. Representation 46 (1): 101–117. CrossRef
Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling. World Politics 51 (4): 547–572. CrossRef
Sandri, Giulia, Antonella Seddone, and Fulvio Venturino, eds. 2015a. Party Primaries in Comparative Perspective. Farnham: Ashgate.
———. 2015b. Understanding Leadership Profile Renewal. In The Politics of Party Leadership. A Cross-national Perspective, ed. Jean-Benoit Pilet and William Cross, 144–171. London: Routledge.
Sardoni, Alessandra. 2009. Il fantasma del leader. D’alema e gli altri capi mancati del centrosinistra. Venice: Marsilio.
Sartori, Giovanni. 1970. Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics. American Political Science Review 64 (4): 1033–1053. CrossRef
Scarrow, Susan E. 1999. Parties and the Expansion of Direct Democracy: Who Benefits? Party Politics 5 (3): 341–362. CrossRef
Scarrow, Susan. 2005. Political Parties and Democracy in Theoretical and Practical Perspective: Implementing Intra-party Democracy. Washington: National Democratic Institut for International Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/1951_polpart_scarrow_110105_5.pdf+&cd=1&hl=it&client=firefox-b. Accessed July 10, 2015.
Seddone, Antonella, and Fulvio Venturino. 2013. Bringing Voters Back in Leader Selection: The Open Primaries of the Italian Democratic Party . Modern Italy 18(3): 303–318.
Seyd, Patrick. 1999. New Parties/New Politics. Party Politics 5 (3): 383–405. CrossRef
Stark, Leonard P. 1996. Choosing a Leader: Party Leadership Contests in Britain from Macmillan to Blair. London: Palgrave. CrossRef
Torney, Simon. 2015. The End of Representative Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Tronconi, Filippo, ed. 2015. Beppe Grillo’s Five Star Movement: Organisation, Communication and Ideology. Farnham: Ashgate.
Valbruzzi, Marco. 2006. Primarie. Partecipazione e Leadership. Bologna: Bononia University Press.
———. 2009. L’elezione diretta del primo segretario del PD. In Il Partito democratico. Elezione del segretario, organizzazione e potere, ed. Gianfranco Pasquino, 59–101. Bologna: Bononia University Press.
Vassallo, Salvatore. 2014. Liberiamo la politica. Prima che sia troppo tardi. Bologna: Il Mulino.
Vassallo, Salvatore, and Gianluca Passarelli. 2016. Center-Left Ministerial Primaries in Italy. The Laboratory of the Open Party Model. Contemporary Italian Politics 8 (1): 12–23. CrossRef
Vercesi, Michelangelo. 2015. Owner Parties and Party Institutionalisation in Italy: Is the Northern League Exceptional?’. Modern Italy 20 (4): 395–410. CrossRef
Vicentini, Giulia. 2013. Selecting the Leader in Italy and Spain. Revista Espanola de Ciencia Politica 33 (3): 11–30.
Wauters, Bram. 2014. Democratising Party Leadership Selection in Belgium: Motivations and Decision Makers. Political Studies 62 (1): 61–80. CrossRef
———. 2015. Turnout Rates in Closed Party Leadership Primaries: Flash and Fade Out? Government and Opposition 50 ( 2): 218–239. CrossRef
Wauters, Bram, Gideon Rahat, and Ofer Kenig. 2015. Democratizing Party Leadership Selection in Belgium and Israel. In Party Primaries in Comparative Perspective, ed. Giulia Sandri, Antonella Seddone, and Fulvio Venturino, 85–103. Farnham: Ashgate.
Young, Lisa, and William Cross. 2002. The Rise of Plebiscitary Democracy in Canadian Political Parties. Party Politics 8 (6): 673–699. CrossRef
- The Direct Election of Party Heads
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock