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2023 | Buch

The Dortmund Lumbar Load Atlas

A Contribution to Objectifying Lumbar Load and Load-Bearing Capacity for an Ergonomic Work Design of Manual Materials Handling


Über dieses Buch

This handbook supports the identification of inappropriate work design in manual materials handling and thus the prevention of overloading the body and of the development of health disorders. The approach at hand, The Dortmund Lumbar Load Atlas, is focussed exclusively on biomechanical aspects of loading, overload criteria and signs of overloading in the form of verifiable low-back diseases due its strikingly frequently affectedness.

Manual materials handling is understood to be the holding, lifting or lowering, pulling or pushing as well as carrying of load objects and thus the application of forces mostly with one or both hands on the item handled. Due to the biomechanical similarity, special handling tasks are also addressed, such as shoveling bulk material, transporting goods via wheelbarrow and moving people manually in the care sector.

The book aims to promote interest in biomechanical approaches and provides information to all persons involved in the design, evaluation and redesign of manual materials handling, e.g. ergonomists, occupational physicians, orthopaedists, employers or researchers, lecturers and students. This handbook enables analysis of manual materials handlings regarding potential lumbar overload and contains the following:

a comprehensive collection of data on lumbar load in typical manual materials handling activities—a load register on interbranch activities,synopses of previously analysed biomechanically challenging occupational activities—a load register on branch-specific activities,explanations of the methodological approach to predicting moments and forces as well as their components in relation to the lumbar spine via biomechanical modelling andcriteria for the evaluation of load data with regard to potential lumbar overloading during single operations, working shifts and the entire occupational life.

The new recommendations on maximum daily exposure for lifelong work for both men and women are bridging the former gap of biomechanically justified action frequency limits and now offer the possibility of a completely biomechanical path for risk assessment of manual materials handling. The book provides hence a serious contribution to the objectification of lumbar load and load-bearing capacity aiming at an ergonomic work design of manual materials handling for short- as well as long-term exposures.


Chapter 1. Introduction
The introduction leads to the biomechanical focus of the presented handbook, that the load on the back during manual materials handling can be objectively described on the basis of mechanical parameters such as forces, moments or pressure. Lumbar loading can then be assessed with the inclusion of factors such as exposure times and frequencies with regard to potential short- or long-term biomechanical overloading, for example in the form of objectifiable degenerative diseases. Health statistics confirm the need for improved ergonomic design of workplace and work processes. Epidemiological studies prove the link between exposure and disease risk for both men and women and reinforce the usefulness of biomechanically justified preventive measures.
Matthias Jäger
Chapter 2. Biomechanical Basics
Biomechanical basics are explained such as anatomical designations, modelling principles for estimating lumbar-load indicators and typical examples of predicted lumbar load. Results for various characteristics, different intervertebral discs, anthropometries, postures and working techniques are depicted. This chapter presents the main part of the underlying methodology for lumbar-load prediction and illustrates, in particular, the main features of the 3D dynamic simulation tool The Dortmunder, which has been applied to numerous manual material handling scenarios and was continually improved over the course of about thirty years of research.
Matthias Jäger
Chapter 3. Lumbar-Load Register for Interbranch Activities
The load-related main part for the interbranch activities of holding, lifting, pulling, pushing, carrying objects and exerting rather low forces in static postures is provided. Analyses of holding objects in symmetrical forward-bending postures and partially asymmetrical object positions are followed by numerous results for two- and one-handed lifting operations of various speed between floor level and shoulder height with various pick-up and drop positions between mid-sagittal plane and at the side of the body. Pulling and pushing are exemplarily performed two- or one-handedly to the front, rear or side, while carrying objects in front of the body or on a shoulder is dealt with mainly concerning the step-induced dynamics.
Matthias Jäger
Chapter 4. Lumbar-Load Register for Previous Branch-Specific Examinations
A smaller lumbar-load register is described, which focuses on previous analyses of sector-specific activities, such as shovelling bulk materials, using a wheelbarrow to transport goods, moving trolleys on board an aircraft or transferring patients in a bed or chair. These exemplary investigations raised considerable methodological challenges in determining the forces exerted during manual handling, so brief descriptions are given for each, with essential references to the original literature.
Matthias Jäger
Chapter 5. Biomechanical Evaluation—Criteria of Overload
For assessing the lumbar load resulting from manual materials handling, various biomechanical overload criteria with regard to moments of force as well as compressive and shear forces on lumbar elements such as vertebrae or intervertebral discs are explained. For short-term exposures, such as single handling operations, the overload criteria are based on expert estimates or are derived from mechanical strength tests on autopsy material due to the destructive nature of direct quantification. On the basis of cumulative lumbar load quantifications for the entire working life in combination with the occurrence of diseases, criteria for lumbar load-bearing capacity for long-term physical exposures were derived. Innovative, biomechanically justified daily exposure limits provide sufficient protection against the development of degenerative diseases of the lower back.
Matthias Jäger
The Dortmund Lumbar Load Atlas
verfasst von
Matthias Jäger
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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