In 1957, the eminent computer scientist, Edsger W. Dijkstra, sought to record his profession as “Computer Programmer” on his marriage certificate. The Dutch authorities, although probably more progressive than most, refused on the grounds that there was no such profession. Ironically, just a decade later, the term “software crisis” had been coined, as delegates at a NATO Conference in Garmisch  reported a common set of problems, namely that software took too long to develop, cost too much to develop, and the software which was eventually delivered did not meet user expectations. Despite the advances in technology over the past 50 years, this remains problematic, as evidenced by the following quote from the US President’s Council of Advisors on Science & Technology (PCAST) in 2012.
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