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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on human adaptive thermal comfort in the building environment and the balance between reducing building air conditioning energy and improving occupants’ thermal comfort. It examines the mechanism of human thermal adaptation using a newly developed adaptive heat balance model, and presents pioneering findings based on an on online survey, real building investigation, climate chamber experiments, and theoretical models. The book investigates three critical issues related to human thermal adaptation: (i) the dynamics of human thermal adaptation in the building environment; (ii) the basic rules and effects of human physiological acclimatization and psychological adaptation; and (iii) a new, adaptive, heat balance model describing behavioral adjustment, physiological acclimatization, psychological adaptation, and physical improvement effects. Providing the basis for establishing a more reasonable adaptive thermal comfort model, the book is a valuable reference resource for anyone interested in future building thermal environment evaluation criteria.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
China building sector has been growing rapidly in recent years. From 2000 to 2013, the urban residential area increased from 9.5 to 23.4 billion m2. Figure 1.1 shows that Chinese total building energy consumption increased from 320 to 756 million tce. Under this context, how to effectively control building energy consumption and improve building environment quality has become a hot topic.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 2. Indoor Climate Experience and Thermal Comfort Expectation in Buildings

Abstract
Climate change is one of the urgent issues we humans must face in this century. But when talking about climate change most people will think of outdoor global warming while few can notice the changes in indoor climates we experience. In fact, our living places have always been ‘evolving’, from caves and wild fields in primitive age to ancient buildings with exquisite shapes and styles, and to modern buildings with advanced Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning systems (HVAC). Especially since the appearance of air-conditioning in the last century, the thermal environment in modern buildings has been tightly controlled with a goal of creating thermal neutrality, emphasizing conditions that are constant through time, and uniform through space. Unfortunately, this trend is also associated with increased energy use to maintain these conditions. One way to mitigate climate change through reduced energy use in buildings is to re-evaluate what makes us comfortable.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 3. The Timescale of Thermal Comfort Adaptation in Heated and Unheated Buildings

Abstract
In the previous chapter, we investigated the mutual relationships between occupants’ indoor thermal experience and comfort expectation through an online survey. The results showed an asymmetrical phenomenon and the ‘demand factor’ was proposed to describe it. However, due to it was an online survey, there may exist uncertainties. This chapter will future clarify the dynamics of thermal comfort adaptation especially its timescales.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 4. Indoor Climate and Physiological Acclimation

Abstract
In the previous two chapters, we investigated the mutually dependent relationships between indoor climate and human thermal adaptation through comparative online surveys and field studies. However, both the online survey and field study often accompany with complicated cofounding factors which is extremely difficult to clarify the effect of each factor. From this point of view, a large sample size survey is suitable for phenomenon description but cannot explain the underlying reasons. When studying the thermal adapting process, we intuitively noticed that physiological acclimatization may be one of the driving forces behind subjective adaptations. With these considerations, this chapter explores physiological acclimation through climate chamber experiments.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 5. Personal Control and Its Phycological Effects on Thermal Adaptation

Abstract
In previous chapters, we discussed the physiological acclimation effects on building occupants’ thermal adaptation. However, psychological adaptation, as an important approach for thermal adaptation, has great controversy, so further exploration is needed.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 6. Adaptive Heating Balance Comfort Model

Abstract
Human thermal comfort is influenced by both external environmental attributors and personal factors. The environmental attributors include air temperature (TA), radiant temperature (TR) (Zhou et al. in Energy Build 188:98–110, 2019 [1]), air movement (VEL) (Zhu et al. in Build Environ 91:5–14, 2015 [2]), relative humidity (RH), and so forth, while the personal factors involve metabolic rate (MET) (Luo and Wang in Build Environ 131:44–52, 2018 [3]), clothing insulation (CLO), maybe age, gender, and adaptation (Ji et al. Build Environ 114:246–256, 2017 [4]). To date, many efforts have been paid to develop models quantifying how these attributors may affect building occupants’ thermal comfort.
Maohui Luo

Chapter 7. Summary

Abstract
Thermal comfort research aims to meet the health and comfort needs of building occupants meanwhile reducing the energy consumption of building environment conditioning. Since the 1990s, many efforts have been paid on building occupants’ thermal adaptation. But there remain some unclear questions. First, from the phenomenon description level, the existing research mainly focused on long-term adaptation and rarely mentioned the forming process of thermal adaptation.
Maohui Luo

Correction to: Adaptive Heating Balance Comfort Model

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Maohui Luo

Backmatter

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