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Über dieses Buch

The Economic Geology of Iran is a complete and comprehensive book about mineral deposits, energy and water resources of Iran. Dr. Mansour Ghorbani has travelled to each of the huge variety of locations that feature the resources covered, personally verifying the details of them all.

The book starts by describing the geography and physiography of Iran as well as its various climatic regions and the diverse corresponding vegetation. Then the book gives an excellent overview of the geology of the country, followed by the history of mining in Iran up to now. The author describes also the metallogenic and mineralization phases of Iran, its mineral zones and belts, and, more generally, the distribution of mineral deposits in the country. Dr. Ghorbani gives us also an analysis of the position of Iran in terms of global mineral resources, as well as the role that the country’s mineral, energy and natural resources play in its overall economy. The book finishes with also provides a complete list of Iranian mineral deposits.

This book is a perfect source of information for all students and researchers in the field of geo-science at the university level but also for mining and oil companies that would like to work, invest and get involved in such businesses in Iran.



Chapter 1. Nature of Iran and Its Climate

This chapter briefly describes Iran’s physical geography, climatic characteristics, morphology, faunal and floral diversity, and water bodies inside and along its borders. The chapter is written in such a fashion that it gives the reader an idea about Iran’s natural features and attractions even if one has never visited Iran. The information provided herein lays ground for the study of physical features of Iran in any discipline.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 2. A Summary of Geology of Iran

This chapter presents an abridged description of the geology of Iran covering the following areas:

Stratigraphy of Iran from Late Precambrian to Quaternary along with a brief introduction to various lithostratigraphic formations

Structural units of Iran, orogenic phases and major faults that played a significant role in the geologic history of the country

Magmatic activities of Iran including igneous phases, intrusive and extrusive rocks, and classification of ophiolitic complexes

The chapter provides the reader with a good knowledge about general geological characteristics of Iran in an abridged form.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 3. History of Mining

Iran has been the pioneer of mining exploration and techniques for ­several millennia. The knowledge and talent of primeval Iranians on one hand and high potential of mineral deposits, their diversity and absence of dense vegetation cover on the other hand, as well as the country’s position at the crossing of various cultures and civilizations, have led to prosperous mining activities in ancient times and even after the renaissance, which still amaze the mining engineers about the Iranian expertise in mining. Interestingly, there are few known metallic deposits in Iran that do not have the footmark of the ancient miners.

Hundreds of primordial mining sites of gold, copper, iron, lead and zinc, and silver have been discovered that indicate centuries of mineral excavation. Numerous mining localities, tools, smelters, and miners’ residence existed since fourth millennium B.C.

This chapter provides information about mining activities in ancient Iran along with the mining techniques utilized.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 4. Metallogenic and Mineralization Phases of Iran

This chapter describes the mineralization phases of all the minerals reported from Iran. Since there is a good association between the mineralization phases and orogenic and magmatic stages, it is tried to briefly explain the latter as well.

This chapter depicts the type of mineral deposits formed in each geological period and orogenic phase, and also explains the location of these mineral deposits within various geological and mining zones. The temporal and spatial distribution of Iran’s mineral deposits, ranging from Late Proterozoic to present time, are clearly described.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 5. Metallogeny and Distribution of Minerals

This chapter explains metallogeny, mineralization and paragenesis of all mineral deposits. It is also tried herein to put forth the distribution of each type of mineral within metallogenic and mining zones and provinces.

Mineral deposits are categorized based on their distribution and paragenesis to allow prediction of their reserves and dispersal in different geological epochs. The reader would acquire a good temporal and spatial knowledge of all types of mineralization in Iran.

Although the concept of metallogeny is mostly believed to be applicable to metallic mineral deposits, it is tried to extend the application of metallogenic principles to non-metallic mineral deposits as well.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 6. Metallogenic and Mining Provinces, Belts and Zones of Iran

Tectonically, Iran is a part of Alpine-Himalayan belt. The consequences of most of the orogenic phases recorded in this tectonic belt, especially the Alpine orogeny, are traceable in Iran. All the Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural divisions of the country have, in effect, formed or evolved in response to Alpine-Himalayan orogeny.

Combining the tectonic and economic evidences available, it can be deduced that all the areas of the country have been developed under the influence of Alpine orogeny, and therefore it is possible to classify various rocks and their associated mineral deposits into a number of metallogenic divisions based on the developmental stage of this orogeny. Taking into account the concepts of metallogeny, geological features, and mineralization characteristics of the deposits, three categories of metallogenic divisions can be considered for Iran as mentioned below:


Metallogenic provinces: Central Iran, Sanadaj-Sirjan, Orumieh-Dokhtar, Northeastern, Eastern and Southeastern


Metallogenic belts: Malayer-Esfahan Lead-Zinc Belt, Kerman Copper Belt, Esfandaghe-Faryab Chromium-Bearing Ophiolite Belt, Hashtjin-Tarom Metallogenic Belt, Zagros Oil and Gas Belt, Taknar Belt, etc.


Metallogenic zones: Takab, Anarak, Bafq, Tabas, Abadeh, Behabad etc.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 7. The Position of Iranian Mining Industry in the World

This chapter presents an economic, statistical and comparative review on various mineral deposits (metallic and non-metallic) as well as fossil fuel reserves in Iran as compared to those in the rest of the world.

This is a comprehensive collection of data about Iran’s mineral deposits, production and trade based on the available data sources, and gives the reader a good account of Iran’s position in world as far as its share in mineral deposits, production and mineral trade are concerned.

The author has tried his best to provide a comprehensible outcome in qualitative and quantitative assessment of each mineral deposit based on available data, world class logical and comparative analytical methods and Iran’s geological features.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 8. Energy Resources, Production, and Consumption in Iran Compared with the World

This chapter covers the energy resources in Iran. These resources are divided into two groups:

Non-renewable energy resources, which mainly include oil, gas and coal

Renewable resources whose significance has been noticed recently

The reserves of non-renewable resources or fossil fuels are cited in this chapter and compared to those in the Middle East and the rest of the world. The exploration potentials of such energy resource are also discussed.

This chapter also talks about the significant non-renewable energy resources and their status quo. Among this type of energy resources geothermal, solar and running water resources are included.

Mansour Ghorbani

Chapter 9. List of Mineral Deposits and Indications of Iran

This chapter provides a long list of all known mineral deposits and indications in Iran with geographic coordination, size, host rock, age, genetic and mineralization, associated orogenic phase, deposit shape or morphology and paragenesis.

Mansour Ghorbani


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