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This title discusses the phenomenon of smoking as a behavioural disease and the associated costs. The author details the consequences of smoking, in addition to the detrimental effects caused by second-hand tobacco smoke exposure as a health risk to children as well as to the general public. The central contribution of Joshua’s work is to address these concerns in terms of the issues of free choice and the market. Considering the various restrictive policies designed to reduce smoking’s prevalence, including the banning of smoking in public places, and the inclusion of warning labels on cigarette packets, Joshua carefully analyses potential economic remedies to the problem of smoking, notably the Pigovian tax. Finally, the book concludes with a highly relevant discussion of corporate social responsibility, and the role that this might play in anti-smoking projects.

This is the first title in a four volume series ‘The Economics of Addictive Behaviours’, which consists of three further volumes on alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse and overeating.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

The Private and Social Costs of Smoking and Their Remedies

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
This is the first volume of The Economics of Addictive Behaviours which consists of four separate volumes. The present volume deals with the private and social costs of smoking and their remedies. The next three volumes deal with the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs and the social costs of overeating. The first volume discusses smoking as a behavioural disease, followed by a discussion on the social and private costs of smoking. A detailed analysis of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure will then follow, including a discussion on free choice and the market. An analysis of various restrictive policies and economic remedies to reduce smoking will then follow, including the Pigovian tax. Finally, this volume will conclude with a discussion on corporate social responsibility.
John Joshua

2. Smoking as a Behavioural Disease and Its Causes

Abstract
The first section will discuss smoking as a behavioural disease. Smoking has become increasingly social-class differentiated, so that smoking increases the level of inequalities in health and consequently mortality. Lower social classes have a shorter life expectancy which is largely caused by differences in behaviour which leads to behavioural diseases, such as smoking, abuse of alcohol, inadequate diet and a lack of exercise. However, risky factors of lifestyle are often cumulative so that the effects of smoking and excessive use of alcohol may reinforce each other. The global pandemic of tobacco dependence is moving through four stages, whereby factors of health care have been given greater priority during a higher stage of economic development.
John Joshua

3. The Consequences of Smoking

Abstract
Epidemiological studies may investigate the intrinsic toxicity and carcinogenicity together with smokers’ behavioural responses to addiction to assess the full consequences of smoking. Hence, the chemical processes in the development of diseases caused by smoking will be addressed before discussing the consequences of smoking to health. The intrinsic toxicity will be discussed as well as the behavioural and carcinogenicity responses of the smokers, and the social and private costs of smoking. Nicotine is only one of the more than 4000 chemicals in cigarettes which severely affect the health of smokers and non-smokers. Over 40 diseases have been identified as being caused by smoking, so that there are considerable detrimental social and private costs involved as a consequence of smoking.
John Joshua

4. Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

Abstract
This chapter will address extensively the detrimental effects of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, beginning with a discussion on the relationship between active and passive smoking. The risk to health of non-smokers who have been exposed to ETS has been well established. Passive smoking may be referred to as involuntary smoking. The consequences of SHS to health will be discussed, including the effects of smoking during pregnancy. The health risk to children and to the general population exposed to SHS will be discussed. Passive smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in infancy in industrialized countries. As passive smoking has considerable detrimental effects on the health of non-smokers, the rights of non-smokers have also been briefly addressed.
John Joshua

5. The Market and Rational Decisions

Abstract
The present consumption of addictive goods depends on past as well as future consumption. As smokers usually persist in their smoking activities because of their addiction, their decision to smoke has little to do with freedom of choice. Instead, smokers may show a lack of freedom of choice as they feel compelled to smoke to satisfy their irresistible urge to smoke and so do not have the freedom not to smoke.Furthermore, free choice cannot be exercised within a distorted market when the relevant information is not available, so that an informed decision cannot be made, and hence the decision-making process cannot be optimized.
John Joshua

6. The Prevention of Smoking and Restrictive Policies

Abstract
As smoking has detrimental impacts on the health of smokers and non-smokers, it is important that various restrictive policies are implemented to minimize the prevalence of smoking. Relevant policies have been outlined, such as warning labels on cigarette packages, bans on advertising of tobacco products and the banning of smoking in various places. An increase of the awareness of the public of the detrimental effects of smoking is important; however, the effectiveness of such programmes will depend largely on smokers’ motivation to quit smoking. The more educated people are, the more health conscious they become. As people become more aware of the causes of behavioural diseases, smoking becomes an inferior good so that consequently mortality from smoking declines.
John Joshua

7. Economic Remedies to Reduce Smoking

Abstract
Taxes imposed on the consumption of tobacco may be regarded as regressive, firstly because poorer smokers pay a greater proportion of their income in tax for each cigarette smoked, and secondly, lower social classes tend to smoke more than those in other social classes. However, the external cost caused by smoking has to be considered. A Pigovian tax may be imposed to compensate for the external costs resulting from smoking which could be earmarked to cover the external costs caused by smoking. The effectiveness of a tax policy will depend on elasticity of demand. Price interventions are the most effective policies in reducing the rate of mortality caused by smoking; the effectiveness increases when combined with non-price interventions.
John Joshua

8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Costs

Abstract
The final section will discuss the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR goes beyond the legal and regulatory requirements. However, the tobacco companies have used CSR to enhance their image within the market. It will be argued that the marketing of a lethal product cannot be reconciled with the concept of CSR. According to the WHO (World Health Organization Technical manual, 2010), tobacco companies have tried to prevent the implementation of health policies. WHO’s FCTC intends to protect the political decision-making process from vested interests. It is argued that as tobacco is one of the deadliest products, nicotine should come under a similar regulatory framework as other drugs.
John Joshua

9. Conclusion

Abstract
Tobacco-related diseases exceed globally those caused from the abuse of alcohol, illicit drugs, HIV, homicide, suicide and car accidents combined. The rate of mortality is expected to increase in low- and middle-income countries as the rate of smoking is increasing in those countries as compared with the rate of smoking in high-income countries.There are considerable detrimental social and private costs involved as a consequence of smoking; however such costs are subsidised by society at large as smokers do not pay the full cost.Advertising has glamorized smoking, so that it has become habitual. Unless smoking has become denormalized, it will not be phased out; hence it is advocated that advertising has to be phased out to reduce smoking.
John Joshua

Backmatter

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