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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Competitiveness of Deep-Sea Mining

Frontmatter

Chapter One. Deep-Sea Mining versus Land-Based Mining: A Cost Comparison

Abstract
During a Pacific voyage of the British Research Vessel “HMS Challenger” in 1876, nodular polymetallic structures containing large amounts of manganese were discovered on the ocean floor. One hundred years later, the planned mining of these manganese nodules became the central topic of debate at the Third UN Law of the Sea Conference. The main points at issue at this conference were the conditions under which deep-sea mining can be carried out1, the organization of the seabed supervisory authorities, the production quotas, the transfer of technology, and the taxation of deep-sea mining2.
Rolf Dick

Impact of Deep-Sea Mining on the World Metal Markets

Frontmatter

Chapter Two. Cobalt

Abstract
Cobalt (Co) with atomic number 27, is a hard, brittle metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a melting point of 1495° C and a boiling point of 2870° C (AMM 1982). Cobalt was first used as a pigment about 2000 B. C., when naturally occuring cobalt compounds were used to color glass. In 1742 it was isolated as a metal by G. Brant, and in 1780, Bergman established cobalt as an element1.
Reza Rafati

Chapter Three. Copper

Abstract
The first part of this paper provides background information on the world copper market as far as it is necessary to understand the econometric model of the world copper industry developed in the second part of this report. It describes the historical pattern and major determinants of world copper demand, supply and price formation, and discusses the development of foreign trade and future copper availability1.
Gerhard Wagenhals

Chapter Four. Manganese

Abstract
The market for manganese has been experiencing a long period of depressed prices both in nominal and real terms with only short-lived exceptions. Demand for manganese, primarily linked to the activity in the iron and steel industry, is suffering the consequences from the deep structural change occuring in the world steel industry for more than a decade, and also from the slow-down in general economic activity in western industrialized nations since the first oil price boom of the 1970’s. On the other hand, supply growing well ahead of demand for many years has contributed to enhance competition in a market formerly controlled by vertically-integrated steel firms.
Federico Foders, Chungsoo Kim

Chapter Five. Nickel

Abstract
Nickel (NI), belonging to the iron-cobalt family, is the second most important alloying metal in specialty steels, next to chromium. The light 33 metal which is tough, ductile and partially magnetic has an atomic number of 28, an atomic weight of 58.70, and a melting point of 1452 degrees celsius (AMM, 1980, p. 143). Nickel was first discovered in 1751; the first nickel steel was not produced until 1920 when Michael Faraday added nickel to horseshoe iron. He subsequently formulated the laws of electrolysis which contributed to the development of nickel plating (Hilmy, 1979, p. 1).
Reza Rafati

Income Effects of Deep-Sea Mining

Frontmatter

Chapter Six. Who Gains From Deep-Sea Mining

Abstract
The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) will probably be remembered as one of the longest diplomatic battles between DCs and LDCs fought in the twentieth century. The issue at stake was nothing less than a redistribution of ocean wealth, i. e. of future income flows arising from the different uses of the world’s marine resources. On the basis of majority voting (one country, one vote), UNCLOS produced a Convention which, should it pass ratification, can be regarded as a major step of the international community towards the socalled New International Economic Order (NIEO).
Federico Foders

Backmatter

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