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Über dieses Buch

The Super Bowl is the most watched sporting event in the United States. But what does participating in this event mean for the players, the halftime performers, and the cities who host the games? Is there an economic benefit from being a part of the Super Bowl and if so, how much?

This Palgrave Pivot examines the economic consequences for those who participate in the Super Bowl. The book fills in gaps in the literature by examining the benefits and costs of being involved in the game. Previously, the literature has largely ignored the affect the game has had on the careers of the players, particularly the stars of the game. The economic benefit of being the halftime performer has not been considered in the literature at all. While there have been past studies about the economic impact on the cities who host of the game, this book will expand on previous research and update it with new data.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The 1966 merger of the NFL and the AFL led to the playing of a championship game, initially titled the NFL–AFL World Championship. That bulky name was soon dropped and the game is now commonly referred to as the Super Bowl. The game has grown in societal importance and become part of the cultural fabric of the United States. This chapter provides an overview of the economics of the three major components of the game that are covered in this book: the football players, the cities that host the games, and the halftime artists.
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 2. The Origins of the NFL and the Super Bowl

Abstract
Professional football grew from the popularity of the collegiate game. The NFL began as a small, regional league and grew to become the preeminent sport in the United States. As it grew in size and financial stability, the NFL faced several challenges from rival leagues. In 1966, the NFL agreed to slowly merge with the AFL and to establish a World Championship game. That championship game, now known as the Super Bowl, is the most watched televised event in the country. The game has grown to become a massive event and very big business.
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 3. The Cities

Abstract
The Super Bowl is America’s premier sporting event. This chapter details basic economic facts about the game and examines the controversy surrounding the purported economic impact of the game on host communities. While the league and sports boosters claim that the game brings up to a $500 million economic impact to host cities, a review of the literature suggests that the true economic impact is a fraction of this amount.
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 4. The Players

Abstract
The Super Bowl clearly makes teams and their players much happier. A championship can define the career of all the people involved. But what is the championship worth financially? We begin with the impact winning a Super Bowl has on a team’s revenue. Because the NFL shares so much of its revenue, winning games doesn’t seem to impact a team’s earnings. But winning the Super Bowl does appear to have some value, although it is quite small. Our study of the players focuses primarily on the quarterbacks. We present evidence that winning a Super Bowl increases the pay of the winning quarterback. Perhaps surprisingly, the “best” quarterback doesn’t seem to win the Super Bowl as often as one might think. Of course, it is possible identifying the “best” quarterback is not as clear as we might like!
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 5. The Performers

Abstract
The NFL produces an expensive halftime show in order to maintain its large television audience. The artists who preform at halftime are barely compensated by the NFL. An exploration of the benefits to the performer in the areas of music consumption and future concert revenues were tested using the sign test. Music consumption was found to significantly increase following the halftime show. Concert data did not show the same level of significance, but the amount of data available was small. The lack of pay for cheerleaders is also considered here. Mercantilist opportunities for the NFL in charging the halftime act to perform were explored. If the image of the league to fans is important to the NFL, then using a nested game approach the league would choose not to charge artists.
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 6. Summary and Conclusions

Abstract
Ex ante economic impact studies of the Super Bowl show that the presence of the game in a city does not provide the level of economic benefit that proponents of the game claim it has. Halftime performers appear to perform in order to gain expose for their music. Their performance results in significantly higher levels of music consumption. The impact their appearance has on future concert ticket sales is in need of further research. Quarterbacks who win the Super Bowl see a benefit of around $2 million in their future playing contracts. Measuring the marginal revenue product of quarterbacks is difficult because it is interrelated with other players in this team sport.
Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Backmatter

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