Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Since 1999 a series of reforms have been introduced to the UK welfare system with the aim of increasing rates of lone parent employment. Increased employment was expected not only to reduce rates of lone parent poverty but to provide wider benefits, including improvements in lone parents’ mental health. Yet for lone mothers there is very little evidence on how work influences mental health. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) between 1991 and 2008 this paper assesses how lone mothers’ mental health, measured in the BHPS using the General Health Questionnaire, is influenced by employment and how this relationship changed over the period of welfare reform. A range of panel data models are estimated and the results and compare the results for lone mothers are compared to those for mothers with partners. In the period after welfare reform being in work was associated with significant improvements in lone mothers’ mental health. This was in sharp contrast to the situation prior to reform when there was very little association with employment, both those in and out of work had a very high risk of poor mental health. For partnered mothers, employment is also associated with improved mental health, although the effect is much smaller than that for lone mothers in the period after welfare reform and shows no significant change over time. That there was no change in the relationship between work and mental health for those with partners suggests that reforms to the welfare system have been an important source of the observed improvements in the mental health of working lone mothers. We conclude that under a supportive policy environment employment can lead to improvements in lone mothers’ mental health but that these gains are not automatic, as was the case in the 1990s when lone mothers saw no significant mental health benefits to work.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Afifi, T., Cox, B., & Enns, M. (2006). Mental health profiles among married, never-married, and separated/divorced mothers in a nationally representative sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(2), 122–129. CrossRef
Ali, J., & Avison, W. R. (1997). Employment transitions and psychological distress: The contrasting experiences of single and married mothers. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(4), 345–362. CrossRef
Artazcoz, L., Benach, J., Borrell, J., & Cortès, I. (2004). Unemployment and mental health: Understanding the interactions among gender, family roles, and social class. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 82–88. CrossRef
Baker, D., & North, K. (1999). Does employment improve the health of lone mothers? Social Science and Medicine, 49(1), 121–131. CrossRef
Blekesaune, M. (2008). Partnership transitions and mental distress: Investigating temporal order. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 879–890. CrossRef
Booth, A. L., & van Ours, J. C. (2008). Job satisfaction and family happiness: The part-time work puzzle. The Economic Journal, 118(526), F77–F99. CrossRef
Brewer, M. (2003). “The new tax credits”, Briefing note number 35. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Bridges, S., & Disney, R. (2010). Debt and depression. Journal of Health Economics, 29(3), 388–403. CrossRef
British Social Attitudes. (2014). British social attitudes survey 31. London: NatCen.
Broom, D. H., D’Souza, R. M., Strazdins, L., Butterworth, P., Parslow, R., & Rodgers, B. (2006). The lesser evil: Bad jobs or unemployment? A survey of mid-aged Australians. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 575–586. CrossRef
Cairney, J., Boyle, M., Offord, D. R., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(8), 442–449. CrossRef
Carlson, M. J., & Corcoran, M. E. (2001). Family structure and children’s behavioural and cognitive outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 779–792. CrossRef
Chadi, A., & Hetschko, C. (2014). The magic of the new: How job changes affect job satisfaction. In IAAEU Discussion Papers 201405, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).
Clark, A. E. (1997). Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work? Labour Economics, 4(4), 341–372. CrossRef
Clark, A. E. (2003). Unemployment as a social norm: Psychological evidence from panel data. Journal of Labor Economics, 21(2), 289–322. CrossRef
Clark, A. E., & Georgellis, Y. (2013). Back to baseline in Britain: Adaptation in the British household panel survey. Economica, 80(319), 496–512. CrossRef
Clark, A. E., & Oswald, A. J. (1994). Unhappiness and unemployment. The Economic Journal, 104, 648–659. CrossRef
Crosier, T., Butterworth, P., & Rodgers, B. (2007). Mental health problems among single and partnered mothers: The role of financial hardship and social support. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(1), 6–13. CrossRef
Department for Work and Pensions. (2007). Ready for Work; full employment in our generation. Cm7290. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Department of Health. (1998). Our healthier nation. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Cm 3852.
Department of Health. (2004). Choosing health: Making healthier choices easier. Public Health White Paper. Cm 6374.
Dhaval, D., Rashad, R. I., & Spasojevic, J. (2008). The effects of retirement on physical and mental health outcomes. Southern Economic Journal, 75(2), 497–523.
Edin, K., & Lein, L. (1997). Making ends meet: How single mothers survive welfare and low-wage work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Evans, M., & Harkness, S. (2004). Lone parents cycling in and out of work and benefits. Research Report No 217. Working Paper. DWP Research Report.
Flint, E., Bartley, M., Shelton, N., & Sacker, A. (2013). Do labour market status transitions predict changes in psychological well-being? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67(9), 796–802. CrossRef
Foley, D. L., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). Genetic and environmental risk factors for depression assessed by subject-rated symptom check list versus structured clinical interview. Psychological Medicine, 31(8), 1413–1423. CrossRef
Fortin, Nicole M. (2005). Gender role attitudes and the labour-market outcomes of women across OECD countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy (Autumn), 21(3), 416–438. CrossRef
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. London: Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, D. P., & Williams, P. (1988). The user’s guide to the general health questionnaire (p. 1988). Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
Gregg, P., Harkness, S., & Smith, S. (2009). Welfare reform and lone parents in the UK. The Economic Journal, 119(535), F38–F65. CrossRef
Health Survey for England. (2013). In R. Craig & J. Mindell (Eds.). The Health and Social Care Information Centre. London. http://www.hscic.gov.uk/searchcatalogue?productid=16571&infotype=0%2fSurvey&sort=Most+recent&size=10&page=1#top.
Helliwell, J., & Huang, H. (2011). New measures of the costs of unemployment: Evidence from the subjective well-being of 2.3 million Americans. In NBER Working Paper No. 16829. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Herbst, C. M. (2013). Welfare reform and the subjective well-being of single mothers. Journal of Population Economics, 26(1), 203–238. CrossRef
Himmelweit, S., & Sigala, M. (2004). Choice and the relationship between identities and behaviour for mothers with pre-school children: Some implications for policy from a UK study. Journal of Social Policy, 33(3), 455–478. CrossRef
Hope, S., Power, C., & Rodgers, B. (1999). Does financial hardship account for elevated psychological distress in lone mothers? Social Science and Medicine, 49(12), 1637–1649. CrossRef
Horwitz, A. V., & White, H. R. (1998). The relationship of cohabitation and mental health: A study of a young adult cohort. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(2), 505–514. CrossRef
Ifcher, J. (2011). The happiness of single mothers after welfare reform. The BE Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 11(1), 1–27.
Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(38), 16489–16493. CrossRef
Kiernan, K. E., & Huerta, M. C. (2008). Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children’s cognitive and emotional development in early childhood. The British Journal of Sociology, 59, 783–806. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2008.00219.
Lahelma, E., Laaksonen, M., Martikainen, P., Rahkonen, O., & Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S. (2006). Multiple measures of socioeconomic circumstances and common mental disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 63(5), 1383–1399. CrossRef
Lamb, K. A., Lee, G. R., & DeMaris, A. (2003). Article union formation and depression: Selection and relationship effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 65(4), 953–962. CrossRef
Laporte, A., & Windmeijer, F. (2005). Estimation of panel data models with binary indicators when treatment effects are not constant over time. Economics Letters, 88(3), 389–396. CrossRef
Lipman, E. L., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H. (1997). Single mothers in Ontario: Sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 156(5), 639–645.
Llena-Nozal, A., Lindeboom, M., & Portrait, F. (2004). The effect of work on mental health: Does occupation matter? Health Economics, 13(10), 1045–1062. CrossRef
McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Adult psychiatric morbidity in England, 2007: Results of a household survey. London: National Centre for Social Research.
OECD. (2012). Sick on the job?: Myths and realities about mental health and work, mental health and work. Paris: OECD Publishing. CrossRef
Osborne, C., & McLanahan, S. (2007). Partnership instability and child wellbeing. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(4), 1065–1083. CrossRef
Papassotiopoulos, A., & Heun, R. (1999). Screening for depression in the elderly: A study on misclassification by screening instruments and improvement of scale performance. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 431–446. CrossRef
Rowlingson, K., & Millar, J. (2002). Lone parents, poverty and work: Policy approaches and lessons from aboard. Benefits, 10(3), 207–213.
Steele, F., French, R., & Bartley, M. (2013). Adjusting for selection bias in longitudinal analyses using simultaneous equations modelling: The relationship between employment transitions and mental health. Epidemiology, 24(5), 703–711. CrossRef
Targosz, S., Bebbington, P., Lewis, G., Brugha, T., Jenkins, R., Farrell, M., & Meltzer, H. (2003). Lone mothers, social exclusion and depression. Psychological Medicine, 33(04), 715–722. CrossRef
Waldfogel, J. (2010). Britain’s war on poverty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Welch, Scott, Holt, Gemma, Twigg, Liz, Jones, Kelvyn, & Lewis, Glyn. (2003). Geographic variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain: A multilevel investigation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(8), 730–737. CrossRef
Winkelmann, L., & Winkelmann, R. (1998). Why are the unemployed so unhappy? Evidence from panel data. Economica, 65(257), 1–15. CrossRef
Zabkiewicz, D. (2010). The mental health benefits of work: Do they apply to poor single mothers? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 77–87. CrossRef
Zimmerman, F. J., & Katon, W. (2005). Socioeconomic status, depression disparities, and financial hardship: What lies behind the income—depression relationship? Health Economics, 14(12), 1197–1215. CrossRef
- The Effect of Employment on the Mental Health of Lone Mothers in the UK Before and After New Labour’s Welfare Reforms
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia