This study evaluated the efficacy of the commercially available insecticide Lepidocide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and their combination with an optical brightener to control L. dispar L. Efficacy against both second and fourth instar L. dispar larvae was evaluated, and the type of interaction between the tested components was determined using second instar L. dispar larvae. Most combinations of Lepidocide and LdMNPV containing a 5 mg ml−1 optical brightener had synergistic effects, and their mixtures were most effective in reducing the number of second instar larvae. In contrast, mixtures containing Lepidocide and LdMNPV with an optical brightener caused significantly lower mortality of fourth instar L. dispar larvae than mixtures without Lepidocide. This result suggests that an increased concentration of Lepidocide in a mixture containing LdMNPV and an optical brightener leads to an antagonistic effect on insect mortality. The possible reasons for the differences in the observed effects of the components on the second and fourth instar L. dispar larvae may be associated with the resistance of fourth-instar larvae to the antifeedant effect of B. thuringiensis.