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This study examines the effects of China’s cross-border e-commerce (CBEC) on its goods and services exports to ‘Belt and Road’ (B&R) countries for the period 2000–2018 using a gravity model. We find that CBEC has a greater positive impact on trade in services than on trade in goods, especially after the implementation of the B&R initiative. Furthermore, as the level of CBEC rises, distance tends to have a lower (higher) impact on services (goods) trade, whereas the impact on services (goods) trade increased (decreased) annually. Hence, promoting the sustainable development of CBEC can lead to increased export volumes.