Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Efforts to evaluate the impact of programs designed to safeguard the well-being of older adults in the US are stymied by the absence of adequate tools to answer a key question: how much income is “enough” in later life? The purpose of this paper is to report on a new indicator of income adequacy designed to correct this measurement gap. The Elder Economic Security Standard Index (Elder Index) is a geographically specific measure of the cost of living independently for older adults aged 65 and over. This paper provides an overview of the development of the Elder Index, demonstrates the variability in Elder Index values both geographically and across different residential settings, and provides an illustration of how the Elder Index may be used in establishing differences in economic hardship across subgroups of older adults. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential research and policy uses of this new measure.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Allegretto, S. A. (2006). Basic family budgets: Working families’ incomes often fail to meet living expenses around the United States. International Journal of Health Services, 36(3), 443–454. CrossRef
Bernstein, J., Brocht, C., & Spade-Aguilar, M. (2000). How much is enough? Basic family budgets for working families. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Blank, R. M., & Greenberg, M. H. (2008). Improving the measurement of poverty. Washington, D. C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Research/Files/Papers/2008/12/poverty%20measurement%20blank/12_poverty_measurement_blank.PDF.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2012). Consumer Expenditure Survey. Data retrieval tool. http://www.bls.gov/cex/#data.
Butrica, B. A., & Smith, K. E. (2012). The retirement prospects of divorced women. Social Security Bulletin, 72(1), 11–22.
Butrica, B. A., Murphy, D. P., & Zedlewski, S. R. (2010). How many struggle to get by in retirement? The Gerontologist, 50(4), 482–494. CrossRef
Citro, C., & Michael, R. (Eds.). (1995). Measuring poverty: A new approach. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Congressional Budget Office (2008). Geographic variation in health care spending. A CBO Paper (February). http://www.cbo.gov/publication/41669.
Couch, K. A., & Pirog, M. A. (2010). Poverty measurement in the U.S., Europe, and developing countries. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29(2), 217–226. CrossRef
DeWitt, L. (2010). The development of Social Security in America. Social Security Bulletin, 70(3), 1–26.
Favreault, M. M. (2009). Revitalizing Social Security: Effectively targeting benefit enhancements for low lifetime earners and the oldest old. Statement before the U.S. Congress, Senate Special Committee on Aging. The Urban Institute. http://www.aging.senate.gov/events/hr211mf.pdf.
Fisher, G. M. (1992). The development and history of the poverty thresholds. Social Security Bulletin, 55(4), 3–14.
Gerontology Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston (2012). The National Economic Security Standard Index. Gerontology Institute Publications. Paper 75. http://scholarworks.umb.edu/gerontologyinstitute_pubs/75.
Hansen, T., Slagsvold, B., & Moum, T. R. (2008). Financial satisfaction in old age: A satisfaction paradox or a result of accumulated wealth? Social Indicators Research, 89(2), 323–347. CrossRef
Holden, K., & Hatcher, C. (2006). Economic status of the aged. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (6th ed., pp. 219–237). London: Academic Press. CrossRef
Hudson, R. B. (2010). The Older Americans Act and the aging services network. In R. B. Hudson (Ed.), The new politics of old age policy (2nd ed., pp. 3–20). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Johnson, D. S., & Smeeding, T. M. (2012). A consumer’s guide to interpreting various U.S. poverty measures. Fast Focus No. 14-2012. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison. www.irp.wisc.edu.
Johnson, D. S., Rogers, J. M., & Tan, L. (2001). A century of family budgets in the United States. Monthly Labor Review, 124(5), 28–45.
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2010). Medicare: A primer. http://www.kff.org/medicare/upload/7615-03.pdf.
Lin, J., & Bernstein, J. (2008). What we need to get by. Economic Policy Institute, Briefing paper no. 224. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp224/.
Litwin, H., & Sapir, E. V. (2009). Perceived income adequacy among older adults in 12 countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. The Gerontologist, 49(3), 397–406. CrossRef
Napili, A., & Colello, K. J. (2013). Funding for the Older Americans Act and other aging services programs. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33880.pdf.
Orshansky, M. (1965). Counting the poor: Another look at the poverty profile. Social Security Bulletin, 28(1), 3–29.
Padilla-Frausto, D. I., & Wallace, S. P. (2013). The high cost of caring: Grandparents raising grandchildren. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. http://healthpolicy.ucla.edu/publications/Documents/PDF/grandparentspb-jun2013.pdf.
Reno, V. P., & Lavery, J. (2007). Social security and retirement income adequacy. Social Security Brief no. 25, National Academy of Social Insurance. http://www.nasi.org/sites/default/files/research/SS_Brief_025.pdf.
Reno, V. P., & Veghte, B. (2011). Economic status of the aged in the United States. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (7th ed., pp. 175–192). London: Academic Press. CrossRef
Ruggles, P. (1990). Drawing the line: Alternative poverty measures and their implications for public policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Ruggles, S., Alexander, J. T., Genadek, K., Goeken, R., Schroeder, M. B., & Sobek, M. (2010). Integrated public use microdata series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Russell, L. H. (2009). Lifelines for elders living on the edge: How elder support programs compare to living costs. Gerontology Institute Publications. Paper 52. http://scholarworks.umb.edu/gerontologyinstitute_pubs/52.
Russell, L. H., Bruce, E. A., Conahan, J., & Wider Opportunities for Women (2006). The Elder Economic Security Standard for Massachusetts. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston. http://cdn.umb.edu/images/EESSMass.pdf.
Short, K. (2012). The research supplemental poverty measure: 2011. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-244.pdf .
Social Security Administration (2007). Expenditures of the aged chartbook. Washington, DC: Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics. SSA publication no. 13-11832. http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/expenditures_aged/exp_aged.pdf.
Social Security Administration (2012a). Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics. SSA publication no. 13-11727. http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/iac10.pdf.
Social Security Administration (2012b). Fast facts and figures about Social Security, 2012. Washington, DC: Office of Policy and Research, Social Security Administration. http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2012/fast_facts12.pdf.
Stoller, M. A., & Stoller, E. P. (2003). Perceived income adequacy among elderly retirees. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 22(2), 230–251. CrossRef
U.S. Census Bureau (2011). American community survey public use microdata sample (PUMS) data. http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/pums_data/.
U.S. Census Bureau (2012). 2011 Poverty table of contents. Annual social and economic (ASEC) supplement to the current population survey. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032012/pov/toc.htm.
U.S. Department of Transportation (2010). National household travel survey for 2009 (NHTS). http://nhts.ornl.gov/.
U.S. Senate (2010). Social Security modernization: Options to address solvency and benefit adequacy. Report 111-187. 111th congress 2d session. http://www.aging.senate.gov/ss/ssreport2010.pdf.
Wallace, S. P., Padilla-Frausto, D. I., & Smith, S. E. (2013). Economic need among older Latinos: Applying the Elder Economic Security Standard Index. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 28(3), 239–250. CrossRef
- The Elder Economic Security Standard Index™: A New Indicator for Evaluating Economic Security in Later Life
Jan E. Mutchler
Ellen A. Bruce
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia