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Über dieses Buch

In the light of Brexit, the migration crisis, and growing scepticism regarding the European integration process, this book offers a comprehensive overview of the most pressing problems facing the European Union in the 21st century. Written by experts from various disciplines, the contributions cover a wide range of economic, legal, social and political challenges, including populism, migration, Brexit, and EU defence, foreign policy and enlargements. Each paper includes a historical account, insights into the problems and challenges confronting the EU, and an assessment of the institutions and policy instruments applied by the EU in response. Discussing each of the problems as part of a process – including the historical roots, current situation and potential solutions – the book allows readers to gain an understanding of the European Union as a living project.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

The Current Position of the Union in Terms of Integration and Development

Frontmatter

EU in Twenty-First Century, Does Crisis Mean Opportunity?

Abstract
This book analyzes the long-term problems of the European Union from a multidisciplinary approach. The European Union is facing numerous challenges in the twenty-first century. Some of them can be an opportunity to advance in the integration process; others can be even a threat to the existence of the organization. Nevertheless, all of them are a fascinating combination basic to understand the current state of the European integration process, how the European Union was created, what it is now, and what could be its future shape when these problems are addressed in the coming future.
David Ramiro Troitiño, Tanel Kerikmäe, Ricardo Martín de la Guardia, Guillermo Á. Pérez Sánchez

The European Union Crossroads: Current Situation and Future Challenges

Abstract
This is a description of the current position of the European Union in terms of integration and development wherein the subject matter is analysed using a general approach.
Guillermo Á. Pérez Sánchez

The Concerns of the European Citizens

Frontmatter

Nationalist Populism: New Political Parties in Europe. Their Ideas, Governments and Support for a Less-Integrated Europe

Abstract
The rise of nationalist populism during the last two European parliamentary elections calls for a rigorous analysis of these new political forces. From Euro-scepticism to Euro-phobia, they criticise a large portion of the underpinnings and policies fostered by the EU.
Ricardo Martín de la Guardia

The Religious Factor on the European Political Agenda—Old Paradigms and Future Challenges

Abstract
The motto “United in diversity”, which officially began to be used by the EU institutions in 2000, still seems to have been a wise choice that, honouring the classic adagio Pluribus Unum, makes a present commitment with a project for the future. Nevertheless, almost two decades after the beginning of the third millennium, uncertainty hangs over the balance between the two terms of the binomial. In fact, the European continent is destined to become more diverse in the next few decades, also from a religious perspective, even though there are some clouds of doubt on the horizon about how such pluralism will affect its degree of unity. It generates a problem of integration for the European Union that should be addressed properly.
Luis Domínguez Castro, José Ramón Rodríguez Lago

Migration to Europe: A Threat or an Opportunity?

Abstract
The EU has been highly shaken by a deep political crisis revealed through the migration crisis. Indeed, this migration issue qualified as a “crisis” is the consequence of a continuous arrival of economic and political migrants coming from conflicting zones (Syria, Afghanistan) or from poor economic zones (sub-Saharan Africa, Horn of Africa). They are seeking asylum in Europe, perceived as a model in human protection. This wave of migration became widely intensified during the last decade with a peak in the year 2015, mainly coming from the blockage to solve the Syrian conflict. The opened political positions of some Member States, such as Germany at the time of the crisis, widely incited the migrants to join the old continent. It is an opportunity or a threat is still under debate. How the European Union should address such a vital issue for its own citizens and the organization? The majority of the European states and people require decisions, but the model now to be implemented will define Europe in the current century.
Lara Sansus, David Ramiro Troitiño, Tanel Kerikmäe

Internal Security: Terrorism and Criminality Fostering Integration in the EU

Abstract
In 2015, the capital of France saw several terrorist attacks, which left hundreds of people injured and almost 150 people dead. Following terrorist attacks in Belgium, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Spain, and Finland were a cause why the EU has to strengthen its counter-terrorism, police and judicial cooperation. Unfortunately, exactly such tragic events as terrorist attacks from last 4 years showed that terrorist threat is a reality for the European Union citizens. The necessities in this field, and possible solutions, are explored in this research.
Nataliia Oliievska, David Ramiro Troitiño, Tanel Kerikmäe

Internal Development of the Union

Frontmatter

European Union and Great Britain: After Brexit, Who Wins the Break-Up?

Abstract
Although a member state’s decision to leave the European Union is a new phenomenon, the implications are not a separate event. Rather than speculating what the exact outcomes of Brexit will be on European integration, this chapter portrays the core reasons behind Brexit in order to reveal how the history of the relations between the UK and the European Union has impacted the integration process so far and to assess what the European Union should learn from Brexit. Furthermore, the authors claim that Brexit ought to be viewed as a rational outcome of a long historical process, where Britain’s opposition towards further integration anywhere other than the single market, its strong national identity characterized by exceptionalism, and the backlash of globalization, have shaped European integration since Churchill. Ironically, the leave campaign slogan ‘take back control’ reveals the key lesson for the European Union to learn.
Essi Laitinen, David Ramiro Troitiño, Tanel Kerikmäe

The Post-crisis European Union Before the Political Union: Coordinates and Keys of the Future Institutional Architecture

Abstract
Historically, the European integration is a relatively recent process and in permanent evolution. Over time, the EU has moved from what is international towards what is political-constitutional. This last dimension has been stressed during the Euro crisis (bank union, fiscal…), in addition to becoming obvious to the citizens. The management of political conflicts requires political legitimacy and, consequently, the adjustment of institutional architecture. Apparently, now is the time to formalize the European political union. But, what type of union? It is mandatory to reflect on the basic political elements and on the institutional architecture such as federalism, distribution of competences, separation of powers or democracy. Moreover, the post-crisis European reality is characterized by the politicization and the constitutionalization of the EU. These elements constrain the institutional adaptation of the EU. Specifically, one of the keys is the establishment of guarantees for the articulation of multiple governments and institutions within the EU.
Celso Cancela-Outeda

Trustworthy AI as a Future Driver for Competitiveness and Social Change in the EU

Abstract
Artificial intelligence has become a frequent subject of discussion at different international forums in recent years. Classified by the European Union as one of the “most strategic technologies in the 21st century”, in 2018 the EU Commission mandated a 52-member strong High-Level Expert Group on AI to discuss the ethical, legal, economic and social impact of this promising technology. Providing a holistic view on the main ethical and legal questions surrounding AI-powered systems, this chapter intends to explore the latest EU initiatives on AI governance with a view to identifying the main challenges ahead for the EU to become a “leader in cutting-edge AI that can be trusted throughout the world”.
Alexander Antonov, Tanel Kerikmäe

Challenges and Possibilities of Enforcing the Rule of Law within the EU Constitutional Edifice—The Need for Increased Role of Court of Justice, EU Charter and Diagonality in Perception

Abstract
This chapter deals with the phenomena of rule of law within the constitutional edifice of European Union. The aim is to determine its content and scope and to elaborate its promotion and enforcement in practice. A traditional approach sees this principle mostly as one-way-street focused only on Member States and as political requirement enforceable by the political procedures (Article 7 TEU). This chapter covers the rule of law as two-way proviso addressed to the EU itself and the Member States and discusses alternatives of its promotion. The key hypothesis is that operability of the rule of law concept requires its diagonal application, depoliticisation and judicialisation and concretisation via visible list of contents (in our proposal the EU Charter).
Ondrej Hamuľák, Andrea Circolo

Economic Development: A Pillar for the European Union Integration

Abstract
Pawlas focuses on economic development as a target of integration processes developed by the EU. Pawlas explores the Treaties concerning economic development and follows with the identification of the scale of disparities among and within the EU Member States in terms of economic development. The chapter provides insight into the Lisbon Strategy and the Europe 2020 Strategy as the EU answers to developmental challenges of the twenty-first century and their correlation with New Cohesion Policy 2007–2013 and EU Policy of Economic, Social and Territorial Cohesion 2014–2020. Pawlas concludes with some remarks regarding a new strategic agenda 2019–2024. Pawlas stresses the need for higher inclusiveness and sustainability of economic development, which can be achieved only if structural reforms and systemic institutional changes are implemented.
Iwona Pawlas

External Necessities of the European Union

Frontmatter

Foreign Affairs of the European Union: How to Become an Independent and Dominant Power in the International Arena

Abstract
The European Union is facing external challenges of major implications for its success. The European Union cannot become an island of a common market without a strong voice in the world to protect its interest and the interest of the member states of the organization. The EU needs pushing forward the European model of society, as human rights, protection of the environment or any other policy that influences other parts of the world, but also the own Union. Obviously, currently, there is an unbalance situation between the historical and economic international influence of Europe and its power politically, based on the cooperation model of the EU external policy. The necessity of further integration is a must in all the areas implicated in foreign affairs in the EU, from trade to development, a wide political spectrum needs more coherence that can be achieved by speeding up the integration process.
David Ramiro Troitiño, Tanel Kerikmäe, Archil Chochia

The NATO-Russia Council—An Assessment of the NRC Prior to the Ukraine Crisis

Abstract
Before the NATO-Russia Council’s cooperation with Russia was suspended in 2014 against the background of the Ukraine crisis, it contributed in various fields as a platform for various cooperation projects. However, little research has been achieved so far on the function of the NRC in terms of international relations theories. This paper intends to analyse the NRC from neorealism and liberal institutionalism perspectives, trying to elucidate and discuss whether NATO’s cooperation with Russia within the NRC had benefitted their mutual security before the Kremlin’s illegal annexation of Crimea in March 2014.
Alexander Antonov, Thomas Hoffmann

Ukraine in European Human Rights Regime: Breaking Path Dependence from Russia

Abstract
In this article, we use the notion of ‘path dependence’ to explain, on the one hand, Ukraine’s continuing dependence on Russia stemming from the hundreds of years that the Ukrainians were governed by the Russian Empire and later the USSR. Among other things, this dependence led to some parts of Southern and Eastern Ukraine being populated by Russian-born settlers and their descendants, which is still manifested in their historical and sociocultural orientation toward a closer integration with Russia. On the other hand, the notion of ‘path dependence’ implies significant differences between Ukraine and Russia, especially due to many Ukrainians self-identifying as a European nation. The European self-identification of Ukrainians is apparent in the desire of the vast majority to overcome dependence on Russia through integration into the European political, legal, cultural, and economic system. We firmly believe that, to successfully overcome dependence on Russia, Ukraine and Ukrainians first need a fundamental recognition of European standards of human rights and the European human rights protection model in general. The success of the 2014–2018 democratic reforms in Ukraine is obvious, but no less obvious is the fact that the positive changes in Ukraine are far from irreversible. At present, the biggest threat to Ukraine is the ‘force field’ of the ‘Russian World’, and it is in being able to efficiently resist this threat that Ukraine needs Europe’s support the most.
Iurii H. Barabash, Oleksandr V. Serdiuk, Volodymyr M. Steshenko

The EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy in Facing New Security Challenges and Its Impact on Cyber Defence

Abstract
The chapter focuses on the perspective of emerging liberal democratic security communities in the post-Cold War European security environment. Does EU’s emerging security community complement NATO or makes it weaker? The focus on a European Army, independent from NATO, seems recently become a priority for the EU, but it faces numerous challenges as how to deal with the neutral member states, how the relations will be with NATO, also with Russia, does Europe really needs an army and why. The impact of Brexit on the future CSDP development will be analyzed as well. Specifically, the chapter focuses how EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy is prepared in standing against new security challenges, especially cyber threats, which influence to the future CSDP developments will be discussed as well. In order to successfully oppose new security challenges, the European Union has to build up its cyber capacity compatible with other major powers.
Agnes Kasper, Holger Mölder

The Leadership of the EU in Shaping the International Ocean Governance: Fighting Against IUU Fishing

Abstract
Seas and oceans play an important role on human’s life; they regulate our climate and are a primary source of food, being therefore essential in food security. In recent times, the pressure on the seas has been increased considerably, provoking a number of negative effects, such as decline of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources. Thus, elements such as the overexploitation of fish stocks, the maritime pollution or IUU fishing, among others, have become part of the International Political Agenda, and in 2015, UNGA approved the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The agenda proposes 17 sustainable development goals (SDG), urging all countries, to take action. In this context, SDG 14 aims to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources, and under it, one of the main targets is to end IUU fishing. The EU is leading this international objective, not only through the Common Fisheries Policy, but also from a holistic approach.
Carlos Aldereguía Prado
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