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04.07.2019 | Paper

The fate of submarine fresh groundwater reservoirs at the New Jersey shelf, USA

Zeitschrift:
Hydrogeology Journal
Autoren:
A. T. Thomas, S. Reiche, M. Riedel, C. Clauser
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10040-019-01997-y ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

The existence of submarine fresh groundwater has been recorded at continental shelves worldwide. The dynamic preservation and lifetime of fresh groundwater in the offshore environment remains an open hydrogeological problem. The mechanisms and time scales of fresh groundwater preservation are examined using numerical simulations based on a geologically representative model of the New Jersey shelf, USA. Utilizing two-dimensional depth-migrated seismic and well data, a detailed hydrogeological model is built, with a vertical resolution of 10 m. The model captures the highly heterogeneous shelf environment and accounts for porosity compaction trends derived from core data. The results show transient coupled simulations of groundwater flow and heat and salt transport from the late Pleistocene until present day and projected 18,000 years into the future. They reveal freshwater preservation patterns and yield simulated borehole salinity profiles broadly consistent with field observations. The simulations show that freshwater intervals of a thickness of 200–300 m and lateral extent of tens of kilometers may have been preserved from the Last Glacial Maximum until today. It was found that approximately 30–45% of the initial freshwater volume remains preserved after 12,000 years, depending on the recharge boundary condition. The preserved volume ranges between 15 and 30% after 30,000 years. These results improve the understanding of submarine preservation of fresh groundwater through an interdisciplinary approach which integrates seismic imaging, hydrogeological modeling and high-performance numerical simulation.

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Zusatzmaterial
ESM 1 (PDF 964 kb)
10040_2019_1997_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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