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01.09.2014 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2014

Environmental Earth Sciences 5/2014

The formation of runoff-generated debris flow in Southwestern of China: take Gangou as an example

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 5/2014
Autoren:
Yong Bo Tie, Ru Ge Xu, Ren Ji Ba

Abstract

In the mountain area of Southwestern China, there are large quantities of runoff-generated debris flows that are threatening the local people and facilities seriously. Gangou is a typical runoff-generated debris flow; its source is old deposit from floods and the debris flows downstream of the channel. On June 30, 2005, Gangou occurred debris flow, the debris flow destroying the road, the communications facilities and the farmland at the gully mouth. Unlike the formation mechanisms of other debris flows, the formation of 2005 debris flow in Gangou has its distinctive characteristics as follows. (1) The supply of the loose sources is intensive and distribute near the mouth of the gully; it is rare to see any debris flow initiate at such a lower location. (2) The debris flow finishes its initiation, flow and deposition around the 700-m-long channel, accompanied with the blocking process in the gully when the debris flow ran out; however, 10 min later, it releases and amplifies the peak flow about three times. (3) The topographic condition of the basin does not contribute much to the formation of the 2005 debris flow; instead, its formation is the result of the co-effort of continuous rainfall and a short-time heavy rainfall. In other words, the previous cumulative precipitation enables the moisture content of the soil on the right bank of the gully to reach saturation; then the soil slides into the channel under the action of the heavy rainfall at a later time. Meanwhile, the heavy rainfall accelerates the formation of gully run-off and initiates the loose mass in the channel from slide, thus forming the debris flow.

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