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Über dieses Buch

Irrespective of whether we use economic or societal metrics, the Internet is one of the most important technical infrastructures in existence today. It will serve as a catalyst for much of our innovation and prosperity in the future. A competitive Europe will require Internet connectivity and services beyond the capabilities offered by current technologies. Future Internet research is therefore a must. The Future Internet Assembly (FIA) is a successful and unique bi-annual conference that brings together participants of over 150 projects from several distinct but interrelated areas in the EU Framework Programme 7. The 20 full papers included in this volume were selected from 40 submissions, and are preceded by a vision paper describing the FIA Roadmap. The papers have been organized into topical sections on the foundations of Future Internet, the applications of Future Internet, Smart Cities, and Future Internet infrastructures.

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Invited Introduction Paper

Open Access

Introduction: The FIA Research Roadmap, Priorities for Future Internet Research

We describe the key findings of the Future Internet Assembly Research Roadmap for Framework Programme 8, which captures the ideas and contributions of the FIA community on the important research topics that should be addressed in future funding programmes. The findings of the roadmap have been produced through an open consultation of research projects who participate in FIA. It is primarily concerned with identifying research that can be carried out in the second half of this decade and which will have an impact in 2020 and beyond. By ‘impact’ we mean will result in products, services, systems, capabilities, that come to market and are available and deployed in that timeframe.
Nick Wainwright, Nick Papanikolaou


Open Access

A Tussle Analysis for Information-Centric Networking Architectures

Current Future Internet (FI) research brings out the trend of designing information-oriented networks, in contrast to the current host-centric Internet. Information-centric Networking (ICN) focuses on finding and transmitting information to end-users, instead of connecting end hosts that exchange data. The key concepts of ICN are expected to have significant impact on the FI, and to create new challenges for all associated stakeholders. In order to investigate the motives as well as the arising conflicts between the stakeholders, we apply a tussle analysis methodology in a content delivery scenario incorporating socio-economic principles. Our analysis highlights the interests of the various stakeholders and the issues that should be taken into account by designers when deploying new content delivery schemes under the ICN paradigm.
Alexandros Kostopoulos, Ioanna Papafili, Costas Kalogiros, Tapio Levä, Nan Zhang, Dirk Trossen

Open Access

A Systematic Approach for Closing the Research to Standardization Gap

Standardization activities are recognized as one of the tools to incubate research results and accelerate their transfer to innovative marketable products and services. However, the European Commission (EC) research community and its associated stakeholders acknowledge the lack of research transfer via the standardization channel, generally referred to as the research-to-standardization gap. This chapter analyzes the root causes for this gap and proposes way forward. In particular research-focused standardization is considered as the instrument to address this issue. This chapter shows that pre-standardization should be supplemented by a methodology and its associated process aiming to systematically analyze the standardization aspects of research projects and by helping them out to draw their standardization strategy.
Bernard Sales, Emmanuel Darmois, Dimitri Papadimitriou, Didier Bourse

Open Access

SOCIETIES: Where Pervasive Meets Social

Traditionally, pervasive systems are designed with a focus on the individual, offering services that take advantage of their physical environment and provide a context-aware, personalised user experience. On the other hand, social computing is centred around the notion of a community, leveraging the information about the users and their social relationships, connecting them together often using different criteria that can range from a user’s physical location and activity to personal interests and past experiences. The SOCIETIES Integrated Project attempts to bridge these different technologies in a unified platform allowing individuals to utilise pervasive services in a community sphere. SOCIETIES aims to use community driven context awareness, preference learning and privacy protection for intelligently connecting people, communities and things. Thus, the goal of SOCIETIES is to radically improve the utility of Future Internet services by combining the benefits of pervasive systems with these of social computing. This paper provides an overview of the vision, concepts, methodology, architecture and initial evaluation results towards the accomplishment of this goal.
Kevin Doolin, Ioanna Roussaki, Mark Roddy, Nikos Kalatzis, Elizabeth Papadopoulou, Nick Taylor, Nicolas Liampotis, David McKitterick, Edel Jennings, Pavlos Kosmides

Open Access

Cross-Disciplinary Lessons for the Future Internet

There are many societal concerns that emerge as a consequence of Future Internet (FI) research and development. A survey identified six key social and economic issues deemed most relevant to European FI projects. During a SESERV-organized workshop, experts in Future Internet technology engaged with social scientists (including economists), policy experts and other stakeholders in analyzing the socio-economic barriers and challenges that affect the Future Internet, and conversely, how the Future Internet will affect society, government, and business. The workshop aimed to bridge the gap between thosewho study andthose who build the Internet. This chapter describes the socio-economic barriers seen by the community itself related to the Future Internet and suggests their resolution, as well as investigating how relevant the EU Digital Agenda is to Future Internet technologists.
Anne-Marie Oostveen, Isis Hjorth, Brian Pickering, Michael Boniface, Eric T. Meyer, Cristobal Cobo, Ralph Schroeder

Open Access

Design Principles for the Future Internet Architecture

Design principles play a central role in the architecture of the Internet as driving most engineering decisions at conception level and operational level. This paper is based on the EC Future Internet Architecture (FIArch) Group results and identifies some of the design principles that we expect to govern the future architecture of the Internet. We believe that it may serve as a starting point and comparison for most research and development projects that target the so-called Future Internet Architecture.
Dimitri Papadimitriou, Theodore Zahariadis, Pedro Martinez-Julia, Ioanna Papafili, Vito Morreale, Francesco Torelli, Bernard Sales, Piet Demeester

Open Access

From Internet Architecture Research to Standards

Many Internet architectural research initiatives have been undertaken over last twenty years. None of them actually reached their intended goal: the evolution of the Internet architecture is still driven by its protocols not by genuine architectural evolutions. As this approach becomes the main limiting factor of Internet growth and application deployment, this paper proposes an alternative research path starting from the root causes (the progressive depletion of the design principles of the Internet) and motivates the need for a common architectural foundation. For this purpose, it proposes a practical methodology to incubate architectural research results as part of the standardization process.
Dimitri Papadimitriou, Bernard Sales, Piet Demeester, Theodore Zahariadis

Open Access

An Integrated Development and Runtime Environment for the Future Internet

The Future Internet environments raise challenging issues for the Service-Oriented Architectures. Due to the scalability and heterogeneity issues new approaches are thought in order to leverage the SOA to support a wider range of services and users. The CHOReOS project is part of the European Community Initiative to sketch technological solutions for the future ultra large systems. In particular, CHOReOS explores the choreography of services paradigm. Within this project, a conceptual architecture combining both the development and runtime environments is realized. This chapter introduces the CHOReOS Integrated Development and Runtime Environment, aka IDRE.
Amira Ben Hamida, Fabio Kon, Gustavo Ansaldi Oliva, Carlos Eduardo Moreira Dos Santos, Jean-Pierre Lorré, Marco Autili, Guglielmo De Angelis, Apostolos Zarras, Nikolaos Georgantas, Valérie Issarny, Antonia Bertolino

Open Access

Visual Analytics: Towards Intelligent Interactive Internet and Security Solutions

In the Future Internet, Big Data can not only be found in the amount of traffic, logs or alerts of the network infrastructure, but also on the content side. While the term Big Data refers to the increase in available data, this implicitly means that we must deal with problems at a larger scale and thus hints at scalability issues in the analysis of such data sets. Visual Analytics is an enabling technology, that offers new ways of extracting information from Big Data through intelligent, interactive internet and security solutions. It derives its effectiveness both from scalable analysis algorithms, that allow processing of large data sets, and from scalable visualizations. These visualizations take advantage of human background knowledge and pattern detection capabilities to find yet unknown patterns, to detect trends and to relate these findings to a holistic view on the problems. Besides discussing the origins of Visual Analytics, this paper presents concrete examples of how the two facets, content and infrastructure, of the Future Internet can benefit from Visual Analytics. In conclusion, it is the confluence of both technologies that will open up new opportunities for businesses, e-governance and the public.
James Davey, Florian Mansmann, Jörn Kohlhammer, Daniel Keim


Open Access

Towards a Trustworthy Service Marketplace for the Future Internet

Digital economy is moving towards offering advanced business services, integrated into different applications and consumed from heterogeneous devices. Considering the success of actual software marketplaces, it is possible to foresee that Service Marketplaces (SM) will play a key role for the future Internet of Services. At present, on all offered software, marketplace operators define requirements that are common, and are validated before admitting them. However, the requirements, the validation process, and its results are not completely evident to the service consumers, resulting in a significant shortcoming especially with respect to security characteristics. In addition, having common security requirements for all services and applications makes the validation possibly inadequate to address the specific requirements that consumers may have.
In order to address these points, we propose the concept of a trustworthy service marketplace for the upcoming Internet of Services, where the security characteristics of services are certified and treated as first-class entities, represented in a machine-processable format. This allows service consumers – either human end-users or computer agents – to reason about these security features and to match them with their specific security requirements.
Francesco Di Cerbo, Michele Bezzi, Samuel Paul Kaluvuri, Antonino Sabetta, Slim Trabelsi, Volkmar Lotz

Open Access

Using Future Internet Infrastructure and Smartphones for Mobility Trace Acquisition and Social Interactions Monitoring

Recent activity in the field of Internet-of-Things experimentation has focused on the federation of discrete testbeds, thus placing less effort in the integration of other related technologies, such as smartphones; also, while it is gradually moving to more application-oriented paths, such as urban settings, it has not dealt in large with applications having social networking features. We argue here that current IoT infrastructure, testbeds and related software technologies should be used in such a context, capturing real-world human mobility and social networking interactions, for use in evaluating and fine-tuning realistic mobility models and designing human-centric applications. We discuss a system for producing traces for a new generation of human-centric applications, utilizing technologies such as Bluetooth and focusing on human interactions. We describe the architecture for this system and the respective implementation details presenting two distinct deployments; one in an office environment and another in an exhibition/conference event with 103 active participants combined, thus covering two popular scenarios for human centric applications. Our system provides online, almost real-time, feedback and statistics and its implementation allows for rapid and robust deployment, utilizing mainstream technologies and components.
Athanasios Antoniou, Evangelos Theodoridis, Ioannis Chatzigiannakis, Georgios Mylonas

Open Access

I-SEARCH: A Unified Framework for Multimodal Search and Retrieval

In this article, a unified framework for multimodal search and retrieval is introduced. The framework is an outcome of the research that took place within the I-SEARCH European Project. The proposed system covers all aspects of a search and retrieval process, namely low-level descriptor extraction, indexing, query formulation, retrieval and visualisation of the search results. All I-SEARCH components advance the state of the art in the corresponding scientific fields. The I-SEARCH multimodal search engine is dynamically adapted to end-user’s devices, which can vary from a simple mobile phone to a high-performance PC.
Apostolos Axenopoulos, Petros Daras, Sotiris Malassiotis, Vincenzo Croce, Marilena Lazzaro, Jonas Etzold, Paul Grimm, Alberto Massari, Antonio Camurri, Thomas Steiner, Dimitrios Tzovaras

Open Access

Semantically Enriched Services to Understand the Need of Entities

Researchers from all over the world are engaged in the design of a new Internet, and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is one of the results of this engagement. Net-Ontology uses a SDN approach to bring semantics to the intermediate network layers and make them capable of handling application requirements and adapt their behaviour over time as required. In this paper we present an experimental evaluation of Net-Ontology and a feature comparison against the traditional TCP/IP stack. This paper extends our earlier work towards a Future Internet, showing a viable approach to introduce semantics at network lower layers by contributing to bring richer and efficient services.
Flávio de Oliveira Silva, Alex Dias, Caio César Ferreira, Eduardo De Souza Santos, Fabíola Souza Fernandes Pereira, Isabelle Cecília de Andrade, João Henrique de Souza Pereira, Lásaro Jonas Camargos, Luiz Cláudio Theodoro, Maurício Amaral Gonçalves, Rafael Pasquini, Augusto José Venâncio Neto, Pedro Frosi Rosa, Sergio Takeo Kofuji

Open Access

Supporting Content, Context and User Awareness in Future Internet Applications

We show how the applications utilizing a Future Internet architecture can benefit from its features like quality of service (QoS) provisioning and resources reservation.We demonstrate, how proposed applications address content, context and user awareness basing on the underlying Next Generation Network (NGN) infrastructure and how it can be used to host service-based applications.
Paweł Świątek, Krzysztof Juszczyszyn, Krzysztof Brzostowski, Jarosław Drapała, Adam Grzech

Smart Cities

Open Access

Towards a Narrative-Aware Design Framework for Smart Urban Environments

Innovation in smart city systems is based on the principle that devices, places and everyday things can each be enabled to serve people in a real-time and responsive manner. This chapter presents a novel approach to the design of smart city systems that takes into account not only technical installations in a future Internet of Things environment, but also the power of human storytelling in an always-on networked world. It is only when environments are both sensor-driven and socially-aware that a more holistic, and therefore more useful, urban narrative can emerge in the future Internet context. The present chapter proposes a new narrative-aware design framework and applies it to a hypothetical city scenario in order to highlight its main components and the benefits it may offer to a future Internet city’s actors.
Lara Srivastava, Athena Vakali

Open Access

Urban Planning and Smart Cities: Interrelations and Reciprocities

Smart cities are emerging fast and they introduce new practices and services which highly impact policy making and planning, while they co-exist with urban facilities. It is now needed to understand the smart city’s contribution in the overall urban planning and vice versa, to recognize urban planning offerings to a smart city context. This chapter highlights and measures smart city and urban planning interrelation and identifies the meeting points among them. Urban planning dimensions are drawn from the European Regional Cohesion Policy and they are associated with smart city’s architecture layers.
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos, Athena Vakali

Open Access

The Safety Transformation in the Future Internet Domain

Public Safety is nowadays a priority, cornerstone and major concern for governments, majors and policy makers in current (and future) smart cities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, large advances in ICT technologies are foretold to revolutionize our society and enhance our feeling of safety (and hopefully, wellbeing). This chapter presents an introduction to three of the most promising technological pillars considered to be spearheads in this transformation: Internet of things, understood as the data capillarity through billions of sensors, Intelligent Video Analytics and Data Mining Intelligence, the latter two enabling smarter contextual awareness and prediction of potential threats leading to proactive prevention of them. The associated horizontal economic implications of this evolution and its impact into the societal and economic fabric are also tackled. Part of the results and analysis produced in this chapter are the outcome of the work carried out in the FP7 EU project SafeCity, one of the eight Use Cases of the FI Programme.
Roberto Gimenez, Diego Fuentes, Emilio Martin, Diego Gimenez, Judith Pertejo, Sofia Tsekeridou, Roberto Gavazzi, Mario Carabaño, Sofia Virgos


Open Access

FSToolkit: Adopting Software Engineering Practices for Enabling Definitions of Federated Resource Infrastructures

Today organizations own resources and infrastructures (i.e. networking devices, gateways, wireless devices) that would like to either offer through the cloud model or to combine with resources of other infrastructures. Federation can be enabled by means of a resource broker that matches customer’s requested services and providers’ resources according to the agreed SLA. Users need ways to define complex deployments and request for resources without knowing the underlying infrastructure details. In this paper we present the Federation Scenario Toolkit (FSToolkit) that enables the definition of resource request scenarios, agnostic in term of providers. This work adopts Software Engineering practices considering the concepts of modeling and meta-modeling to define a resource broker and to specify scenarios by applying the Domain Specific Modeling (DSM) paradigm. FSToolkit is developed for experimentally driven research for validating through testing-scenarios new architectures and systems at scale and under realistic environments by enabling federation of resources.
Christos Tranoris, Spyros Denazis

Open Access

NOVI Tools and Algorithms for Federating Virtualized Infrastructures

The EC FP7/FIRE STREP project NOVI - Network Innovation over Virtualized Infrastructures - explores efficient approaches to compose virtualized e-Infrastructures towards a holistic Future Internet (FI) cloud service. Resources belonging to various levels, i.e. networking, storage and processing are in principle managed by separate yet inter-working providers. In this ecosystem NOVI aspires to develop and validate methods, information systems and algorithms that will provide users with isolated slices, baskets of resources and services drawn from federated infrastructures. Experimental research accomplished thus far concludes the first phase of NOVI, with early prototypes of semantic-aware advanced control & management plane components being deployed and tested. The NOVI testing environment is based on combining PlanetLab and FEDERICA, two dissimilar virtualized experimental infrastructures with attributes widely anticipated in a FI cloud. This federated testbed is stitched at the data plane via the NSwitch, a distributed virtual switch developed within NOVI.
Leonidas Lymberopoulos, Mary Grammatikou, Martin Potts, Paola Grosso, Attila Fekete, Bartosz Belter, Mauro Campanella, Vasilis Maglaris

Open Access

Next Generation Flexible and Cognitive Heterogeneous Optical Networks

Supporting the Evolution to the Future Internet
Optical networking is the cornerstone of the Future Internet as it provides the physical infrastructure of the core backbone networks. Recent developments have enabled much better quality of service/experience for the end users, enabled through the much higher capacities that can be supported. Furthermore, optical networking developments facilitate the reduction of complexity of operations at the IP layer and therefore reduce the latency of the connections and the expenditures to deploy and operate the networks. New research directions in optical networking promise to further advance the capabilities of the Future Internet. In this book chapter, we highlight the latest activities of the optical networking community and in particular what has been the focus of EU funded research. The concepts of flexible and cognitive optical networks are introduced and their key expected benefits are highlighted. The overall framework envisioned for the future cognitive flexible optical networks are introduced and recent developments are presented.
Ioannis Tomkos, Marianna Angelou, Ramón J. Durán Barroso, Ignacio de Miguel, Rubén M. Lorenzo Toledo, Domenico Siracusa, Elio Salvadori, Andrzej Tymecki, Yabin Ye, Idelfonso Tafur Monroy

Open Access

A Tentative Design of a Future Internet Networking Domain Landscape

The Future Internet (FI) will dramatically broaden both the spectrum of available information and the user’s possible contexts and situations. This will lead to the vital need of a more efficient use of the Internet resources for the benefit of all. While the Internet has already delivered huge economic and social benefits over its short lifespan, there must be a realignment of how Internet research and investments are made and value is captured for enabling a continuous growth. The increase of available online contents and networking complexity require the exploration, experimentation and evaluation of new performance optimisation approaches for delivering different types of contents to users within different contexts and situations. Several network research areas, such as peer-to-peer, autonomous, cognitive and ad hoc networking, have already demonstrated how to improve network performance and user experience.
Interestingly, there are various Internet-networking research areas and corresponding technologies that were investigated, experimented and progressively deployed, while others emerged more recently. However, there are still open questions such as visualising the conceptual evolution and articulating the various FI networking and computing research areas and identifying appropriate concepts populating such a FI domain landscape. This paper presents a tentative FI domain landscape populated by Internet computing and networking research areas.
Marc Pallot, Brigitte Trousse, Bernard Senach


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