Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Within the context of discussions on the future of Europe, the last chapter asks how the EU can contribute to the strengthening of institutions at the domestic level. It is argued that precautionary measures are more desirable than strengthening punishment mechanisms—the integration of institutional development into EU competitiveness and regional policy and reducing moral hazard on the financial markets are more likely to succeed in building a resilient institutional framework than enhancing Article 7 although that also appears a necessary step. The main conclusion from the chapter is that stronger domestic institutions and higher level of trust are necessary to bridge the gap between concerns of solidarity and moral hazard, which arise from plans about deeper integration.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
The papers are available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/white-paper-future-europe_en. Accessed 2 July, 2017.
The text of the Treaty is available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2008:115:0013:0045:en:PDF. Accessed 2 July, 2017.
Szente ( 2017: 466) mentions the 2011 case of reducing the retirement age of judges, which made most leadership positions vacant within a year. While the government lost the case at the European Court of Justice and the judges received compensation, their position had been already filled.
See the methodological discussion in World Economic Forum ( 2016): 35–41.
The main targets of the Europe 2020 strategy relate to employment, research and development, climate change and energy, education, as well as poverty and social inclusion. The targets are available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/european-semester/framework/europe-2020-strategy_en. Accessed 2 July, 2017.
The main targets of the current regional policy are research and innovation, information and communication technologies, making small- and medium-sized companies more competitive, moving toward a low-carbon economy. The targets are available at: https://europa.eu/european-union/topics/regional-policy_en. Accessed 2 July, 2017.
Charron et al. ( 2015: 325) provide a map of institutional quality in the European Union and Turkey, which shows the link.
This is the suggestion of Věra Jourová, European Commissioner for Justice. See the report by Cooper ( 2017).
There is an enormous literature on the effectiveness of foreign aid, which I do not cover here. For an extensive elaboration of the problem, see the classic book by William Easterly (Easterly 2006).
See the overview of studies in Glaeser et al. ( 2007): 79–81.
For an overview of these cases, see Redden ( 2017).
The generational divide is analyzed by Smets ( 2012), who show that delayed entry into adulthood is probably responsible for this trend.
For an extensive overview of these relationships, see Klapsis ( 2015).
According to Veebel ( 2016: 16) such campaigns have the following objectives: “demonize the adversary, deter and demoralize the adversary, legitimize one’s own activities to the general public, mobilize target populations, promote one’s own political elites.”
See the reporting of Independent: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/emmanuel-macron-email-hack-leaks-election-marine-le-pen-russia-media-ordered-not-publish-commission-a7721111.html. Accessed May 22, 2017.
At the time of writing Hungary became the first country, where the European Parliament started this procedure. Poland is also threatened, and the two countries have already promised to defend each other and veto any punishment.
AEGEE [European Students’ Forum]. 2016. Policy paper on civic education. Available: http://www.aegee.org/policy-paper-on-civic-education/. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Amtenbrink, Fabian, and Rene Repasi. 2017. Compliance and enforcement in economic policy coordination in EMU. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 145–181. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Börzel, Tanja, Tobias Hofmann, Diana Panke, and Carina Sprungk. 2010. Obstinate and inefficient: Why member states do not comply with European law. Comparative Political Studies 43 (11): 1363–1390. CrossRef
Braghiroli, Stefano, and Andrey Makarychev. 2016. Russia and its supporters in Europe: Trans-ideology á la carte? Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16(2): 213–233.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Alastair Smith. 2011. The dictator’s handbook: Why bad behavior is almost always good politics. New York: PublicAffairs.
Bugaric, Bojan. 2016. Protecting democracy inside the EU: On Article 7 TEU and the Hungarian turn to authoritarianism. In Reinforcing the rule of law oversight in the European Union, ed. Carlos Closa and Dimitry Kochenov, 82–102. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bundesministerium for Wirtschaft und Energie. 2017. Stellungnahme der Bundesregierung zur Kohäsionspolitik der EU nach 2020. Available: http://g8fip1kplyr33r3krz5b97d1.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/170511-Stellungnahme-BReg-zu-künftiger-Kohäsionspolitik-final.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Charron, Nicholas, Lewis Dijkstra, and Victor Lapuente. 2015. Mapping the regional divide in Europe: A measure for assessing quality of government in 206 European regions. Social Indicators Research 122 (2): 315–346. CrossRef
Cooper, Harry. 2017. EU’s Jourová wants funds linked to new prosecutor’s office. Politico, June 8. Available: http://www.politico.eu/article/eus-jourova-wants-funds-linked-to-new-prosecutors-office/. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Csaba, László. 2016. The EU at sixty: A watershed or business as usual? (comparing Grexit and Brexit). Acta Oeconomica 66 (S1): 63–77. CrossRef
Darvas, Zsolt, and Olga Tschekassin. 2015. Poor and under pressure: The social impact of Europe’s fiscal consolidation. Bruegel policy contribution no. 2015/04.
Easterly, William. 2006. The white man’s burden: Why the West’s efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. New York: The Penguin Press.
European Commission. 2017. Reflection paper on the deepening of the economic and monetary union. Brussels: European Commission.
Glaeser, Edward, Giacomo Ponzetto, and Andrei Schleifer. 2007. Why does democracy need education? Journal of Economic Growth 12 (2): 77–99. CrossRef
Gros, Daniel. 2013. Banking union with a sovereign virus: The self-serving treatment of sovereign debt. Intereconomics 48 (2): 93–97. CrossRef
Hobolt, Sara. 2016. The Brexit vote: A divided nation, a divided continent. Journal of European Public Policy 23 (9): 1259–1277. CrossRef
Ioannidis, Michael. 2017. Weak members and the enforcement of EU law. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 476–492. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jakab, András. 2017. Application of the EU CFR by national courts in purely domestic cases. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 252–262. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Klapsis, Antonis. 2015. An unholy alliance: The European far-right and Putin’s Russia. Brussels: Wilfried Martens Center for European Studies.
Kochenov, Dimitry. 2017. The aquis and its principles: The enforcement of the ‘law’ versus the enforcement of ‘values’ in the EU. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 9–27. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kochenov, Dimitry, and Laurent Pech. 2015. Upholding the rule of law in the EU: On the Commission’s ‘pre-article 7 procedure’ as a timid step in the right direction. EUI Robert Schuman Centre for advanced studies working paper no. 2015/24.
Lenarčič, Andreja, Dirk Mevis and Dóra Siklós. 2016. Tackling sovereign risk in European banks. ESM discussion paper series no. 1/2016. Luxembourg: European Stability Mechanism.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy. The American Political Science Review 5381: 69–105. CrossRef
Loewenstein, Karl. 1937. Militant democracy and fundamental rights, I. The American Political Science Review 31 (3): 417–432. CrossRef
McGill, Andrew. 2016. America’s educational divide put Trump in the White House. The Atlantic, November 27. Available: https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/11/education-put-donald-trump-in-the-white-house/508703/. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Müller, Jan-Werner. 2017. A democracy commission of one’s own, or what it would take for the EU to safeguard liberal democracy in its member states. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 234–251. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
North, Douglass. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
OECD. 2017. Trust and public policy: How better governance can help rebuild public trust. Paris: OECD. CrossRef
Oliker, Olga. 2017. Putinism, populism and the defense of liberal democracy. Survival 59 (1): 7–24. CrossRef
Pasimeni, Francesco, and Paolo Pasimeni. 2016. An institutional analysis of the Europe 2020 strategy. Social Indicators Research 127 (3): 1021–1038. CrossRef
Pech, Laurent. 2009. The rule of law as a constitutional principle of the European Union. Jean Monnet working paper series no. 4/2009. Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=1463242. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Puddington, Arch, and Tyler Roylance. 2017. The freedom house survey for 2016: The dual threat of populists and autocrats. Journal of Democracy 28 (2): 105–119. CrossRef
Redden, Elizabeth. 2017. Academic freedom front lines. Inside Higher Ed, March 30. Available: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/03/30/hungary-and-russia-western-style-universities-are-under-threat. Accessed 2 July 2017.
Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés. 2013. Do institutions matter for regional development? Regional Studies 47 (7): 1034–1047. CrossRef
Scheppele, Kim Lane. 2016. Enforcing the basic principles of EU law through systemic infringement actions. In Reinforcing rule of law oversight in the European Union, ed. Carlos Closa and Dimitry Kochenov, 105–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Silver, Nate. 2016. Education, not income, predicted who would vote for Trump. FiceThirtyEight.com, November 22. Available: http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/education-not-income-predicted-who-would-vote-for-trump/. Accessed: 2 July 2017.
Sinn, Hans-Werner. 2014. The euro trap: On bursting bubbles, budgets and beliefs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Smets, Kaat. 2012. A widening generational divide? The age gap in voter turnout through time and space. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 22 (4): 407–430. CrossRef
Smolenova, Ivana. 2016. The pro-Russian disinformation campaign in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Per Concordiam: Journal of European Security and Defense Issues 7 (S1): 26–29.
Svensson, Jakob. 2000. Foreign aid and rent-seeking. Journal of International Economics 51 (2): 437–461. CrossRef
Szente, Zoltán. 2017. Challenging the basic values – Problems in the rule of law in Hungary and the failure of the EU to tackle them. In The enforcement of EU law and values: Ensuring member states’ compliance, ed. András Jakab and Dimitry Kochenov, 456–475. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Uslaner, Eric. 2002. The moral foundations of trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Veebel, Viljal. 2016. Estonia confronts propaganda. Per Concordiam: Journal of European Security and Defense Issues 7 (S1): 14–19.
Weiler, J.H.H. 2016. Epilogue: Living in a glass house. In Reinforcing rule of law oversight in the European Union, ed. Carlos Closa and Dimitry Kochenov, 313–326. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
World Economic Forum. 2016. The global competitiveness report 2016–2017. Genève: World Economic Forum.
- The Future of Europe: Bridging the Gap Between Moral Hazard and Solidarity
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta