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2023 | Buch

The Garment Economy

Understanding History, Developing Business Models, and Leveraging Digital Technologies

herausgegeben von: Michelle Brandstrup, Léo-Paul Dana, Daniella Ryding, Gianpaolo Vignali, Myriam Caratù

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Springer Texts in Business and Economics


Über dieses Buch

This book introduces the reader to the business of clothes, with flashbacks into the past, business models of today, and ideas for a sustainable future. Historical perspectives discuss the cotton industry in India, Bangladesh, Greece, and Central Asia, which help trace the evolution of the clothing industry during the 20th century. Chapters also discuss fashion marketing, greenwashing, blockchain in the fashion supply chain, social media, sustainability issues, and sensory models. Several business models are explained; topics covered include blue ocean strategy, the unstitched market, the luxury sector, access-based consumption, and ethics. Among other topics explored are the future retail experience, consumer value creation, technology, and the impact of virtual atmospheres. The book also includes helpful case studies in understanding the country and culture-specific nuances of the clothing business.



Introductory Chapters

Introduction to the Garment Economy
The garment economy is constantly evolving. During the early twentieth century, fashion ideas emerged in Paris, and this city became the world’s fashion capital; however, fashion capitals of the world today include London, New York and Milan. Since the turn of the millennium, clothing production has approximately doubled, and employing as many as 300 million people around the world. The garment economy of today currently exceeds US $1,000,000,000,000.00.
Michelle Brandstrup, Léo-Paul Dana
The History of Bedouin Clothing Made for Traditional Nomadic Lifestyle
This chapter touches upon the historical aspects of Bedouin clothing made for the traditional nomadic lifestyle in the Arab World. It also emphasises the changes in taste and preferences of Bedouins in the Arab World that have occurred over time. The modus operandi adopted during the course of clothe manufacturing for nomads is described. The historical descriptive methodology is discussed following discussions with nomads and with experts working with and dealing with nomads. Apart from secondary sources of data, personal interviews and observations were also employed during the course of the chapter writing.
Hafiz Wasim Akram, A. Allan Degen
The Garments Economy: An African Perspective
With 11 official languages, South Africa (SA) is in the fortunate position to have a variety of local cultures and a strong influence from the rest of Africa that is evident in the traditional clothing businesses. In terms of economic contribution, the textile and clothing apparel (garment) industry contributes 14% of manufacturing employment and 9% of the national gross domestic product (GDP). This industry is also the second largest source of tax revenue for SA. The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are aimed at ending poverty and include specific strategies to reduce inequality and spur economic growth. Due to the nature of the garment industry, it can be used as a tool for upskilling local communities to contribute to poverty eradication in Africa. This is just one example of an African country and the vital role of the garment industry in its economy.
This conceptual chapter utilises a semi-systematic literature review, investigating academic, governmental, and private sector publications in order to convey an informed picture of the current state of the garment industry. This chapter investigates the garment industry in Africa, upskill local community for poverty eradication (including SDGs 1 and 8, diversity, cultural differences, and female empowerment), opportunities and challenges of the garment industry, and related industries (including manufacturing, environmental issues, and foreign market access).
Due to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is more important than ever to stimulate economic growth and empower communities to actively participate in strong economic sectors such as the garment industry.
L. B. Louw, S. van Antwerpen, E. Esterhuyzen
Indian Clothing: Its Evolution and Development
The objective of this chapter is to synthesise the available literature on the subject field to present how the Indian textile industry has evolved over the years, being one of the oldest industries that India ever had. This purpose is achieved by reviewing the available literature on the problem area across multiple factors, such as numerous clothing agreements, and combining data on the Indian clothing industry and its significance in economic development. We have also tried to demonstrate how the Indian clothing industry has been able to tap into several international markets. The analysis shows that India’s clothing industry is one of the country’s historic manufacturing businesses and that it has benefited from various reforms and agreements such as the Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA), Agreement on Textile and Clothing (ATC), and New Textile Policy (NTP). In highly competitive worldwide marketplaces, the clothing industry has managed to sustain itself. Further, to eliminate seasonal and demand swings, we recommend that the clothing industry should concentrate on increasing labour and capital productivity trends. This chapter offers comprehensive insights into the Indian garments economy and adds value to the existing body of knowledge.
Shweta Uttam, Vimal Srivastava, Rajni, Ila Sharma, Rahul Dhiman
A Migrant/Minority Economy? Jewish and Greek Migrant Entrepreneurial Patterns in the Greek Interwar Clothing Industry, 1923–1940
This chapter surveys the development of the clothing industry that enabled mass production to develop in interwar Greece. The influx of over 1,000,000 repatriated refugees in the wake of the Turkish-Greek transfer agreement (1923) led to cheap labour markets and broader consumer circles. Jewish and Greek Orthodox entrepreneurs, particularly around Thessalonica—the largest Jewish community in pre-1940 Greece—took advantage of both these factors. Drawing, inter alia, on archival document from the Jewish-owned Bank Amar, the chapter analyses:
  • The context—industrial growth in Greece following the transfer
  • The knitting and ready-made underwear industries
  • The ready-made ‘needle industry’—shirts and clothing accessories
  • Self-employed seamstresses (gender and entrepreneurship)
Finally, it discusses the question of whether and to what extent the clothing industry’s reliance on migrant and minority entrepreneurship can be compared with the digitalisation the industry is currently experiencing.
Orly C. Meron

The Garment Business Today

Greenwashing in the Fashion Industry: Definitions, Consequences, and the Role of Digital Technologies in Enabling Consumers to Spot Greenwashing
With consumers’ growing awareness of sustainability issues in the fashion industry, many fashion companies have started developing green products and green marketing strategies to deliver on consumers’ demands (Zhang et al. The influence of greenwashing perception on green purchasing intentions: The mediating role of green word-of-mouth and moderating role of green concern. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 740–750 [online]. Available at: https://​www.​sciencedirect.​com/​science/​article/​pii/​S095965261830872​2. Accessed 26 June 2022; 2018). However, as many fashion companies lack transparency of their supply chains (Kent. In search of transparency: Fashion’s data problem [online]. Available at: https://​www.​businessoffashio​n.​com/​podcasts/​sustainability/​in-search-of-transparency-fashions-data-problem/​. Accessed 29 June 2022; 2021), their green marketing efforts may be perceived as greenwashing as they lack the data needed to substantiate their claims (Zhang et al. The influence of greenwashing perception on green purchasing intentions: The mediating role of green word-of-mouth and moderating role of green concern. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 740–750 [online]. Available at: https://​www.​sciencedirect.​com/​science/​article/​pii/​S095965261830872​2. Accessed 26 June 2022; 2018).
With the emergence of digital technologies that can aid in providing transparency on supply chains (Amed et al. The state of fashion 2022. [online] Available at: https://​www.​mckinsey.​com/​~/​media/​mckinsey/​industries/​retail/​our%20​insights/​state%20​of%20​fashion/​2022/​the-state-of-fashion-2022.​pdf. Accessed 30 June 2022; 2021), rise in consumers’ demand for green products (Zhang et al. The influence of greenwashing perception on green purchasing intentions: The mediating role of green word-of-mouth and moderating role of green concern. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 740–750 [online]. Available at: https://​www.​sciencedirect.​com/​science/​article/​pii/​S095965261830872​2. Accessed 26 June 2022; 2018), and the recent regulations set by the Competition and Markets Authority on greenwashing (Gov.UK. Greenwashing: CMA puts businesses on notice. [online] Available at: https://​www.​gov.​uk/​government/​news/​greenwashing-cma-puts-businesses-on-notice. Accessed 31 Oct 2022; 2021), it has become more important than ever for companies to avoid engaging with greenwashing.
Despite the fact that greenwashing has become prevalent in the fashion industry (Oliveira Duarte et al. From fashion to farm: Green marketing innovation strategies in the Brazilian organic cotton ecosystem. Journal of Cleaner Production, 360, 132196 [online]. Available at: https://​www.​sciencedirect.​com/​science/​article/​pii/​S095965262201802​9#bib48. Accessed 13 July 2022; 2022), literature on it has remained limited. In this chapter, a critical literature review of greenwashing is provided which includes definitions, reasons why it occurs, and its impact on consumers’ purchase behaviour. To fill this in the literature, this chapter draws on key literature provided in academic books and journals, as well as industry reports and articles accompanied by recent examples in the fashion industry.
Lastly, this chapter explores how digital technologies can be leveraged to enable consumers to spot greenwashing, and as a result, encourage companies to avoid engaging with it (Fernandes et al. When consumers learn to spot deception in advertising: testing a literacy intervention to combat greenwashing. International Journal of Advertising, 39(7), 1115–1149 [online]. Available at: https://​www.​tandfonline.​com/​doi/​full/​10.​1080/​02650487.​2020.​1765656?​needAccess=​true. Accessed 10 June 2022; 2020).
Darya Badiei Khorsand, Xiaoxue Wang, Daniella Ryding, Gianpaolo Vignali
Modest Fashion and Sustainability: Research Trends by Bibliometric and Content Analysis
Modest fashion is a growing emerging market already developed in the leading Arab markets (the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, etc.) and growing in Europe (France, Germany, and UK) that will reach $484 billion in 2023. Modest fashion is one of the Islamic economy’s leading sectors, which is strongly influenced by the religious aspect. Despite this, there are few studies on the phenomenon and the trend. The study aims to identify the variables characterising modest fashion business models, highlighting the elements that support sustainability. The study is composed of two phases. In the first, the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the scientific literature; in the second step, the new variables and trends of the phenomenon are defined based on news articles and statements by professionals and companies in the sector identified through Nexis Uni. The study highlights a business model based on ethical principles that lead to an approach oriented more to the quality of the products than the quantity and use that the clothes should have. The business model recalls some typical elements of sustainability and fashion linked to messages of fairness and social justice, opportunities for female entrepreneurship and sustainable supply chain systems, environmental eco-fabrics, and zero-waste manufacturing techniques. The study is helpful for scholars and new entrepreneurs who can understand how to develop a new business model contaminating the world fashion markets.
Paolo Biancone, Valerio Brescia, Michele Oppioli
The Evolution of the Applications of Influencers for Fashion Brands on Social Media
The topic of social media influencers is widely discussed, especially in the fashion industry. Although many theoretical contributions in this area have been made in the past, new developments in influencer marketing are being studied based on new features in the recent world. This book chapter aims to clearly show the different academic understandings about ‘influencer’ and ‘social media influencer’ based on time order. In addition, by critically discussing social media influencers based on theoretical models (such as source models and market levels), academic contributions will be made to the understanding and use of those models based on the developing features of fashion social media influencers. The conceptual method (critical review) is employed in writing this book chapter. A conceptual method can contribute to a meaningful conclusion regarding the developments of social media influencer marketing; in addition, the critical literature review can link previous studies for getting a comprehensive understanding and figuring out the academic gaps.
The literature of this chapter mainly includes four sections: definitions of social media influencer, theoretical models for measuring the effectiveness of social media influencers, the application of social media influencers for fashion brands, and opportunities/challenges for social media influencers.
Liru Jiang, Gianpaolo Vignali, Stephen Doyle
Reuse of Pre-Loved Garments: Pain or Gain?
This chapter provides insights into pre-loved garments and their reuse, by further evaluating whether this could be considered a pain or gain within the current economy. The chapter starts off by exploring why the pre-loved market is important, before exploring issues surrounding terminology of ‘pre-loved’, ‘pre-owned’, and ‘second-hand’. It finally moves on to outlining benefits and drawbacks of reuse and further highlighting examples of what is currently happening within the industry to actively encourage reuse and prevent landfilling of garments.
Songyi Yan, Claudia E. Henninger, Taylor Brydges
Sharing Is Caring: The History of ‘Sharing’ New Interpreted
This chapter will be conceptual in nature by drawing on secondary data (e.g. journals, websites) to provide an insight into sharing of garments and accessories. Thus, this conceptual chapter provides a historical overview of ‘sharing’ from the 1920s to the modern era—which currently lacks research. This chapter is based on a critical literature review and focuses on a European context.
This topic is of significance, as focusing on how clothing is shared provides key insights into society, as well as provides opportunities to reflect on well-being and climate change. The latter two aspects are currently heavily debated and discussed, as the fashion industry in more general terms has been named the fourth most polluting sector within Europe (EEA, Textiles in Europe’s circular economy. EEA, 2019). With globalisation and more specifically the development of Web 2.0, garment and accessory sharing has become increasingly commonplace, which also led to the phenomenon of access-based consumption. Yet, it remains a niche not only in terms of uptake, but also in terms of being researched.
The historical account (in the form of a critical literature review) will further be supported by European based case studies that outline the differences of sharing, as well as its significant role throughout the century.
Lucie Pocinkova, Claudia E. Henninger, Aurelie Le Normand
How to Promote and Communicate an Effective Green and Sustainable Communication: A Neuromarketing Study
Sustainability is a recent worldwide topic as there is a consensus that humans and companies are impacting the global environment. Companies can contribute to reducing the environmental impact associated with the product’s consumption by offering green and eco-sustainable products.
In the last few years, the fashion industry, a major global polluter in the world, has been paying more attention to the environmental and ecological impacts of clothing production. Communicating correct information to consumers about the green consumption and recycling programmes raises their awareness, guides their purchasing choices, and helps responsible consumption. So, it becomes essential to adopt action to promote proper sustainability communication amongst people, especially in younger generations.
This study aims to evaluate the marketing communication strategies to understand how specific advertisements and product elements can affect consumer behaviour and effectively promote the use of eco-sustainable products.
By this research, the authors have evaluated the instinctive reactions like visual attention and emotion, using innovative tools like eye-tracker and facial coding in responses to two different sustainable commercials and eight social media posts (half with information related to sustainability).
Research results show that social media posts that contain sustainable content are seen sooner, for longer, and with more attention than non-sustainable communication.
Ana C. Martinez-Levy, Daniele Sasso, Alessia Vozzi, Stefano Menicocci, Arianna Trettel, Fabio Babiloni, Giulia Cartocci, Patrizia Cherubino
The Influence of Sensory Marketing on Consumers with Different Characteristics Regarding Physical Store Shopping
The retail industry is highly exposed to the revolutionary changes imposed by the acceleration of digitalisation; it is an inevitable challenge for traditional physical stores in light of online channels continuing to grow and increasing market competition (Biron, The last decade was devastating for the retail industry. Here’s how the retail apocalypse played out, https://​www.​businessinsider.​com/​retail-apocalypse-last-decade-timeline-2019-12, 2022; Kumagai & Nagasawa, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 34:1809, 2021). In response to this situation, it is essential to provide both theoretical and practical research support to help retailers elevate the offline shopping experience and win the heart of customers (Gauri et al., Journal of Retailing, 97:42–61, 2021). An enjoyable shopping experience is identified as a significant factor for consumers to choose physical store shopping over online shopping (Duong et al., Journal of Consumer Marketing, 39:218–229, 2022). More importantly, consumers’ passion and need for the physical store experience are not eliminated in the last decade (Creswell, The incredible shrinking sears (Published 2017),, 2017; Kumagai & Nagasawa, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 34:1809, 2021; Mintel, Beauty and personal care retailing—UK—2022: Consumer market research report |, 2022; PwC, Total retail survey: 10 retailer investments for an uncertain future, https://​www.​pwc.​com/​gx/​en/​industries/​assets/​total-retail-2017.​pdf, 2017). Even after COVID-19, when online shopping became compulsory during the period of lockdown, nearly half of the shoppers stated that they still prefer to shop cosmetics in the physical store, due to their ability to feel the product in real life (Eroglu et al., Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 64:102760, 2022; Mintel, Beauty and personal care retailing—UK—2022: Consumer market research report |, 2022; Wang et al., Frontiers in Psychology, 12:829696, 2022). Prior research on the physical store experience has concentrated on the influence of store atmosphere; sensory marketing; on the other hand, has been shown in recent studies to be important in providing a better consumer shopping experience (Duong et al., Journal of Consumer Marketing, 39:218–229, 2022; Shahid et al., Psychology & Marketing, 39:1398, 2022). Using sensory marketing to engage the customer through five sensations (visual, sound, smell, touch, and taste) is the unique advantage of physical store compared to online shopping; organisations could create an emotional bond between consumer, products, and services, rather than on a rational level only (Biswas, Journal of Retailing, 95:111–115, 2019; Hultén, Sensory Marketing, 1–23, 2015; Hultén et al., Sensory Marketing, 1–23, 2009; Hussain, International Journal of Management Studies, 2:32, 2018; Roy et al., Journal of Marketing Management, 36:299–333, 2020; Shahid et al., Psychology & Marketing, 39:1398, 2022; Yoganathan et al., Journal of Business Research, 96:386–396, 2019). The research aim of this study is to examine the impact of sensory marketing strategies on consumer in-store shopping experience, evaluate, and identify how consumers with different characteristics have different reactions and preferences on sensory marketing strategies. Retailers could provide better physical engagement to create customer value when selling deep products – that require ample inspection to make an informed decision (Zhang et al., Journal of Marketing, 86:166–185, 2021). Physical encounters are intimately linked to an individual’s five senses; using sensory marketing to engage them is the unique advantage of in-store experience compared to online shopping (Reid et al., International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 17:364–383, 2016; Vignali et al., International Journal of Business and Globalisation 13:387–418, 2014; Vignali & Reid, Technology driven sustainability: Innovation in the fashion supply chain, Springer, 2014); organisations could create an emotional bond between consumers, products, and services, rather than on a rational level only (Biswas, Journal of Marketing, 56:57, 2019; Hultén, Sensory marketing, Routledge, 2015; Krishna, Customer sense—how the 5 senses influence buying behavior, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013; Kumagai & Nagasawa, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 34:1809, 2021; Labrecque, Psychology & Marketing, 37:1013–1018, 2020). Especially for luxury stores, which promise a sensorial shopping experience (Joshi & Garg, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45:259–272, 2021), the multisensory dimension serves as an integral feature of luxury brands and their related strategies (Shahid et al., Psychology & Marketing, 39:1398, 2022).
Enshang Shang, Gianpaolo Vignali, Claudia Henninger

Business Models

Blue Ocean Strategy in the Fashion Textiles Business
The notion of the Blue Ocean Strategy was first proposed and then promoted by Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne. This approach is in contrast with the traditional competition-based strategies, as it provides firms with new insights on how to change the competition scene – a competition with non-zero-sum games that follows a reconstructionist view of the market. Kim, Mauborgne, and their followers have used this approach to investigate several case studies. Nevertheless, fashion textile businesses have rarely followed such an approach, and therefore, previous scholars have seldom studied such cases. Thus, this chapter uses the central tenets of the Blue Ocean Strategy and investigates three successful cases in an emerging economy in terms of market focus, competition type, demand type, value-cost trade-off, strategic focus, and type of the game. The authors have used a multiple case study research design to reveal how these selected companies have benefited from following blue ocean strategies. The findings revealed that following blue ocean strategies have increased their profitability and affected their brand reputation as creative firms in their market. Also, the imitation barriers, including alignment, cognitive and organisational, brand, and economic and legal barriers created by these companies, are explored accordingly. Finally, the chapter concludes with some remarks for practitioners and policymakers and future research directions.
Léo-Paul Dana, Aidin Salamzadeh
Sustainable Mass-Customisation Business Model by Incorporating Virtual Fitting Room Marketing Tools in Fashion E-Commerce: A Study of the Luxury Unstitched Market
This chapter is centred around the luxury unstitched apparel market of Pakistan and interactive virtual fitting room tools of fashion e-commerce such as 3D mobile app scanners, virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. Interactive virtual fitting room tools have been developed extensively for the advantage of both consumers and fashion retailers to improve online shopping experience (Idrees et al., International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering 14:318–333, 2020b). Thus, the chapter discusses the Pakistani luxury unstitched apparel market (Faust & Carrier, Textile Research Journal 79:1446–1458, 2009), for the enhancement of Pakistani fashion e-commerce interfaces by utilising interactive virtual fitting room tools. The discussion of luxury unstitched apparel products demonstrates that the products are loved across the borders because of their garment customisation, talent, and craftsmanship, and this demand is flourishing and expanding rapidly due to exquisite quality and design uniqueness (Rehman, A cross-border fashion jaunt, 2014). Unstitched apparel products are sold in separate garment pieces normally declared as 2-piece and 3-piece suits. For instance, the upper garment includes separate fabric pieces or one full piece of fabric offering the front, back, and sleeves along with separate one piece of fabric for the lower garment, which is adorned with various options such as printed and embroidered fabric pieces. Nevertheless, Pakistani fashion e-commerce platforms lacks= the web 3.0 technology virtual fitting room tools. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate virtual size and fit prediction, customisation, and virtual fashion viewing interactive tools. The virtual fitting room tools discussed in the chapter provide customisation approaches along with size recommendations and virtual trying on with 3D product visualisation (in 360-degree rotation), which generate beneficial competition amongst online retailers. The Lemon and Verhoef (Journal of Marketing 80:69, 2016) model is employed to present a sustainable mass-customisation e-commerce business model by combining virtual fitting room tools and luxury unstitched apparel products. The luxury unstitched apparel products are sustainable because they are customised according to personalised body dimensions which adds the benefit of reducing wastage of fabric due to mass production. Moreover, such demonstrations intersecting luxury unstitched apparel product with interactive virtual e-commerce tools would be beneficial for worldwide markets to employ in mass-customisation business approaches.
Sadia Idrees, Gianpaolo Vignali, Simeon Gill
Digital Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) in the Fashion Industry
Customer relationship management (CRM) aims to acquire customers and to establish profitable and lasting relationships with them. The use of a digital platform to implement CRM (e-CRM) allows the operational manifestations of the relationship between customer and company to be reported. Such digital platforms record data from every single customer and every single transaction and allow firms to obtain potentially vast amounts of data, which can be used to segment customers based on their digital purchase behaviour. Indeed, for companies it is essential to understand who their customers are and to know which customers contribute most to their revenue. One of the most widely used models to segment the customer base is RFM segmentation. This analysis defines homogeneous clusters of customers based on three variables: recency (R), that is, the time since the last purchase; frequency (F), that is, the number of purchases made by a customer in each period; and monetary (M), which is the average expenditure of the customer on the company website over a given period. The goal is to attribute to each customer a value or score that can place that customer in a specific segment (loyal customers, top customers, low-frequency customers, etc.) allowing the firm to plan different marketing and communication strategies based on the segments that emerge. The aim of this chapter is to analyse e-CRM strategies and actions in the context of the fashion industry based on RFM segmentation. We adopt the case study method to validate this framework. The case study concerns EM, a traditional Italian firm that operates in a specific niche of the fashion market, premium clothing for women.
Emanuela Sommella, Annarita Sorrentino
The Use of Computer Information Systems (CIS) in the Ready-Made Garment (RMG) Industry in Bangladesh: Applications, Challenges, and Recommendations
This chapter investigates the use of computer information systems (CIS) in Bangladesh’s ready-made garment (RMG) industry. It also focuses on the potential challenges that could arise during the implementation of CIS. This is a literature review-based study that has been prepared based on recent relevant papers on using CIS on RMG in Bangladesh. The main findings revealed that CIS is a critical competitive tool for ensuring the seamless and effective operation of RMG in Bangladesh. Furthermore, one of the significant problems in implementing the CIS to RMG in Bangladesh is a shortage of trained and motivated employees to conduct the CIS’s functions. To carry out the activity properly and efficiently, regular training is required and some motivational packages for people associated with CIS applications. Finally, higher authorities and policymakers will get a comprehensive picture of the benefits and drawbacks of implementing CIS in Bangladesh’s RMG industry.
Md. Mizanur Rahman, Pranto Barua, Md. Saidur Rahaman, Iqbal Hossain Moral

Toward the Future

Enhancing Female Clothing Shopping Experience by the Use of the 3D Body Scanning Technology
Technology has changed the way consumers shop and drives the move to a multichannel landscape. The COVID-19 crisis has further strengthened technology adoption in different sectors.
Shoppers place more importance on sustainability than in the past demonstrating the key role of sustainable business practices. People tend to look for good quality garments to last better for the environment.
Although the rise of online shopping presents a huge opportunity for companies to capitalise on, yet, fit and sizes remain an on-going issue. Fashion consumers find it difficult to assess these elements through digital platforms. Indeed, online fashion is the biggest sector for returns with a return average rate of 25% of the majority of retailers, squeezing retailers’ profits and increasing investors’ risks.
This paper proposes the use of 3D Body Scanning Technology to leverage this issue. This technology would allow the provision of improved garments characteristics while facilitating the in-store and online experience.
It adopts an exploratory approach. A series of 20 customers’ body scans to ascertain the perception of the 3D Body Scanning process. Respondents have been asked to describe this experience straight after the session by completing an open-ended questionnaire. This has been supplemented by follow-up interviews (relating to whether the results of the body scanning process had had any impact on respondents’ consumption behaviour); Results indicate a positive attitude towards the use of the technology which suggests favourable future application of the technology in a clothing retailing context and contributes knowledge to research literature and theory.
Daniela Campaniolo, Gianpaolo Vignali, Daniella Ryding
Simulating the Synergistic Experiences of Customers in Show-Rooming and Web-Rooming Retail Channels
This chapter presents a method to capture a real-life customer decision-making process by inducing a synergy of different senses and simulation of show-rooming and web-rooming environments (Machavolu and Raju, MITS, International Journal of Business Research 1:1–14, 2014; Mehra et al., Showrooming and the competition between store and online retailers, 2013; Reid et al., International Journal of Business and Globalisation 17:364–383, 2016; Schiffman and Wisenblit, Consumer Behavior. Pearson Education Limited, 2015). These multiple-channel purchasing platforms and their accompanying set-ups have to be studied and understood as they can either promote or deter customer purchasing behaviours. Prior studies that have attempted to explore customer behaviour in decision-making processes of buying a product have not been able to effectively capture real-life settings of show-rooming and web-rooming platforms and their resulting experiences due to controlled experimental conditions of the buying environment (Arora and Sahney, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 45:762–781, 2017). This study will consider this gap and seek to address reviews of participants in multisensory show-rooming and web-rooming environments in real-life settings. Thus, photographic and video data collection method (Collier, American Anthropologist 59:843–859) and data matrix techniques (Nadin and Cassell, Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organisational Research. SAGE, 2004) to analyse the data were employed in different dimensions of both the virtual and retail environments. A simulated environment of the store—which was a highlighted brand from focused group discussions—and home space were designed for reviewing customer behaviour using smart devices (Rompay et al., Psychology in Marketing 29:919–92, 2012). The store incorporated design layout such as dimensions, visuals, lighting, and wall-layout as well as the employment of space, auditory, olfactory, tactile dimensions to engage participants. Additionally, in the home space, non-responsive set-ups were designed via the elimination of the presence of warm/cool colours, to leave predominantly green spaces to allow for effective engagement with smart devices. These mock set-ups were used to conduct reviews of participants and their engagement within those spaces, to find the most suitable and comfortable multisensory environment and experience, to enhance the likelihood of purchase (Spence et al., Psychology and Marketing 31:472–488, 2014). Findings from this study illustrate the importance of the dimensions of home and retail spaces as well as the impact that multisensory experiences have on purchasing decisions. This is important since it informs not only customer experience but also their purchasing performances in the real retail industry.
Louise F. Reid, Gianpaolo Vignali, Katharine Barker, Sadia Idrees, Helen Hann
Understanding the Application of AI-enabled Chatbots in Luxury Fashion Retailing
In recent years, chatbots, also known as dialogue/conversational systems/agents, have gotten a lot of attention and have been widely used in the fashion industry, facilitating interaction between customers and brands while also changing customer value. Furthermore, fashion brands are using chatbots to deliver personalised customer experiences because of the development of e-commerce. Despite the numerous advancements made in recent decades, chatbot technology is still in its early stages. It appears that there is still a temporal gap between what AI-chatbots might be capable of and their actual implementation. Thus, it is important that both retailers and academies understand the opportunities and challenges of using chatbot technologies. Based on this situation, the aims of this chapter are to provide readers with an initial understanding of the application of chatbot technologies in luxury fashion retail and the opportunities and challenges of chatbot technologies. To achieve the research aims, this chapter introduces the origins and background information about chatbot technology and its application in the fashion industry and critically evaluates the literature on the application of chatbot technology in the fashion industry. In addition, this chapter highlights and identifies the opportunities and challenges of chatbots in the luxury fashion industry. Finally, this chapter proposes eight relevant topics that have been addressed by text-based chatbot research in recent years, with a particular focus on luxury fashion retailing.
Ni Zeng, Gianpaolo Vignali, Daniella Ryding
The Opportunities & Challenges of the Metaverse for Fashion Brands
Immersive technologies such as augmented and virtual reality, gaming platforms, blockchain, and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) enable brands to converge virtual and physical realities leading to the much-anticipated arrival of the metaverse. Tipped to be the next phase of the current internet, the metaverse is envisioned to be a more immersive alternative reality that brands and consumers can enter. While mass adoption of a fully-realised metaverse has yet to come, the adoption of immersive technologies is starting to materialise in fashion brands’ marketing strategies. Fashion brands must learn how to leverage these new technologies in order to keep up with changing consumer behaviour and stay ahead of their competitors. This conceptual chapter discusses the opportunities and challenges faced by fashion brands as they start to enter the metaverse. Opportunities that brands can grasp include the creation of new brand-consumer immersive experiences, community building, new revenue streams, new forms of influencer marketing, and the traceability of products. Challenges that brands face encompass data privacy, diversity and inclusion, technological reliability, and adoption issues.
Courtney Chrimes, Rosy Boardman
Understanding Social Media & Future Experience
Marketers intensely continue to capture economic value by leveraging social media platforms besides improving customer experience. Social media has transformed how fashion is designed, presented, reported, and consumed. The growing attention to customer experience arises in parallel with the complex customer journeys, in which myriad touchpoints interaction is comprehensively used between firms and customers in multiple channels and media. Despite centring on customer experience for sustainable growth, little is known about the future experience across the customer journey (pre-purchase, purchase, and post-purchase). This chapter attempts to contribute to the existing Lemon and Verhoef (J Market 80:69–96, 2016) model by providing attention to the limited role of future experience in shaping customer experiences. The authors suggest that social media stimulus influences customers’ initial expectations and builds one’s future experience. Hence, this study aims to delineate the role social media stimuli can play in shaping future experiences, thus producing a novelty in conceptualising future experience. Accordingly, a broad critical literature review provides an extant theory contributing to the proposed model. Findings illustrate that owned social media (OSM) and earned social media (ESM) are the key dimensions contributing to future experiences. OSM denotes a brand’s content sharing through its online social network assets. ESM discusses the brand-related content created by consumers through online social networks. The findings of this study are likely to provide valuable insights into the literature development and offer key managerial implications in the fashion industry. Thus, this chapter suggests future work development as future experience is a relatively new “greenfield” area for future research.
Norliana Jailani, Gianpaolo Vignali
The Impact of Virtual Interactivity on Shopper Behaviour
The objective of this chapter is to contribute to the understanding of consumers’ levels of interactivity based around the ‘Online Store Environment Framework’. To this aim, the study has adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology combined with a neuromarketing test: to measure engagement in 3 distinct surveys within three different samples made up of UK female shoppers aged 18–30. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to monitor the cerebral activity of a smaller sample whilst interacting with an online fashion retailer (ASOS.​com). A theoretical framework has been designed, and a Structural Equation Model (SEM) has been used to statistically confirm it. SEM results reveal strong associations to a video task demonstrating arousal and absorption as well as a social media task showing absorption. Further, the EEG data—related to engagement and emotions—have been tested with ANOVA and correlations. Findings suggest that browsing a website does not necessarily require high levels of attention, while the participation to social media elicits high levels of emotion. Within them, interaction with videos has stimulated high levels of engagement. Thus, suggesting that social media and video content combined in the form of live selling platforms are most advantageous to consumers evoking emotion and engagement leading to purchase/re-visit intention. The relevance of this article lies on its originality: for the first time, a pure-play fashion retailer has been analysed with both traditional and neuroscientific methods. Findings have implications on the managerial side, as they address emerging future virtual shopping in the metaverse to which there is likelihood of consumers buying more fashion products in the digital world compared to the real world.
Meera Dulabh, Delia Vazquez, Daniella Ryding, Alex Casson, Myriam Caratù
Exploring the Influence of Experiential Characteristics in Fashion Pop-Ups on the Retail Experience of UK Millennial Consumers
Context—Pop-up stores, characterised by their temporal, experiential and unconventional approach, are ascending as a strategic retail format in the UK fashion market. Moreover, Millennials, representing one-sixth of the UK population, are recognised as a key target for pop-up stores by scholars and practitioners. Yet despite the rich literature on experiential retail and pop-up stores, studies merging these constructs that specifically focus on the Millennial segment are limited. Therefore, this study seeks to fill this research gap and contribute to the body of knowledge on experiential pop-up stores in a fashion context.
This chapter presents the findings of a study conducted before the global pandemic concerning the pop-up store phenomenon, key experiential characteristics in fashion pop-ups and how Millennials consume them, drawing from extant scholars and empirical research. Exemplars of pop-up experiences are given throughout the chapter, and a list of questions concerning the future avenues of pop-up developments is presented at the end to stimulate discussion.
Purpose—The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to conceptualise pop-up store retail experiences, (2) to assess the appeal of experiential pop-up stores to UK Millennial consumers and (3) to analyse the influence of pop-up stores in fashion retail and identify directions for future developments.
Research design—Adopting a qualitative approach, primary data was obtained using semi-structured interviews with industry experts and focus groups with Millennial consumers. Triangulated with secondary sources, the empirical data provides a robust assessment of the phenomenon.
Findings—The findings demonstrate the evolution in pop-up typologies and motivations for use. The pop-up retail experience of Millennial consumers was seen to be influenced by six hedonic characteristics including entertainment, educational, sensorial, escapist, social and memorable, as well as two utilitarian aspects, product and time and money spent. Positive pop-up experience is found to influence approach behaviour, purchase intention and word of mouth (WOM).
Originality and value—This study makes a valuable contribution by offering a refitted conceptual framework for experiential retail pop-up stores that serves as a foundation for future research and guides managerial practices on the experience design of pop-ups targeting Millennial consumers.
Bethan Alexander, Hui Lai Ling
Exploring the Perceptions of Climate-Aware Generation-Z Towards Fast-Fashion’s Greenwashing for the Climate-Crisis
The chapter explores young consumers’ perceptions of fast-fashion sustainability marketing. Emerging from the premise that Generation-Z are educated in climate-awareness from a young age and are proficient in navigating the internet for information, recent research has started to fill the gaps of how they process concern for the climate-crisis or how this might impact on their consumer practice. With the discourse that the fast-fashion industry contributes significantly to the climate-crisis intensifying, young consumers may experience conflict between their knowledge of the consequences of the fast-fashion system and their desire to frequently purchase inexpensive garments. Fast-fashion retailers have acknowledged concern for the climate-crisis and increased their marketing of sustainable communication; yet, this has been accused of ‘greenwashing’ through ambiguous sustainability claims in an effort to appeal to sustainably aware consumers. Increasingly, Generation-Z are calling out such claims; however, there has been little academic attention on how young people practice concern for the climate-crisis or how they view market responsibility for addressing sustainability. This chapter reports on ten qualitative interviews with Generation-Z to explore their perceptions towards the marketing of fast-fashion sustainability. The findings reveal apathy towards the fast-fashion sustainability marketing, emerging from their embedded awareness of the climate-crisis and an understanding of sustainable terminology, which led to evaluations that fast-fashion and sustainability were incongruent. The participants criticised neo-colonial capitalistic economics that focus upon growth rather than the climate-crisis and social equality and disengaged from businesses considered as greenwashing by rediverting their consumer practice with tactics that include avoidance and boycotting.
Martha Paulina Bytof, Elaine L. Ritch
The Garment Economy
herausgegeben von
Michelle Brandstrup
Léo-Paul Dana
Daniella Ryding
Gianpaolo Vignali
Myriam Caratù
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