Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Women receive lower monetary compensation than men in all occupations and across all ranks. For managers, this gender pay gap is substantially higher than in average working populations. The goal of this chapter is to enhance our understanding of the managerial gender pay gap and its particularities. We first outline the problem using archival evidence of the gaps in male and female managers’ pay around the world, considering the role of gender differences in human capital characteristics and the structural forces that lead to pay inequality. Then we present experimental evidence from psychological research in order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that lead to gender disparities in managers’ pay. Considering the perspective of both pay allocators and receivers, we explore psychological processes such as the impact of gender stereotypes on biased evaluations of women’s performance and gendered moral standards, as well as the impact of stereotypes on gender differences in attitudes and negotiation behavior. Finally, we present suggestions for legislators, organizations, and women to prevent and counteract the gender pay gap in management, and we discuss potential pitfalls of such interventions. We conclude that gender dynamics affecting managerial pay are not straightforward. Therefore, research as well as practical interventions have to go beyond a mere consideration of gender differences in pay and negotiation behavior, and react upon a complex interaction of structural forces, pay allocators, and receivers.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adams, R. B., & Ferreira, D. (2009). Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 94, 291–309.
Adams, R. B., & Funk, P. (2012). Beyond the glass ceiling: Does gender matter? Management Science, 58, 219–235.
Adams, S. M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D. M., & Leeth, J. D. (2007). Gender differences in CEO compensation: Evidence from the U.S. Women in Management Review, 22, 208–224.
Aggarwal, R. K., & Samwick, A. A. (1999). Executive compensation, strategic competition, and relative performance evaluation: Theory and evidence. Journal of Finance, 54, 1999–2043.
Albanesi, S., Olivetti, C., & Prados, M. J. (2015, March). Gender and dynamic agency: Theory and evidence on the compensation of top executives. Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Report, no. 718. http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/staff_reports/sr718.pdf.
Amanatullah, E. T., & Morris, M. W. (2010). Negotiating gender roles: Gender differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women’s fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 98, 256–267.
Arulampalam, W., Booth, A. L., & Bryan, M. L. (2005, November). Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? Exploring the gender pay gap across the wages distribution (ISER Working Paper 2005–25). Colchester: University of Essex.
Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don’t ask. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Babcock, L., Laschever, S., Gelfand, M., & Small, D. (2003). Nice girls don’t ask. Harvard Business Review, 81, 14–16.
Barber, B. M., & Odean, T. (2001). Boys will be boys: Gender, overconfidence, and common stock investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 261–291.
Barreto, M., Ryan, M. K., & Schmitt, M. T. (2009). The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Barron, L. (2003). Ask and you shall receive? Gender differences in beliefs about requests for a higher salary. Human Relations, 56, 635–663.
Bertrand, M., & Hallock, K. F. (2000). The gender gap in top corporate jobs (NBER Working Paper 7931). Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Biernat, M., & Manis, M. (1994). Shifting standards and stereotype-based judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 5–20.
Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2000). Gender differences in pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 75–99.
Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2007). The gender pay gap: Have women gone as far as they can? Academy of Management Perspectives, 21, 7–23.
Blau, F. D., Simpson, P., & Anderson, D. (1998). Continuing progress? Trends in occupational segregation in the United States over the 1970s and 1980s. Feminist Economist, 4, 29–71.
Bowles, H. R., & Flynn, F. (2010). Gender and persistence in negotiation: A dyadic perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 769–787
Bowles, H. R., Babcock, L., & McGinn, K. L. (2005). Constraints and triggers: Situational mechanics of gender in negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 951–965.
Bowles, H. R., Babcock, L., & Lai, L. (2007). Social incentives for gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 84–103.
Byrnes, J., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367–383.
Cardoso, A. R., & Winter-Ebmer, R. (2010). Female-led firms and gender wage policies. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 64, 143–163.
Carter, M. E., Franco, F., & Gine, M. (2013). Trends in executive gender pay gaps: The role of females’ risk aversion and board composition. http://www.efmaefm.org/0EFMAMEETINGS/EFMA%20ANNUAL%20MEETINGS/2013-Reading/papers/EFMA2013_0594_fullpaper.pdf.
Catalyst. (2014, November, 7). Women CEOs of the Fortune 1000. http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-ceos-fortune-1000.
Chen, J. M., & Moons, W. G. (2015). They won’t listen to me: Anticipated power and women’s disinterest in male-dominated domains. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18, 116–128.
Clarke, S. (2001). Statistics in focus: Population and social conditions. Earnings of men and women in the EU: The gap narrowing but only slowly. Theme 3–5/2001.
Clutterbuck, D., & Ragins, B. R. (2002). Mentoring and diversity: An international perspective. New York: Routledge.
Cohen, P. N., & Huffman, M. L. (2007). Working for the woman? Female managers and the gender wage gap. American Sociological Review, 72, 681–704.
Core, J. E., Holthausen, R. W., & Larcker, D. E. (1999). Corporate governance, chief executive compensation, and firm performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 51, 371–406.
Crosby, F. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deaux, K., & Emswiller, T. (1974). Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 80–85.
Devers, C. E., Cannella, A. A., Reilly, G. P., & Yoder, M. E. (2007). Executive compensation: A multidisciplinary review of recent developments. Journal of Management, 33, 1016–1072.
De Welde, K., Laursen, S., & Thiry, H. (2014). Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). http://www.socwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/fact_12-2007-stem.pdf.
Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573–598.
Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., & Klonsky, B. G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 3–22.
Edgeworth, F. Y. (1922). Equal pay to men and women for equal work. The Economic Journal, 32, 431–457.
Elkinawy, S., & Stater, M. (2011). Gender differences in executive compensation: Variation with board gender composition and time. Journal of Economics and Business, 63, 23–45.
Ellemers, N., Heuvel, H., Gilder, D., Maass, A., & Bonvini, A. (2004). The underrepresentation of women in science: Differential commitment or the queen bee syndrome? British Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 315–338.
European Commission. (2010). EU Gender Equality Law Update 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/dgjustice_eugenderequalitylaw_update_2010_final24february2011_en.pdf.
European Commission. (2011). The gender pay gap for women in decision-making positions (Working Paper). http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/working_paper_gpg_for_women_in_decision-making_positions_en.pdf.
European Commission. (2012). Positive action measures to ensure full equality in practice between men and women, including on company boards. doi:10.2838/850. http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/gender_balance_decision_making/report_gender-balance_2012_en.pdf.
Eurostat. (2008). The life of women and men in Europe. A statistical portrait. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5698400/KS-80-07-135-EN.PDF/101b2bc8-03f8-4f49-b4e4-811fff81b174?version=1.0.
Eurostat. (2014a, February). Gender pay gap statistics. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Gender_pay_gap_statistics.
Eurostat. (2014b, December). Gender pay gap in unadjusted form. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&plugin=1&language=en & pcode=tsdsc340.
Evers, A., & Sieverding, M. (2014). Why do highly qualified women (still) earn less? Gender differences in long-term predictors of career success. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38, 93–106.
Fernandes, N., Ferreira, M. A., Matos, P., & Murphy, K. J. (2013). Are US CEOs paid more? New international evidence, Review of Financial Studies, 26, 323–367.
Fields, J., & Wolff, E. N. (1997). Gender wage differentials, affirmative action, and employment growth on the industry level (Working paper No. 186). http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp186.pdf.
Fortin, N. M. (2005). Gender role attitudes and labour-market outcome or women across in OECD countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 21, 416–438.
Foschi, M., Lai, L., & Sigerson, K. (1994). Gender and double standards in the assessment of job applicants. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 326–339.
Frydman, C., & Saks, R. E. (2010). Executive compensation: A new view from a long-term perspective, 1936–2005. Review of Financial Studies, 23, 2099–2138.
Gascoigne, J. (2014, April, 14). Introducing open equity: Buffer’s equity formula and full individual breakdown (Web log comment). https://open.bufferapp.com/buffer-open-equity-formula/.
Geiler, P., & Renneboog, L. (2014). Are female top managers really paid less? (European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)—Finance Working Paper No. 403/2014; CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2014–004; Paris, Finance Meeting EUROFIDAI—AFFI Paper). SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2378762.
Glick, S., & Croson, R. (2001). Reputations in negotiation. In S. Hoch & H. Kunreuther (Eds.), Wharton on making decisions (S. 177–186). New York: Wiley.
Goergen, M., & Renneboog, L. (2011). Managerial compensation. Journal of Corporate Finance, 17, 1068–1077.
Gray, S. R., & Benson, P. G. (2003). Determinants of executive compensation in small business development centers. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 13, 213–227.
Grund, C. (2014). Gender pay gaps among highly educated professionals: Compensation components do matter (IZA Discussion Paper, no. 8112). Bonn: IZA.
Hallock, K. F., & Olson, C. A. (2009). Employees’ choice of methods of pay (Working Papers: Paper 97). http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/workingpapers/97.
Heilman, M. E., & Okimoto, T. G. (2007). Why are women penalized for success at male tasks? The implied communality deficit. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 81–92.
Heilman, M. E., Simon, M. C., & Repper, D. P. (1987). Intentionally favored, unintentionally harmed? Impact of sex-based preferential selection on self-perceptions and self-evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 62–68.
Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., & Stathatos, P. (1997). The affirmative action stigma of incompetence: Effects of performance information ambiguity. The Academy of Management Journal, 40, 603–625.
Heilman, M. E., Wallen, A. S., Fuchs, D., & Tamkins, M. M. (2004). Penalties for success: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 416–427.
Hirsch, B. (2013). The impact of female managers on the gender pay gap: Evidence from linked employer–employee data for Germany. Economics Letters, 119, 348–350.
Hultin, M., & Szulkin, R. (2003). Mechanisms of inequality: Unequal access to organizational power and the gender wage gap. European Sociological Review, 19, 143–159.
Institute For Women’s Policy Research. (2013, September). The Gender Wage Gap: 2012. http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/the-gender-wage-gap-2012-1.
Jensen, M. C., Murphy, K. J., & Wruck, E. G. (2004). Remuneration: Where we’ve been, how we got to here, what are the Problems, and how to fix them (Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 04–28; ECGI – Finance Working Paper No. 44/2004). SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=561305.
Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Eagly, A. H. (2002). Diminishing returns: The effects of income on the content of stereotypes of wage earners. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1538–1545.
Joshi, A., Son, J., & Roh, H. (2014). When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards. Academy of Management Journal. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0721.
Kanazawa, S. (2005). Is “‘discrimination’” necessary to explain the sex gap in earnings? Journal of Economic Psychology, 26, 269–287.
Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Keaveny, T. J., & Inderrieden, E. J. (2000). Gender differences in pay satisfaction and pay expectations. Journal of Managerial Issues, 12, 363–379.
Keshet, S., Kark, R., Pomerantz-Zorin, L., Koslowsky, M., & Schwarzwald, J. (2006). Gender, status and the use of power strategies. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 105–117.
Kozelsky, T. (2009). Gender pay gap still apparent. http://eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/articles/other-quality-of-life/gender-pay-gap-still-apparent-inmanagement-posts.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview: Scott Foresman.
Kray, L. J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2009). Relief versus regret: The effect of gender and negotiating norm ambiguity on reactions to having one’s first offer accepted. Social Cognition, 27, 418–436.
Kray, L. J., & Thompson, L. (2005). Gender stereotypes and negotiation performance: An examination of theory and research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 103–182.
Kulich, C., Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2007). Where is the romance for women leaders? The effects of gender on leadership attributions and performance-based pay. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56, 582–601.
Kulich, C., Trojanowski, G., Ryan, M. K., Haslam, S. A., & Renneboog, L. D. R. (2011). Who gets the carrot and who gets the stick? Evidence of gender disparities in executive remuneration. Strategic Management Journal, 32, 301–321.
Kulich, C., Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2015). Why women don’t ask? Motivational antecedents and attitudinal consequences of pay inequalities in female managers. Manuscript in preparation.
Kulik C.T., & Olekans, M. (2012). Negotiating the gender divide: Lessons from the negotiation and organizational behavior literatures. Journal of Management, 38, 1387–1415.
Lalanne, M., & Seabright, P. (2011). The old boy network: Gender differences in the impact of social networks on remuneration in top executive jobs. CEPR Discussion Paper n°8623, UK. http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/seminars/papers/Seabright49.pdf.
Le, A. T., Miller, P. W., Slutske, W. S., & Martin, N. G. (2011). Attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap. Labour Economics, 18, 555–561.
Leonard, J. S. (1996). Affirmative action: Thirty years later. Wage disparities and affirmative action in the 1980’s. The American Economic Review, 86, 285–289.
Leslie, L. M., Manchester, C., & Dahm, P. C. (2014). Promoting discrimination by valuing diversity? A reversal of the gender gap among high potentials. Academy of Management Proceedings 2014.
Levi, M., Li, K., & Zhang, F. (2014). Director gender and mergers and acquisitions. Journal of Corporate Finance, 28, 185–200.
Lips, H. M. (2013). The gender pay gap: Challenging the rationalizations. Perceived equity, discrimination, and the limits of human capital models. Sex Roles, 68, 169–185.
Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (2002). Les représentations des groups dominants et dominés [Images of dominant and subordinate groups]. Presses Universitaires Grenoble: Grenoble.
Major, B., & Konar, E. (1984). An investigation of sex differences in pay expectations and their possible causes. The Academy of Management Journal, 27, 777–792.
Matsa, D. A., & Miller, A. R. (2011). Chipping away at the glass ceiling: gender spillovers in corporate leadership. American Economic Review, 101, 635–39.
Mazei, J., Hüffmeier, J., Freund, P.A., Stuhlmacher, A.F., Bilke, L., & Hertel, G. (2014). A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 85–104.
Meindl, J. R., Ehrlich, S. B., & Dukerich, J. M. (1985). The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 78–102.
Mohan, N. (2014). A review of the gender effect on pay, corporate performance and entry into top management. International Review of Economics & Finance, 34, 41–51.
Moss-Racusin, C. A., & Rudman, L. A. (2010). Disruptions in women’s self-promotion: The backlash avoidance model. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 186–202.
Moss-Racusin, C. A., Dovidio, J. F., Brescoll, V. L., Graham, M. J., & Handelsman, J. (2012). Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 16474–16479.
Muñoz-Bullón, F. (2010). Gender-compensation differences among high-level executives in the United States. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 49, 346–371.
Oehmichen, J., Sarry, M. A., & Wolff, M. (2014). Beyond human capital explanations for the gender pay gap among executives: Investigating board embeddedness effects on discrimination. Business Research, 7, 351–380.
Ostroff, C., & Atwater, L. E. (2003). Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers’ compensation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 725–740.
Pay Equity Commission. (2012). The gender pay gap. http://www.payequity.gov.on.ca/en/about/pubs/genderwage/wagegap.php.
Prentice, D. A., & Carranza, E. (2002). What women and men should be, shouldn’t be, are allowed to be, and don’t have to be: The contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 269–281.
Pyszczynski, T. A., & Greenberg, J. (1981). Role of disconfirmed expectancies in the instigation of attributional processing. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 40, 31–38.
Quinn, K. A., Roese, N. J., Pennington, G. L., & Olson, J. M. (1999). The personal/group discrimination discrepancy: The role of informational complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1430–1440.
Ragins, B. R. (1997). Diversified mentoring relationships in organizations: A power perspective. Academy of Management Review, 22, 482–521.
Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L. (1999). Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 529–550.
Reilly, K., & Wirjanto, T. (1999). Does more mean less? The male/female wage gap and the proportion of females at the establishment level. Canadian Journal of Economics, 32, 906–929.
Renneboog, L., & Trojanowski, G. (2012). Governance codes, managerial remuneration and disciplining in the UK: A history of governance reform failure? In R. Thomas & J. Hill (Eds.), Research handbook on executive pay (pp. 73–100). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Renner, C., Rives, J., & Bowlin, W. (2002). The significance of gender in explaining senior executive pay variations: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 14, 331–346.
Renner, C. J., Bowlin, W. F., & Rives, J. M. (2005). Gender and executive pay in the S & P mid-cap and small-cap companies. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 21, 1–8.
Ridgeway, C. L., & Erickson, K. G. (2000). Creating and spreading status beliefs, American Journal of Sociology, 106, 579–615.
Rosette, A. S., & Tost, L. P. (2010). Agentic women and communal leadership: How role prescriptions confer advantage to top women leaders. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 221–35.
Rudman, L. A. (1998). Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629–645.
Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (1999). Implicit gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women: The hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of managers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1004–1010.
Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2005). The glass cliff: Evidence that women are over-represented in precarious leadership positions. British Journal of Management, 16, 81–90.
Ryan, M. K., Haslam, S. A., Hersby, M. D., Kulich, C., & Atkins, C. (2007). Opting out or pushed off the edge? The glass cliff and the precariousness of women’s leadership positions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 266–279.
Saguy, T., & Anisman-Razin, M. (under review). Evidence for gender discrimination in pay-raise decisions of male managers. Manuscript under review.
Scandura, T. A., & Williams, E. A. (2001). An investigation of the moderating effects of gender on the relationships between mentorship initiation and protégé perceptions of mentoring functions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 342–363.
Schein, V. E. (2001). A global look at psychological barriers to women’s progress in management. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 675–688.
Shin, T. (2012). The gender gap in executive compensation: The role of female directors and Chief Executive Officers. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 639, 258–278.
Stickney, L. T., & Konrad, A. M. (2007). Gender-role attitudes and earnings: A multinational study of married women and men. Sex Roles, 57, 801–811.
Swim, J. K., & Sanna, L. J. (1996). He’s skilled, she’s lucky: A meta-analysis of observers’ attributions for women’s and men’s successes and failures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 507–519.
Tijdens, K., & Van Klaveren, M. (2012). Frozen in time: Gender pay gap unchanged for 10 years. Brussels: ITUC. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf.
Tosi, H. L., Werner, S., Katz, J. P., & Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2000). How much does performance matter? A meta-analysis of CEO pay studies. Journal of Management, 26, 301–339.
Travis, C. B., Gross, L. J., & Johnson, B. A. (2009). Tracking the gender pay gap: A case study. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 410–418.
United Nations Development Program. (2009). Human development report: Gender empowerment measure and its components (Table K). http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Table_K.pdf.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, third quarter, 2013. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/wkyeng.pdf.
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2014). The Equal Pay Act of 1963. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa.cfm.
Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. S. (2004). Women and wages worldwide: How the national proportion of working women brings underpayment into the organization. Organization Studies, 25, 969–986.
Watson, I. (2010). Decomposing the gender pay gap in the Australian managerial labour market. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 13, 49–79.
Weber, E. U., Blais, A., & Betz, N. E. (2002). A domain-specific risk-attitude scale†¯: Measuring risk perceptions and risk behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, 263–290.
Weichselbaumer, D., & Winter-Ebmer, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of the international gender wage gap. Journal of Economic Surveys, 19, 483–511.
Williams, M. J., Paluck, E. L., & Spencer-Rodgers, J. (2010). The masculinity of money: Automatic stereotypes predict gender differences in estimated salaries. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 7–20.
World Economic Forum. (2013). The global gender gap report. ISBN 92-95044-43-6. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2013.pdf.
Xiu, L., & Gunderson, M. (2014). Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Quantile regression decomposition of the gender pay gap in China. International Journal of Manpower, 35, 306–326.
Yzerbyt, V. Y., Schadron, G., Leyens, J. P., & Rocher, S. (1994). Social judgeability: The impact of meta-informational cues on the use of stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 48–55.
- The Gender Pay Gap: Particularities and Challenges in the Management Context
Dr. Clara Kulich
Dr. Moran Anisman-Razin
Dr. Tamar Saguy
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia