Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed marine system surrounded by eight countries, many of which are experiencing substantial development. It is also a major center for the oil industry. The increasing array of anthropogenic disturbances may have substantial negative impacts on marine ecosystems, but this has received little attention until recently. We review the available literature on the Gulf’s marine environment and detail our recent experience in the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) to evaluate the role of anthropogenic disturbance in this marine ecosystem. Extensive coastal development may now be the single most important anthropogenic stressor. We offer suggestions for how to build awareness of environmental risks of current practices, enhance regional capacity for coastal management, and build cooperative management of this important, shared marine system. An excellent opportunity exists for one or more of the bordering countries to initiate a bold and effective, long-term, international collaboration in environmental management for the Gulf.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abdul-Azis, P.K., I.A. Al-Tisan, M.A. Daili, T.N. Green, A.G.I. Dalvi, and M.A. Javeed. 2003. Chlorophyll and plankton of the Gulf coastal waters of Saudi Arabia bordering a desalination plant. Desalination 154: 291–302. CrossRef
Al-Muzaini, S., and P.G. Jacob. 1996. Marine plants of the Arabian Gulf. Environment International 22: 369–376. CrossRef
Al-Rashed, M.F., and M.M. Sherif. 2000. Water resources in the GCC countries: An overview. Water Resources Management 14: 59–75. CrossRef
Al-Saleh, E., H. Drobiovaa, and C. Obuekwea. 2009. Predominant culturable crude oil-degrading bacteria in the coast of Kuwait. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 63: 400–406. CrossRef
Al-Zaidan, A.S.Y., D.A. Jones, S.Y. Al-Mohanna, and R. Meakins. 2003. Endemic macrofauna of the Sulaibikhat Bay salt marsh and mudflat habitats, Kuwait: Status and need for conservation. Journal of Arid Environments 54: 115–124. CrossRef
Bauman, A.G., J.A. Burt, D.A. Feary, E. Marquis, and P. Usseglio. 2010. Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities? Marine Pollution Bulletin. doi: 10.106/j.marpolbul.2010.08.015 .
Brewer, P.G., and D. Dyrssen. 1985. Chemical oceanography of the Persian Gulf. Progress in Oceanography 14: 41–55. CrossRef
Brown, G. 2006. The sabkha vegetation of the United Arab Emirates. In Sabkha ecosystems, Volume II: West and central Asia, eds. M.A. Khan, B. Böer, G.H. Kust, and H.J. Barth, 37–51. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Burt, J., A. Bartholomew, and P. Usseglio. 2008. Recovery of corals a decade after a bleaching event in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Marine Biology 154: 27–36. CrossRef
Burt, J., A. Bartholomew, A. Bauman, A. Saif, and P.F. Sale. 2009a. Coral recruitment and early benthic community development on several materials used in the construction of artificial reefs and breakwaters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 373: 72–78. CrossRef
Burt, J., A. Bartholomew, P. Usseglio, A. Bauman, and P.F. Sale. 2009b. Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in Dubai, United Arab Emirates? Coral Reefs 28: 663–675. CrossRef
Burt, J.A., D. Feary, P. Usseglio, A. Bauman, and P.F. Sale. 2010. The influence of wave exposure on coral community development on man-made breakwater reefs, with a comparison to a natural reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 28(4). doi: 10.5343/bms.2009.1013.
Carpenter, K.E., F. Krupp, D.A. Jones, and U. Zajonz. 1997. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes: The living marine resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Cavalcante, G.H., B. Kjerfve, D.A. Feary, A.G. Bauman and P. Usseglio. In press. Currents, water budget and turn-over time within a coastal mega-structure: Palm Jumeirah, Southern Arabian Gulf. Journal of Coastal Research.
Chao, S.-Y., T.W. Kao, and K.R. AI-Hajri. 1992. A numerical investigation of circulation in the Arabian Gulf. Journal of Geophysical Research 7: 11219–11236. CrossRef
Coles, S. 2003. Coral species diversity and environmental factors in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman: A comparison to the Indo-Pacific region. Atoll Research Bulletin 507: 1–19.
Coles, S.L., and J.C. McCain. 1990. Environmental factors affecting benthic infaunal communities of the western Arabian Gulf. Marine Environmental Research 29: 289–315. CrossRef
Coles, S., and A. Tarr. 1990. Reef fish assemblages in the western Arabian Gulf: A geographically isolated population in an extreme environment. Bulletin of Marine Science 47: 696–720.
Coles, S.L., and Y.H. Fadlallah. 1991. Reef coral survival and mortality at low-temperatures in the Arabian Gulf—new species-specific lower temperature limits. Coral Reefs 9: 231–237. CrossRef
Dupavillon, J.L., and B.M. Gillanders. 2009. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Environmental Research 67: 207–218. CrossRef
Edwards, A.J., and E.D. Gomez. 2007. Reef restoration concepts and guidelines: Making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. Available for download at www.gefcoral.org.
Fowler, S.W., J.W. Readman, B. Oregioni, J.-P. Villeneuve, and K. McKay. 1993. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in nearshore gulf sediments and biota before and after the 1991 war: An assessment of temporal and spatial trends. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27: 171–182. CrossRef
Gawad, E.A.A., M. Al Azab, and M.M. Lotfy. 2008. Assessment of organic pollutants in coastal sediments, UAE. Environmental Geology 54: 1091–1102. CrossRef
George, D. and D. John. 2000. The status of coral reefs and associated macroalgae in Abu Dhabi (UAE) after recent coral bleaching events. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on the extent and impact of coral bleaching in the Arabian Region, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Gevao, B., M.U. Beg, A. Al-Omair, M. Helaleh, and J. Zafar. 2006. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal marine sediments receiving industrial effluents in Kuwait. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 50: 166–174. CrossRef
Glibert, P.M., J.H. Landsberg, J.J. Evans, M.A. Al-Sarawi, M. Faraj, M.A. Al-Jarallah, A. Haywood, S. Ibrahem, et al. 2002. A fish kill of massive proportion in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: The roles of bacterial disease, harmful algae, and eutrophication. Harmful Algae 1: 215–231. CrossRef
Grandcourt, E. In press. Reef fish and fisheries. In Coral reefs of the gulf— Arabian and Iranian Waters, ed. B. Riegl and S. Purkis. New York: Springer.
Grandcourt, E.M., T.Z. Al Abdessalaam, F. Francis, and A.T. Al Shamsi. 2004. Population biology and assessment of representatives of the family Carangidae— Carangoides bajad and Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskal, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf. Fisheries Research 69: 331–341.
Grandcourt, E.M., T.Z. Al Abdessalaam, F. Francis, A.T. Al Shamsi, and S.A. Hartmann. 2009. Reproductive biology and implications for management of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides in the southern Arabian Gulf. Journal of Fish Biology 74: 820–841. CrossRef
Haapkylai, J., F. Ramade, and B. Salvat. 2007. Oil pollution on coral reefs: a review of the state of knowledge and management needs. Vie Milieu 57: 95–111.
Hamza, W. 2006. Observations on transported exotic plankton species to UAE coastal waters by Gas tankers ballast water. In Living marine resources and coastal habitats. EUROCOAST-LITTORAL, ed. A. Tubielewicz, 47–53. Poland: Gdansk University of Technology.
Hamza, W., and M. Munawar. 2009. Protecting and managing the Arabian Gulf: Past, present and future. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 12: 429–439. CrossRef
Heil, C.A., P.M. Glibert, M.A. Al-Sarawi, M. Faraj, M. Behbehani, and M. Husain. 2001. First record of a fish-killing Gymnodinium sp bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: Chronology and potential causes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 15–23. CrossRef
Heisler, J., P.M. Glibert, J.M. Burkholder, D.M. Anderson, W. Cochlan, W.C. Dennison, Q. Dortch, C.J. Gobler, et al. 2008. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus. Harmful Algae 8: 3–13. CrossRef
Hoepner, T., and S. Lattemann. 2002. Chemical impacts from seawater desalination plants—a case study of the northern Red Sea. Desalination 152: 133–140. CrossRef
IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, eds.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
John, D., and D. George. 2006. The shore and shallow seas. In The emirates: A natural history, ed. T.Z. Al Abdessalaam, 123–131. Abu Dhabi: Trident Press.
Kämpf, J., and M. Sadrinasab. 2006. The circulation of the Persian Gulf: A numerical study. Ocean Science 2: 27–41. CrossRef
Kardovani, P. 1995. Iranian marine ecosystem (The Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea), vol. 1, 2. Tehran, Iran: Ghomes.
Khan, N.Y. 2007. Multiple stressors and ecosystem-based management in the Gulf. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 10: 259–267. CrossRef
Khan, N.Y., M. Munawar, and A.R.G. Price (eds.). 2002. The gulf ecosystem: Health and sustainability. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.
Lattemann, S., and T. Höpner. 2008. Environmental impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination. Desalination 220: 1–15. CrossRef
Lindeman, K.C., and D.B. Snyder. 1999. Nearshore hardbottom fishes of southeast Florida and effects of habitat burial caused by dredging. Fishery Bulletin 97: 508–525.
Madany, I.M., A. Jaffar, and E.S. AI-Shirbini. 1998. Variations in the concentrations of aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in Bahraini coastal waters during the period October 1993 to December 1995. Environment International 24: 61–66. CrossRef
Marsh, H., H. Penrose, C. Eros and J. Hugues. 2002. Dugong status report and action plans for countries and territories, 1–161. UNEP Early Warning and Assessment Report UNEP/DEWA/RS.02-1.
Nairn, R., J.A. Johnson, D. Hardin, and J. Michel. 2004. A biological and physical monitoring program to evaluate long-term impacts from sand dredging operations in the United States Outer Continental Shelf. Journal of Coastal Research 20: 126–137. CrossRef
Peterson, C.H., and M.J. Bishop. 2005. Assessing the environmental impacts of beach nourishment. BioScience 55: 887–896. CrossRef
Peterson, M.S., and M.R. Lowe. 2009. Implications of cumulative impacts to estuarine and marine habitat quality for fish and invertebrate resources. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17: 505–523. CrossRef
Price, A.R.G. 1998. Impact of the 1991 Gulf war on the coastal environment and ecosystems: Current status and future prospects. Environment International 24: 91–96. CrossRef
Price, A.R.G., and S.L. Coles. 1992. Aspects of seagrass ecology along the Western Arabian Gulf. Hydrobiologia 234: 129–141. CrossRef
Price, A.R.G., C.R.C. Sheppard, and C.M. Roberts. 1993. The Gulf: Its biological setting. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27: 9–15. CrossRef
Purnama, A., H.H. Al-Barwani, and R. Smith. 2005. Calculating the environmental cost of seawater desalination in the Arabian marginal seas. Desalination 185: 79–86. CrossRef
Randall, J. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman, 439. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Reynolds, M.R. 1993. Physical oceanography of the Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and Gulf of Oman—results from the Mt. Mitchell expedition. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27: 35–39. CrossRef
Richlen, M.L., S.L. Morton, E.A. Jamali, A. Rajan, and D.M. Anderson. 2010. The catastrophic 2008–2009 red tide in the Arabian Gulf region, with observations on the identification and phylogeny of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Harmful Algae 9: 163–172. CrossRef
Riegl, B. 1999. Corals in a non-reef setting in the southern Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE): Fauna and community structure in response to recurring mass mortality. Coral Reefs 18: 63–73. CrossRef
Riegl, B. 2002. Effects of the 1996 and 1998 positive sea-surface temperature anomalies on corals, coral diseases and fish in the Arabian Gulf (Dubai, UAE). Marine Biology 140: 29–40. CrossRef
Sheppard, C.R.C. 1987. Coral species of the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas: A synonymized compilation and some regional distribution patterns. Atoll Research Bulletin 307: 1–32.
Sheppard, C., and A. Sheppard. 1991. Corals and coral communities of Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 12: 3–170.
Sheppard, C., and R. Loughland. 2002. Coral mortality and recovery in response to increasing temperature in the southern Arabian Gulf. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 5: 395–402. CrossRef
Sheppard, C., A. Price, and C. Roberts. 1992. Marine ecology of the Arabian region: Patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. London: Academic Press.
Sheppard, C., M. Al-Husiani, F. Al-Jamali, F. Al-Yamani, R. Baldwin, J. Bishop, F. Benzoni, E. Dutrieux, et al. 2010. The Gulf: A young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 13–38. CrossRef
Spalding, M., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins. 2010. World Atlas of Mangroves. A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNESCO-MAB, UNEP-WCMC, UNU-INWEH and TNC, 319. London: Earthscan.
United Nation Environmental Programme (UNEP). 2001. Overview of the socioeconomic aspects related to the management of municipal wastewater in West Asia (including all countries bordering the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). UNEP/ROWA-GPA SEWAGE.RW.1/5.
Wehe, T., and D. Fiege. 2002. Annotated checklist of the polychaete species of the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf. Fauna of Arabia 19: 7–238.
Wood, L.J. 2007. MPA global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF. www.mpaglobal.org.
- The Growing Need for Sustainable Ecological Management of Marine Communities of the Persian Gulf
Peter F. Sale
David A. Feary
John A. Burt
Andrew G. Bauman
Geórgenes H. Cavalcante
Kenneth G. Drouillard
Charles G. Trick
Hanneke Van Lavieren
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen