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This book analyzes the dynamic growth of the scholarly publishing industry in the United States during 1939-1946, a critical period in the business history of scholarly publications in STM and the humanities and the social sciences. It explains how the key publishing players positioned themselves to take advantage of the war economy and how they used different business and marketing strategies to create the market and demand for scholarly publications. Not only did the atomic threat necessitate a surge in scholarly research, but at the same time scholarly publishing managers prepared for the dramatic shift by anticipating the potential impact of the GI Bill on higher education, creating superb printed products, and by becoming the brand, the source of knowledge and information. The creation of strategic business units and value chains as well as the development of marketing targeting strategies resulted in brand loyalty to certain publishers and publications but also accelerated the growth of the US scholarly publishing industry. Business historians and marketing professors interested in the business strategies of scholarly publishers during World War II will find this book to be a valuable resource.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Scholarly Journal and Book Publishing in the U.S.

State of Scholarly Publishing Today
Abstract
Academics, researchers, and students have access to a tremendous number of scholarly books, journals, preprints, and research depositories as well as a highly developed public and academic library system, and the U.S. produces more scholarly publications than any other nation. How did the U.S. become the dominant center of scholarly publishing? This chapter outlines the current state of scholarly publishing, key issues related to higher education’s emphasis on “publish or perish,” and the eight major developments that transformed scholarly publishing in the U.S.
Albert N. Greco

Chapter 2. The Impact of the Depression and Nuclear Research on Universities, Research, and Scholarly Publishing: 1929–1941

Abstract
Before 1939, Europe was the center of scientific research, including major atomic research projects in Germany. Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and others became concerned about the potential threat posed by Germany if it developed an atomic bomb. This chapter addresses Einstein’s 1939 letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt requesting that the U.S. ratchet up atomic research, Roosevelt’s response to Einstein’s letter, the role played by the National Bureau of Standards (and its impact triggering 227 scientific journals to “censor” the publication of atomic research in the U.S.), the creation of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and ultimately the Manhattan Project’s impact on scientific research.
Albert N. Greco

Chapter 3. The Impact of World War II on American Society and Scholarly Publishing: December 7, 1941–1942

Abstract
America entered World War II on December 7, 1947, and the nation underwent a dramatic mobilization. Scholarly publishing was impacted by a series of presidential executive orders and governmental regulations resulting in the rationing of paper, ink (that contained oil), and supplies needed to print books and journals and the creation of a censorship office. This chapter analyzes these events and the creation of the Manhattan Project’s secret research operation under the leadership of General Leslie Groves. A positive development was the G.I. Book Program, which distributed +122 million books, including some scholarly books, to military personnel during the war.
Albert N. Greco

Chapter 4. The War and Its Impact on Research: 1943–1945

Abstract
Researchers at the atomic research facilities at Los Alamos and elsewhere needed access to scholarly information, and this was a problem because of the impact of the war and the severe security policies at these “atomic cities.” This chapter describes the work of Professor Langer at the Office of Strategic Services to launch a program to acquire secret German scientific research, the government’s seizure of German copyrighted scholarly publications and the republication program, the decision to consider killing Werner Heisenberg (who led the German atomic research during the war), the creation of a secret research library at Los Alamos, the development of plans for the atomic bomb, and the G.I Bill. President Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb ended the war, and the Bretton Woods conference set the stage for the growth of scholarly publishing in the sciences and the social sciences.
Albert N. Greco

Chapter 5. 1946: A Turning Point in the Growth of Scholarly Publishing

Abstract
After the war ended, the U.S. was the global center of higher education and the military and financial power in the world. This chapter outlines the G.I. Bill’s impact on higher education and scholarly publishing, which was monumental: enrollments surged, libraries expanded, and there was a pressing need to provide more scholarly books and journals for faculty, students, and libraries here and abroad. Dynamic managerial and marketing strategies were created, setting the state for growth. Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act creating the Atomic Energy Commission that impacted research for decades.
Albert N. Greco

Backmatter

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