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This book offers a theoretically-based study on crimes against protected wildlife in mainland China with first-hand empirical data collected over five years. It provides an overall examination of crimes against protected and endangered wildlife and an extensive account of the situation in China, where a significant portion of the illegal wildlife trade is currently happening. This emerging field has become an important topic for enforcement and governments alike yet remains an under-researched area. The collected data covers illegal tiger-parts trade, the illegal ivory trade, and the consumption of protected wildlife. The book will serve as a useful reference for scholars, law-enforcement agencies, lawyers, and conservation and wildlife-protection NGO groups to facilitate their understanding of the growing illegal trade in protected and endangered wildlife.

The Illegal Wildlife Trade in China has three general aims: first, to contribute to the general development of green criminology and specifically to the literature of the illegal transactions of protected wildlife at the distribution stage. Second, it aims to understand how illegal transactions are carried out to create insights for policy makers and law enforcement professionals. Finally, Wong seeks to apply theoretical frameworks (such as that of trust, networks, and situational crime prevention) to the understanding of the distribution of illegal wildlife products in order to make contributions to ongoing sociological and criminological discussions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Demand and Supply of Protected Wildlife Products in China

Abstract
This chapter sets the contextual background of the illegal wildlife trade in China and examines in detail, the demand and supply of wildlife products within the country. Reference is made to the usage of wildlife products in traditional Chinese medicine, collector’s items, and local delicacies, and as captive pets. This chapter also lays out the organization of the book.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 2. China and the Illegal Wildlife Trade

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of China’s position within the global illegal wildlife trade from two perspectives: (1) China’s geographical location and its relationship with the illegal wildlife trade; (2) the responses from the Chinese government to tackle the trade.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 3. The Illegal Wildlife Trade

Abstract
This chapter contextualizes the development of green criminology and the study of environmental crime. In specific, it examines the stages of the illegal wildlife trade: (1) poaching, (2) smuggling, (3) processing, and (4) online distribution.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 4. Conducting Research on the Illegal Wildlife Trade in China

Abstract
This chapter discusses the challenges in conducting fieldwork studies in the context of the illegal wildlife trade and the methodology of the studies conducted by the author across Mainland China. A brief description of the fieldwork sites is given before discussing the challenges and obstacles faced during the fieldwork. In doing so, this chapter endeavours to inform readers of the reality in the field and to inspire other like-minded social sciences researchers on debates and discussions on conducting criminological fieldwork.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 5. The Illegal Distribution of Ivory in Hong Kong

Abstract
This chapter provides insights into the actual transaction of worked ivory products against the theoretical framework of situational crime prevention (SCP) theory. The global illegal trade in ivory can be broken down into four stages: (a) poaching of the elephant tusks—capturing an elephant in its natural habitat in order to remove its tusks, which results in the death of the animal; (b) smuggling poached tusks—which involves smuggling tusks out of the source country into the destination countries; (c) processing raw ivory into worked ivory products; and (d) selling worked ivory items to buyers
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 6. The Illegal Tiger Parts Trade

Abstract
This chapter turns to explore the operation of seven distributing networks specialized in the illegal supply of tiger parts products. The focus of this chapter is on the network organizations of criminal networks and their mode of operation in supplying tiger parts products across three different cities in Mainland China and how they employ different mechanisms to avoid the risk of enforcement.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 7. Consumption of Protected Wildlife as Delicacy

Abstract
The chapter of this article is situated in light of the illegal transaction of protected wildlife in China for consumption as a delicacy. In trusting the suppliers to deliver the protected wildlife they ordered, consumers face two types of risks: (a) the risk of enforcement (facing a maximum of ten years’ imprisonment) and/or (b) the risk of being cheated of their money. This chapter focuses on the second question. The consumption of protected wildlife occurs in designated restaurants, so how do consumers know for certain that the restaurants are serving the protected wildlife they ordered? Given the difficulties in distinguishing between the flavour of protected wildlife and legitimate sources of meat (this point will be elaborated on later in the chapter), what are the mechanisms that help consumers of protected wildlife trust that the restaurant is honouring their agreement? Based on qualitative interviews with consumers and suppliers of protected wildlife in China and open sources, this study concludes that consumers rely heavily on the reputation of the restaurant.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Chapter 8. Conclusion

Abstract
This chapter concludes and provides recommendations based on findings presented in previous chapters. The chapter argues that a key driver of the illegal wildlife trade in China is down to the inaccurate cultural beliefs and the lack of awareness for the conservation of wildlife in the general population. These beliefs are spread via social media which make it accessible to the mass. The lack of consistent enforcement also makes it difficult to enforce relevant laws and regulations. This chapter concludes that long term educational campaigns coupled with consistent enforcement must be implemented in order to send a strong deterrent message.
Rebecca W. Y. Wong

Backmatter

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