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Über dieses Buch

Climate changes will affect food production in a number of ways. Crop yields, aquatic populations and forest productivity will decline, invasive insect and plant species will proliferate and desertification, soil salinization and water stress will increase. Each of these impacts will decrease food and nutrition security, primarily by reducing access to and availability of food, and also by increasing the risk of infectious disease.

Although increased biofuel demand has the potential to increase incomes among producers, it can also negatively affect food and nutrition security. Land used for cultivating food crops may be diverted to biofuel production, creating food shortages and raising prices. Accelerations in unregulated or poorly regulated foreign direct investment, deforestation and unsustainable use of chemical fertilizers may also result. Biofuel production may reduce women’s control of resources, which may in turn reduce the quality of household diets. Each of these effects increases risk of poor food and nutrition security, either through decreased physical availability of food, decreased purchasing power, or increased risk of disease.

The Impact of Climate Change and Bioenergy on Nutrition articulates the links between current environmental issues and food and nutrition security. It provides a unique collection of nutrition statistics, climate change projections, biofuel scenarios and food security information under one cover which will be of interest to policymakers, academia, agronomists, food and nutrition security planners, programme implementers, health workers and all those concerned about the current challenges of climate change, energy production, hunger and malnutrition.



Chapter 1. Summary

Food security has deteriorated since 1995 and reductions in child malnutrition are proceeding too slowly to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for halving hunger by 2015. Moreover, three major challenges threaten current and future efforts to overcome food insecurity and malnutrition: climate change, the growing use of food crops as a source of fuel and soaring food prices.
Brian Thompson, Marc J. Cohen, Janice Meerman

Chapter 2. Introduction

Despite a dozen years of solemn pledges by global leaders to take action to drastically decrease world hunger – promises made at the World Food Summit in 1996, the Millennium Summit of 2000 and high-level follow-up meetings held since then – global food security has been deteriorating since 1995. This has contributed to the unacceptably slow pace of reducing hunger and undernourishment and of cutting the prevalence of malnutrition. Between 1990 and 2005, the prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age in the developing world only fell from 30% to 23%. In 34 countries in 2009, progress in reducing child underweight was very slow, and 20 countries had made no progress at all. With an estimated increase of 105 million undernourished people in 2009 alone, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that approximately 925 million individuals went hungry in 2010 (FAO 2010d). For many developing countries, meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving prevalence of underweight (target 1.8) and undernourishment (target 1.9) between 1990 and 2015 will not be possible. Against this disappointing background, three major challenges have arisen that further threaten efforts to overcome food insecurity and malnutrition: climate change, the growing use of food crops as a source of fuel (bioenergy) and volatile food prices.
Brian Thompson, Marc J. Cohen

Chapter 3. World Food Insecurity and Malnutrition: Scope, Trends, Causes and Consequences

This chapter provides an in-depth review of recent and projected trends in global food insecurity and malnutrition. It explores causes and consequences. In addition to a detailed review of the health costs of malnutrition (e.g. compromised physical growth, reduced cognitive function, increased vulnerability to infectious disease), the chapter includes discussion of the economic costs of malnutrition. The chapter concludes with a review of factors that are likely to contribute to malnutrition in the future. These challenges are related to climate change and increased demand for biofuel, and include, inter alia, structural shifts in food and agricultural systems, transboundary movement of disease and widespread land degradation.
Brian Thompson, Marc J. Cohen, Janice Meerman

Chapter 4. Climate Change and Food and Nutrition Security

This chapter provides an overview of current and projected effects of climate change. It looks at how climate change is impacting specific environments and populations, and includes analysis of the links between climate change, food security and nutrition. The chapter examines the impact of climate change on each dimension of food security (availability, stability of supply, access, and utilization) as well as malnutrition. This discussion includes sections on food safety, health and sanitation and a number of other food security related subjects. The chapter concludes with a discussion of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors.
Maria Cristina Tirado, Janice Meerman

Chapter 5. Nutrition and Bioenergy

This chapter examines the direct nutrition effects of rising bioenergy demand, as well as its contribution to rising food prices. It cites the environmental implications of biofuel production and models the effects of price increases and increased demand for biofuel on regional calorie availabilities. This chapter also discusses potential strategies for cultivation of bioenergy crops that can contribute to poverty reduction, food security and sustainable natural resource management.
Noora-Lisa Aberman, Marc J. Cohen

Chapter 6. Policies and Programmes for Improving Nutrition

This chapter discusses policies and programmes and provides a number of specific examples for improving food and nutrition security at the international, regional and country level. This chapter also reviews policy options for responding to threats to nutrition from climate change and growing demand for biofuel.
Brian Thompson, Marc J. Cohen, Maria Cristina Tirado

Chapter 7. Conclusions and Recommendations

The final chapter is divided into three sections: “Responding to Climate Change”, “Assuring Pro-poor and Sustainable Biofuel Development”, and “Making Nutrition a Development Priority”. Each section includes specific recommendations guided by a pro-poor, rights-based, MDG-focused normative framework.
Brian Thompson, Marc J. Cohen, Maria Cristina Tirado, Janice Meerman


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