Skip to main content

2024 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

5. The Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in Northwestern Morocco

verfasst von : Mohammed Bahir

Erschienen in: The Water, Climate, and Food Nexus

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Climate change poses a global challenge, intricately linked to the intricate, long-term interplay among environmental factors and the dynamics of economics, society, technology, and politics. These interactions lead to notable repercussions at the regional level. This investigation utilizes data from nine campaigns conducted in 1990, 1995, 1997, 2009, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 to evaluate groundwater quality in the Essaouira region within the context of a changing climate. The hydrogeochemical analysis reveals that the Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer’s groundwater exhibits mix facies such as Cl–Ca–Mg, Cl–Ca, Cl–Na, and HCO3–Ca, with the Cl–Ca–Mg mix facies dominating along with Cl–Ca. Examination of correlations between major element concentrations indicates that groundwater mineralization is influenced by the dissolution of evaporitic minerals (halite, gypsum, and/or anhydrites) and carbonates (dolomite). Additionally, reverse ion exchange and marine intrusion, particularly in the Plio-Quaternary aquifer, contribute to the overall mineralization. The spatio-temporal analysis of groundwater quality in the study area demonstrates a gradual deterioration over time and space. Notably, the Essaouira basin emerges as particularly susceptible to climate change due to its reliance solely on meteoric waters for recharge.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Abutaleb KAA, Mohammed AHE, Ahmed MHM (2018) Climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and adaption measures for Egypt’s Nile Delta. Earth Syst Environ 2:183–192CrossRef Abutaleb KAA, Mohammed AHE, Ahmed MHM (2018) Climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and adaption measures for Egypt’s Nile Delta. Earth Syst Environ 2:183–192CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Alpert P, Krichak SO, Shafir H, Haim D, Osetinsky I (2008) Climatic trends to extremes employing regional modeling and statistical interpretation over the E. Mediterranean. Glob Planet Change 63:163–170CrossRef Alpert P, Krichak SO, Shafir H, Haim D, Osetinsky I (2008) Climatic trends to extremes employing regional modeling and statistical interpretation over the E. Mediterranean. Glob Planet Change 63:163–170CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Amghar M (1989) Apports des méthodes d’analyses de la tectonique cassante à la connaissance de l’histoire alpine du Haute Atlas Occidental. L’exemple du versant nord du bloc ancien et de l’Atlas d’Agadir (Haut Atlas, Maroc). Thèse 3ème cycle, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc Amghar M (1989) Apports des méthodes d’analyses de la tectonique cassante à la connaissance de l’histoire alpine du Haute Atlas Occidental. L’exemple du versant nord du bloc ancien et de l’Atlas d’Agadir (Haut Atlas, Maroc). Thèse 3ème cycle, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc
Zurück zum Zitat Babqiqi A (2014) Changements Climatiques au Maroc: Etude du cas de la Région de Marrakech Tensift Al Haouz et implications sur l’agriculture à l’horizon 2030. Thèse de doctorat, Université Cadi Ayyad Babqiqi A (2014) Changements Climatiques au Maroc: Etude du cas de la Région de Marrakech Tensift Al Haouz et implications sur l’agriculture à l’horizon 2030. Thèse de doctorat, Université Cadi Ayyad
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Mennani A (2002) Problématique de la gestion des eaux souterraines au Maroc. Estud Geológicos 58:103–108 Bahir M, Mennani A (2002) Problématique de la gestion des eaux souterraines au Maroc. Estud Geológicos 58:103–108
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Mennani A, Jalal M, Youbi N (2000) Ressources hydriques du bassin synclinal d’Essaouira (Maroc). Estud Geol 56:185–195 Bahir M, Mennani A, Jalal M, Youbi N (2000) Ressources hydriques du bassin synclinal d’Essaouira (Maroc). Estud Geol 56:185–195
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Jalal M, Blavoux (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie isotopique à la connaissance des zones de recharge en zones aride et semi-arides: Cas du bassin de Meskala-Kourimat. J Environ Hydrol Bahir M, Jalal M, Blavoux (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie isotopique à la connaissance des zones de recharge en zones aride et semi-arides: Cas du bassin de Meskala-Kourimat. J Environ Hydrol
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Chkir N, Trabelsi R, Ammar H, Friha, Zouari K, Chamchati H (2012) Hydro-geochemical behaviour of two coastal aquifers under severe climatic and human constraints: comparative study between Essaouira basin in Morocco and Jeffara basin in Tunisia. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 2:75–100 Bahir M, Chkir N, Trabelsi R, Ammar H, Friha, Zouari K, Chamchati H (2012) Hydro-geochemical behaviour of two coastal aquifers under severe climatic and human constraints: comparative study between Essaouira basin in Morocco and Jeffara basin in Tunisia. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 2:75–100
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Moukhayar R, Youbi N, Chamchati H, Chkir Ben Jemaa N (2013a) Management and protection of groundwater resources in semi-arid zones: application of hydrochemical methodologies to Essaouira Synclinal Basin, Morocco. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 3:160–175CrossRef Bahir M, El Moukhayar R, Youbi N, Chamchati H, Chkir Ben Jemaa N (2013a) Management and protection of groundwater resources in semi-arid zones: application of hydrochemical methodologies to Essaouira Synclinal Basin, Morocco. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 3:160–175CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Carreira PM (2016) La ressource en eau au Maroc face aux changements climatiques; cas de la nappe Plio-Quaternaire du bassin synclinale d’Essaouira. Comun Geol 103(1):35–44 Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Carreira PM (2016) La ressource en eau au Maroc face aux changements climatiques; cas de la nappe Plio-Quaternaire du bassin synclinale d’Essaouira. Comun Geol 103(1):35–44
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Carreira PM (2018) Isotopic and geochemical methods for studying water–rock interaction and recharge mode: application to the Cenomanian-Turonian and Plio-Quaternary aquifers of Essaouira Basin, Morocco. Mar Freshwater Res 69:1290–1300CrossRef Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Carreira PM (2018) Isotopic and geochemical methods for studying water–rock interaction and recharge mode: application to the Cenomanian-Turonian and Plio-Quaternary aquifers of Essaouira Basin, Morocco. Mar Freshwater Res 69:1290–1300CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Ouazar D, Ouhamdouch S (2019) Hydrogeochemical investigation and groundwater quality in Essaouira region, Morocco. Mar Freshwater Res 70:1317–1332CrossRef Bahir M, Ouazar D, Ouhamdouch S (2019) Hydrogeochemical investigation and groundwater quality in Essaouira region, Morocco. Mar Freshwater Res 70:1317–1332CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021c) Use of WQI and isotopes to assess groundwater quality of coastal aquifers (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_51 Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021c) Use of WQI and isotopes to assess groundwater quality of coastal aquifers (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​51
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021d) Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Ouazi Basin (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_50 Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021d) Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Ouazi Basin (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​50
Zurück zum Zitat Boughariou E, Bouri S, Khanfir H, Zarhloule Y (2014) Impacts of climate change on water resources in arid and semi-arid regions: Chaffar Sector, Eastern Tunisia. Desalin Water Treat 52:2082–2093CrossRef Boughariou E, Bouri S, Khanfir H, Zarhloule Y (2014) Impacts of climate change on water resources in arid and semi-arid regions: Chaffar Sector, Eastern Tunisia. Desalin Water Treat 52:2082–2093CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Capaccioni B, Didero M, Paletta C, Didero L (2005) Saline intrusion and refreshening in a multilayer coastal aquifer in the Catania Plain (Sicily, Southern Italy): dynamics of degradation processes according to hydrochemical characteristics of groundwaters. J Hydrol 307:1–16CrossRef Capaccioni B, Didero M, Paletta C, Didero L (2005) Saline intrusion and refreshening in a multilayer coastal aquifer in the Catania Plain (Sicily, Southern Italy): dynamics of degradation processes according to hydrochemical characteristics of groundwaters. J Hydrol 307:1–16CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Carreira PM, Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Fernandes PG, Nunes D (2018) Tracing salinization processes in coastal aquifers using an isotopic and geochemical approach: comparative studies in western Morocco and southwest Portugal. Hydrogeol J 26:2595–2615CrossRef Carreira PM, Bahir M, Ouhamdouch S, Fernandes PG, Nunes D (2018) Tracing salinization processes in coastal aquifers using an isotopic and geochemical approach: comparative studies in western Morocco and southwest Portugal. Hydrogeol J 26:2595–2615CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Chenaker H, Houha B, Valles V (2017) Isotope studies and chemical investigations of hot springs from North-Eastern Algeria. J Mater Environ Sci 8:4253–4263 Chenaker H, Houha B, Valles V (2017) Isotope studies and chemical investigations of hot springs from North-Eastern Algeria. J Mater Environ Sci 8:4253–4263
Zurück zum Zitat Dresh J (1962) Le Haut Atlas Occidental. Dans “Aspect de la géomorphologie du Maroc.” Notes Et Mémoire Du Service Géologique-Maroc 96:107–121 Dresh J (1962) Le Haut Atlas Occidental. Dans “Aspect de la géomorphologie du Maroc.” Notes Et Mémoire Du Service Géologique-Maroc 96:107–121
Zurück zum Zitat Driouech F (2010) Distribution des précipitations hivernales sur le Maroc dans le cadre d’un changement climatique: descente d’échelle et incertitudes. Thèse de doctorat, Université. Toulouse, France Driouech F (2010) Distribution des précipitations hivernales sur le Maroc dans le cadre d’un changement climatique: descente d’échelle et incertitudes. Thèse de doctorat, Université. Toulouse, France
Zurück zum Zitat Duffaud F (1960) Contribution à l’étude stratigraphique du bassin secondaire du Haut Atlas Occidental (Sud-Ouest du Maroc). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7:728–734CrossRef Duffaud F (1960) Contribution à l’étude stratigraphique du bassin secondaire du Haut Atlas Occidental (Sud-Ouest du Maroc). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7:728–734CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Duffaud F, Brun L, Planchot B (1966) Bassin du Sud-Ouest Marocain (SW Morocco Basin). In: Reyre (ed) Bassin Sédimentaire du Littoral Africain, partie I, Paris, pp 5–12 Duffaud F, Brun L, Planchot B (1966) Bassin du Sud-Ouest Marocain (SW Morocco Basin). In: Reyre (ed) Bassin Sédimentaire du Littoral Africain, partie I, Paris, pp 5–12
Zurück zum Zitat El Kharraz J, El-Sadekb A, Ghaffourc N, Mino E (2012) Water scarcity and drought in WANA countries. Procedia Eng 33:14–29CrossRef El Kharraz J, El-Sadekb A, Ghaffourc N, Mino E (2012) Water scarcity and drought in WANA countries. Procedia Eng 33:14–29CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O (2023) Hydrochemistry and vulnerability of water resources in a semi-arid environment: A multidisciplinary approach and the use of GIS tools (Case of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco) “Hydrochimie et Vulnérabilité des Ressources en Eau dans un milieu semi-aride : Approche pluridisciplinaire et utilisation des outils SIG (Cas du bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc)” (Doctoral dissertation, Order No. 713). Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco El Mountassir O (2023) Hydrochemistry and vulnerability of water resources in a semi-arid environment: A multidisciplinary approach and the use of GIS tools (Case of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco) “Hydrochimie et Vulnérabilité des Ressources en Eau dans un milieu semi-aride : Approche pluridisciplinaire et utilisation des outils SIG (Cas du bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc)” (Doctoral dissertation, Order No. 713). Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M (2023) The assessment of the groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of the Essaouira Basin, Southwestern Morocco, using hydrogeochemistry and isotopic signatures. Water 15(9):1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091769 El Mountassir O, Bahir M (2023) The assessment of the groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of the Essaouira Basin, Southwestern Morocco, using hydrogeochemistry and isotopic signatures. Water 15(9):1769. https://​doi.​org/​10.​3390/​w15091769
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM (2021a) Temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater contamination with nitrate using nitrate pollution index (NPI), groundwater pollution index (GPI), and GIS (case study: Essaouira basin, Morocco). Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16922-8 El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM (2021a) Temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater contamination with nitrate using nitrate pollution index (NPI), groundwater pollution index (GPI), and GIS (case study: Essaouira basin, Morocco). Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11356-021-16922-8
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021d) Nitrate pollution in groundwater of the Ouazi basin: case of Essaouira (Southwestern Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_49 El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021d) Nitrate pollution in groundwater of the Ouazi basin: case of Essaouira (Southwestern Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​49
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021e) For a better understanding of recharge and salinization mechanism of a Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer. In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_42 El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021e) For a better understanding of recharge and salinization mechanism of a Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer. In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology and innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​42
Zurück zum Zitat Fetter CW (1993) Contaminant hydrogeology. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York Fetter CW (1993) Contaminant hydrogeology. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York
Zurück zum Zitat Green TR, Makoto T, Henk K, Gurdak JJ, Allen DM, Hiscock KM, Holger T, Alice A (2011) Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. J Hydrol 405:532–560CrossRef Green TR, Makoto T, Henk K, Gurdak JJ, Allen DM, Hiscock KM, Holger T, Alice A (2011) Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. J Hydrol 405:532–560CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hallouz F, Meddi M, Mahe G, Karahacane H, Rahmani SEA (2019) Tendance des précipitations et évolution des écoulements dans un cadre de changement climatique : bassin versant de l’oued Mina en Algérie. RSE 32:83–114 Hallouz F, Meddi M, Mahe G, Karahacane H, Rahmani SEA (2019) Tendance des précipitations et évolution des écoulements dans un cadre de changement climatique : bassin versant de l’oued Mina en Algérie. RSE 32:83–114
Zurück zum Zitat IPCC (2013) In Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University IPCC (2013) In Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University
Zurück zum Zitat Jalal M, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Laftouhi N, Puig JM, Mennani A, Daniel M (2001) Etude du fonctionnement du système aquifère karstique Cenomano-Turonian de l’oued Igrounzar (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). J Afr Earth Sci 32:803–817CrossRef Jalal M, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Laftouhi N, Puig JM, Mennani A, Daniel M (2001) Etude du fonctionnement du système aquifère karstique Cenomano-Turonian de l’oued Igrounzar (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). J Afr Earth Sci 32:803–817CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Lachaal F, Chargui S, Messaoud RB, Chekirbane A, Tsujimura M, Mlayah A, Massuel S, Leduc C (2018) Impacts of global changes on groundwater resources in north-east Tunisia: the case of the Grombalia phreatic aquifer. In: Calvache ML et al (eds) Groundwater and global change in the Western Mediterranean Area, Environmental Earth Sciences. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp 179–188 Lachaal F, Chargui S, Messaoud RB, Chekirbane A, Tsujimura M, Mlayah A, Massuel S, Leduc C (2018) Impacts of global changes on groundwater resources in north-east Tunisia: the case of the Grombalia phreatic aquifer. In: Calvache ML et al (eds) Groundwater and global change in the Western Mediterranean Area, Environmental Earth Sciences. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp 179–188
Zurück zum Zitat Lebel T, Vischel T (2005) Climat et cycle de l’eau en zone tropicale: un problème d’échelle. CR Geoscience 337:29–38CrossRef Lebel T, Vischel T (2005) Climat et cycle de l’eau en zone tropicale: un problème d’échelle. CR Geoscience 337:29–38CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Marfia AM, Krishnamurthy RV, Atekwana EA, Panton WF (2004) Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: a case study from Belize, Central America. Appl Geochem 19:937–946CrossRef Marfia AM, Krishnamurthy RV, Atekwana EA, Panton WF (2004) Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: a case study from Belize, Central America. Appl Geochem 19:937–946CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mennani A (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie et de l’isotopie à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères de la zone côtière d’Essaouira (Maroc Occidental). Thèse de doctorat, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc Mennani A (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie et de l’isotopie à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères de la zone côtière d’Essaouira (Maroc Occidental). Thèse de doctorat, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc
Zurück zum Zitat Misra AK (2014) Climate change and challenges of water and food security. Int J Sustain Built Environ 3:153–165CrossRef Misra AK (2014) Climate change and challenges of water and food security. Int J Sustain Built Environ 3:153–165CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ouhamdouch S, Bahir M, Carreira P (2018) Impact du changement climatique sur la ressource en eau en milieu semi-aride: exemple du bassin d’Essaouira (Maroc). Rev Des Sci De L’eau 31:13–27 Ouhamdouch S, Bahir M, Carreira P (2018) Impact du changement climatique sur la ressource en eau en milieu semi-aride: exemple du bassin d’Essaouira (Maroc). Rev Des Sci De L’eau 31:13–27
Zurück zum Zitat Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)—a computer program for speciation, batch–reaction, one–dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. USGS Water–Resources Investigation Report 99-4259, 312 pp Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)—a computer program for speciation, batch–reaction, one–dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. USGS Water–Resources Investigation Report 99-4259, 312 pp
Zurück zum Zitat Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–923CrossRef Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–923CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ragab R, Prudhomme C (2002) Climate change and water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions: prospective and challenges for the 21st century. Biosystems Eng 81:3–34CrossRef Ragab R, Prudhomme C (2002) Climate change and water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions: prospective and challenges for the 21st century. Biosystems Eng 81:3–34CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rodier J, Legube B, Merlet N, Mialocq JC, Leroy P, Houssin M, Lavison G, Bechemin C, Vincent M, Rebouillon P, Moulin L, Chomodé P, Dujardin P, Gosselin S, Seux R, Al Mardini F (2009) L’Analyse de l’eau. 9e édition, Dunod, Paris Rodier J, Legube B, Merlet N, Mialocq JC, Leroy P, Houssin M, Lavison G, Bechemin C, Vincent M, Rebouillon P, Moulin L, Chomodé P, Dujardin P, Gosselin S, Seux R, Al Mardini F (2009) L’Analyse de l’eau. 9e édition, Dunod, Paris
Zurück zum Zitat Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007: “e physical science basis; contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 p Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007: “e physical science basis; contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 p
Zurück zum Zitat Sinan M, Boussetta M, El Rherari A (2009) Changements climatiques: causes et conséquences sur le climat et les ressources en eau. Revue HTE 142:21–30 Sinan M, Boussetta M, El Rherari A (2009) Changements climatiques: causes et conséquences sur le climat et les ressources en eau. Revue HTE 142:21–30
Zurück zum Zitat Stour L, Agoumi A (2008) Sécheresse climatique au Maroc durant les dernières décennies. Hydroécol Appl 16:215–232CrossRef Stour L, Agoumi A (2008) Sécheresse climatique au Maroc durant les dernières décennies. Hydroécol Appl 16:215–232CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Vicente-Serrano SM (2006) Spatial and temporal analysis of droughts in the Iberian Peninsula (1910–2000). Hydrolog Sci J 51:83–97CrossRef Vicente-Serrano SM (2006) Spatial and temporal analysis of droughts in the Iberian Peninsula (1910–2000). Hydrolog Sci J 51:83–97CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th ed. Geneva WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th ed. Geneva
Zurück zum Zitat Xu ZX, Chen YN, Li JY (2004) Impact of climate change on water resources in the Tarim River Basin. Water Resour Manag 18:439–458CrossRef Xu ZX, Chen YN, Li JY (2004) Impact of climate change on water resources in the Tarim River Basin. Water Resour Manag 18:439–458CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
The Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in Northwestern Morocco
verfasst von
Mohammed Bahir
Copyright-Jahr
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50962-9_5