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Entering developing markets, companies are challenged by various cultures and widespread corruption. This book is a cross-cultural survey that explores the crime preventive effects of corporate cultures and compliance management systems (CMS) in China, India, Russia and Germany. Almost 2,000 managers anonymously reported about the compliance programs in place and cultures in their companies as well as on their experience with corruption at work and in everyday life.Despite differences across countries, results suggest that the elements of an integrity-promoting corporate culture are similarly important in their corruption preventive effects.
The second major result is that a CMS can develop its effectiveness only when combined with an appropriately practiced integrity-promoting company culture.
Third, companies can counteract the negative external influences of a corruption-prone national culture. Moreover, spill-over effects of an integrity-promoting company culture can make an important contribution to national cultural change. For this reason, an integrity-promoting corporate culture is a contribution to corporate social responsibility.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. State of Research and Methods

Abstract
In the previous 2015 study (Bussmann 2015, 445; Bussmann and Niemeczek 2019; Bussmann et al. 2018), we used a web-based method to survey around 4300 managers worldwide from 15 major German companies including 4 corporations. These internationally operating companies are active in the automotive industry (n = 9), in trade and consumption (n = 4), and in the transport and logistics sector (n = 2). On average, they had 120,000 employees worldwide, with the smallest company having about 15,000 employees.
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer

Chapter 2. Cultural and Structural Conditions of Corruption

Abstract
The present study focuses on China, Germany, India, and Russia—four countries that differ in not only their prevalence of corruption but also their social structures and national cultural values. The levels of corruption in different countries can be compared with international indices. One of the most prominent is the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) compiled by Transparency International (TI) that focuses primarily on corruption in the public and political spheres. In the present four-country comparison, it indicates that Germany has the lowest level of corruption, Russia has the highest, whereas China and India have similar rankings between the other two. All four countries have slightly improved their CPI rankings over the last 6 years.
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer

Chapter 3. Impact of Law and Market Mechanisms on CMS

Abstract
The burden of corruption in a society can be traced back particularly to cultural and structural factors. As our previous results have shown (see Chap. 2), these particularly include “collectivist value orientations” and a lack of “trust in regional institutions of politics, justice, and the press.” However, up to now, hardly any attention has been paid to the role of the private sector, although it is largely responsible for bribery not just in tenders and authorizations in the public domain but also for tenders in the private domain. Like state institutions, private companies shape the burden of corruption in a country and thus the severity of a country’s problems.
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer

Chapter 4. Internal Crime Preventive Effects of Corporate Culture and Compliance Management Systems

Abstract
In this fourth chapter, we turn to the role of compliance management systems (CMS) and corporate culture in the fight against corruption in companies. In order to be deserving of the term Compliance Management System, such a system needs to contain the following elements in line with the legal requirements of the US FCPA and other countries (see Sect. 3.1.2 above):
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer

Chapter 5. External Crime Preventive Effects of CMS and Corporate Culture

Abstract
Our findings in Chapter 2 confirmed earlier corruption research by showing that a country’s culture—consisting of the prevalence of corruption, cultural dimensions, and the sociostructural dimension (trust in politics, the judiciary, and the press)—exerts a considerable influence on the engagement in and the acceptance of corruption in everyday life. At the same time, we showed in Chapter 4 that the corruption-promoting influence of problematic national cultures also plays a significant role in everyday corporate life. This is not surprising, because values and attitudes cannot simply be put “aside.” Nonetheless, companies are quite capable of creating an integrity-promoting internal culture even in an environment that is prone to corruption, and this also impacts their business practices. They can immunize themselves, albeit not without difficulty, against external corruption-promoting values, norms, and routines. This is by no means a trivial finding, and it even raises the broader premise that companies themselves may have an anticorruption effect on their social environment. In this chapter, we shall address this issue both theoretically and empirically.
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer

Chapter 6. Corporate Social Responsibility

Abstract
There is no uniform definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The basic idea can be traced back to the work of Bowen (1953) and Davis (1960) on the social responsibility of businessmen that was subsequently extended to companies as a whole under the label of corporate social responsibility (e.g., Carroll 1991; Jones 1980).
Kai-D Bussmann, Sebastian Oelrich, Andreas Schroth, Nicole Selzer
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