Skip to main content

Tipp

Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen

2016 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

4. The Influence of Various Factors on Crowd Behavior

verfasst von : Machi Zawidzki

Erschienen in: Discrete Optimization in Architecture

Verlag: Springer Singapore

Abstract

This chapter presents a number of experiments performed in Crowd-Z (CZ). The objective is to investigate the influence of various factors on the collective behavior of the crowd. These factors include: the type of metric & neighborhood, agents’ perkiness and type of tessellation. The robustness of models based on different tessellations are examined by grid rotation. Three platonic tessellations, that is: hexagonal, triangular and square are compared. Two experiments based on the literature are presented:
1.
The egress of 200 agents from a square room (SRE) in grid rotated by: \(0^{\circ }\), \(15^{\circ }\), \(30^{\circ }\), and \(45^{\circ }\).
 
2.
The one-directional flow (ODF) in grid rotated by: \(15^{\circ }\), \(18.434\ldots ^{\circ }\), \(26.565\ldots ^{\circ }\), \(30^{\circ }\), and \(45^{\circ }\).
 
The basic CZ setup is used for the experiments: the crowds are homogeneous, and the agents’ walking speed is unitary and constant. The qualitative analysis is based in heat maps. The quantitative analysis is based on density-flow rate and evacuation time diagrams.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Bandini S, Vizzari G (2007) Regulation function of the environment in agent-based simulation. In: Environments for multi-agent systems III, pp 157–169. Springer Bandini S, Vizzari G (2007) Regulation function of the environment in agent-based simulation. In: Environments for multi-agent systems III, pp 157–169. Springer
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Burstedde C, Klauck K, Schadschneider A, Zittartz J (2001) Simulation of pedestrian dynamics using a two-dimensional cellular automaton. Phys A Stat Mech Appl 295(3):507–525 CrossRefMATH Burstedde C, Klauck K, Schadschneider A, Zittartz J (2001) Simulation of pedestrian dynamics using a two-dimensional cellular automaton. Phys A Stat Mech Appl 295(3):507–525 CrossRefMATH
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerridge J, Hine J, Wigan M (2001) Agent-based modelling of pedestrian movements: the questions that need to be asked and answered. Environ Plan B 28(3):327–342 CrossRef Kerridge J, Hine J, Wigan M (2001) Agent-based modelling of pedestrian movements: the questions that need to be asked and answered. Environ Plan B 28(3):327–342 CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Kirchner A, Klüpfel H, Nishinari K, Schadschneider A, Schreckenberg M (2004) Discretization effects and the influence of walking speed in cellular automata models for pedestrian dynamics. J Stat Mech Theor Exp 2004(10):P10011 Kirchner A, Klüpfel H, Nishinari K, Schadschneider A, Schreckenberg M (2004) Discretization effects and the influence of walking speed in cellular automata models for pedestrian dynamics. J Stat Mech Theor Exp 2004(10):P10011
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Koyama S, Shinozaki N, Morishita S (2013) Pedestrian flow modeling using cellular automata based on the Japanese public guideline and application to evacuation simulation. J Cell Autom 8(5–6):361–382 MathSciNet Koyama S, Shinozaki N, Morishita S (2013) Pedestrian flow modeling using cellular automata based on the Japanese public guideline and application to evacuation simulation. J Cell Autom 8(5–6):361–382 MathSciNet
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Leng B, Wang J, Zhao W, Xiong Z (2014) An extended floor field model based on regular hexagonal cells for pedestrian simulation. Phys A Stat Mech Appl 402:119–133 CrossRef Leng B, Wang J, Zhao W, Xiong Z (2014) An extended floor field model based on regular hexagonal cells for pedestrian simulation. Phys A Stat Mech Appl 402:119–133 CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Nishinari K, Kirchner A, Namazi A, Schadschneider A (2004) Extended floor field CA model for evacuation dynamics. IEICE Trans Inf Syst 87(3):726–732 Nishinari K, Kirchner A, Namazi A, Schadschneider A (2004) Extended floor field CA model for evacuation dynamics. IEICE Trans Inf Syst 87(3):726–732
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Rajewsky N, Santen L, Schadschneider A, Schreckenberg M (1998) The asymmetric exclusion process: Comparison of update procedures. J Stat Phys 92(1–2):151–194 Rajewsky N, Santen L, Schadschneider A, Schreckenberg M (1998) The asymmetric exclusion process: Comparison of update procedures. J Stat Phys 92(1–2):151–194
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Rogsch C, Schadschneider A, Seyfried A (2009) Simulation of human movement by cellular automata using different update schemes. In: 4th international symposium on human behaviour in fire (conference proceedings), pp 543–548 Rogsch C, Schadschneider A, Seyfried A (2009) Simulation of human movement by cellular automata using different update schemes. In: 4th international symposium on human behaviour in fire (conference proceedings), pp 543–548
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Ronald N, Sterling L, Kirley M (2007) An agent-based approach to modelling pedestrian behaviour. Int J Simul 8(1):25–38 Ronald N, Sterling L, Kirley M (2007) An agent-based approach to modelling pedestrian behaviour. Int J Simul 8(1):25–38
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Rosenfeld A, Pfaltz JL (1966) Sequential operations in digital picture processing. J ACM (JACM) 13(4):471–494 CrossRefMATH Rosenfeld A, Pfaltz JL (1966) Sequential operations in digital picture processing. J ACM (JACM) 13(4):471–494 CrossRefMATH
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Shi J, Ren A, Chen C (2009) Agent-based evacuation model of large public buildings under fire conditions. Autom Constr 18(3):338–347 CrossRef Shi J, Ren A, Chen C (2009) Agent-based evacuation model of large public buildings under fire conditions. Autom Constr 18(3):338–347 CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Yamamoto K, Kokubo S, Nishinari K (2007) Simulation for pedestrian dynamics by real-coded cellular automata (RCA). Phys A Stat Mech Appl 2(379):654–660 CrossRef Yamamoto K, Kokubo S, Nishinari K (2007) Simulation for pedestrian dynamics by real-coded cellular automata (RCA). Phys A Stat Mech Appl 2(379):654–660 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
The Influence of Various Factors on Crowd Behavior
verfasst von
Machi Zawidzki
Copyright-Jahr
2016
Verlag
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1106-1_4