Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This paper focuses on significant patterns/features in the historical development of the international law of secession and its contribution over time (or the lack thereof) to the struggle to afford greater protection to oppressed substate groups the world over. It was Crawford Young who once observed that “the state as an analytical quarry is an elusive and complex prey.” With the necessary modifications, this observation applies with almost equal force to the international law of secession. Complexity and confusion looms too large in this area of international law. For example, there is, at best, little clarity in the literature of the discipline of international law and in related fields of study regarding the existence or otherwise of an international legal entitlement to secession in favor of even the most highly oppressed and subjugated substate groups.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Crawford Young, The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective (Yale University Press 1994) 13.
For examples of the range of opinion in the relevant literature, see: James Crawford, The Creation of States in International Law (Clarendon Press 1979); Thomas M Franck, Fairness in International Law and Institutions (Clarendon Press 1995); Obiora Chinedu Okafor, Re-Defining Legitimate Statehood: International Law and State Fragmentation in Africa (Martinus Nijhoff 2000); Obiora Chinedu Okafor, ‘Entitlement, Process and Legitimacy in the International Law of Secession’ ( 2002) 9 Intl J on Minority and Group Rights 41; Hurst Hannum, ‘Rethinking Self-Determination’ ( 1993) 34 Va J Intl L 1; John Dugard, ‘Secession: Is the Case of Yugoslavia a Precedent for Africa’ ( 1992) 5 Afr J Intl Comp L 163; Gregory H Fox, ‘Self-Determination in the Post-Cold War Era: A New Internal Focus’ ( 1995) 16 Mich J Intl L 733; J Oloka-Onyango, ‘Heretical Reflections on the Right to Self-Determination: Prospects and Problems for a Democratic Global Future in the New Millenium’ ( 1999) 15 Am U Intl L R 151; Antonio Cassese, Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal (Cambridge University Press 1995); Ian Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law (Clarendon Press 1990); Fredric L Kirgis Jr, ‘The Degrees of Self-Determination in the United Nations Era’ ( 1994) 88(2) AJIL 304; Robert McCorquodale, ‘Self-Determination Beyond the Colonial Context and its Potential Impact on Africa’ ( 1992) 4 Afr J Intl Comp L 592; Stephen J Toope, ‘Re Reference by Governor in Council Concerning Certain Questions Relating to Secession of Quebec from Canada’ ( 1999) 93 AJIL 519; and Thomas M Franck, ‘Post-Modern Tribalism and the Right to Secession’ in Catherine Brolman, Rene Lefeber, and Marjoleine Zieck (eds), Peoples and Minorities in International Law (Martinus Nijhoff 1993).
Friedrich Kratochwil and John Gerard Ruggie, ‘International Organization: A State of the Art on an Art of the State’ ( 1986) 40 Intl Org 753.
Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945, 3 Bevans 1153; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, ( 1967) 6 ILM 368; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ( 1967) 6 ILM 368; Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1970, UNGA Res A/RES/25/2625.
Crawford (n 2).
Okafor, Re-Defining (n 2) 92-125.
ibid. For example, during this pre-1945 era, the legitimacy or otherwise of the creation or (re)emergence of a new state from another one was almost entirely a matter of the political/military effectiveness of that emergent entity, as is witnessed for example by the forcible separation of many states (such as Albania, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro) from the Ottoman Empire during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. See Richard Hall, The Balkan Wars (Routledge 2000); and CIA, World Fact Book: Albania, < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html> accessed 9 June 2016.
For example: Franck, ‘Postmodern Secession’ (n 2) 159; Hannum (n 2) 42; and Dugard (n 2) 165.
Fox (n 2)733-735.
Okafor, Re-Defining (n 2) 104-106.
ibid 54-65, 109-111.
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 56-70.
For fuller descriptions of these documents, see note 4 above.
For example: Oloka-Onyango (n 2) 162-163; Cassese (n 2) 328; Brownlie (n 2) 595-598; and Kirgis (n 2) 305.
For example: Fox (n 2) 743-745; McCorquodale (n 2) 593; and Toope (n 2) 524-525.
Okafor, Re-Defining (n 2) 67.
Guidelines on the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union, 16 December 1991, reprinted in (1993) 9 Eur J Intl L 46 annex at 72.
Okafor, Re-Defining (n 2) 67.
Crawford (n 2) 77.
Milena Sterio, ‘On the Right to External Self-Determination: ‘Selfistans’, Secession and the Great Powers’ Rule’ ( 2010) 19 Minn J Intl L 137.
Cassese (n 2)37-140; Dugard (n 2) 165; Christian Tomuschat, ‘Self-Determination in a Post-Colonial World’ in Christian Tomuschat (eds), Modern Law of Self-Determination (Martinus Nijhoff 1993) 7; and Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 47.
Jure Vidmar, Democratic Statehood in International Law: The Emergence of New States in Post-Cold War Practice (Hart 2013) 50, 202-232, 244-245.
Sakina Kabir B and Obinna James Edeh, ‘An Evaluation of the EU and International Law: Responses to the Right of Secession in Crimea’ ( 2014) 26 Mich Intl Lawyer 4, 6 (noting the European Union’s hostility to the prospect of Scottish Secession).
Third Committee, UNGA, 61 st Session, Summary record of the 40 th Meeting on 7 November 2006, 5 January 2007, UN Doc A/C.3/61/SR.40.
Oloka-Onyango (n 2) 196-204.
Third Committee (n 30) para 51.
ibid para 52.
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Nairobi, Kenya, 27 June 1981) 21 ILM 59.
Katangese Peoples’ Congress v. Zaire, Communication No. 75/92; reproduced in ( 1996) 3 Intl Human Rights Rep 136. Emphasis supplied.
Reference Re Secession of Quebec, [ 1998] 2 SCR 217.
ibid 287. Emphasis supplied.
UNSC, 65 th year (n 38) 24.
Kosovo’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports that 111 states had recognized Kosovo’s independence as at 12t h September 2016: Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Countries that have recognized the Republic of Kosova” http://www.mfa-ks.net/?page=2,224 accessed 12 September 2016. However, another website reports this figure to be 112 as at the same date: “Kosovo Thanks You” http://www.kosovothanksyou.com accessed 12 September 2016. Kosovo’s independence has thus been recognized by about half of the member states of the United Nations (UN). It is, however, unlikely to become a member anytime soon because it is not recognized by Russia and China.
Accordance with international law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo, (Advisory Opinion) (2010) ICJ Reports 403 (Kosovo case). Also see Robert L Howse and Ruti Teitel, ‘Humanity Bounded and Unbounded: The Regulation of External Self-Determination under International Law’ ( 2013) 7 L and Ethics of Human Rights 155; Theodore Cristakis, ‘The ICJ Advisory Opinion on Kosovo: Has International Law Something to Say about Secession?’ ( 2011) 24 Leiden J Intl L 73; Ioana Cismas, ‘Secession in Theory and Practice: The Case of Kosovo and Beyond’ ( 2010) 2 Gottingen J Intl L 531; and Ralph Wilde, ‘Self-Determination, Secession, and Dispute Settlement after the Kosovo Advisory Opinion’ ( 2011) 24 Leiden J Intl L 149. For a more supportive reading of the Kosovo Opinion, see also Marc Weller, ‘Modesty can be a Virtue: Judicial Economy in the ICJ Kosovo Opinion’ ( 2011) 24 Leiden J Intl L 127.
Separate Opinion of Judge Cançade Trindade in the Kosovo case, at paragraphs 14-20 and paragraph 24.
Vidmar, Democratic Statehood (n 28) 245.
I borrow this concept of “righting from Karen Knop’s work: Karen Knop, ‘The Righting of Recognition: Recognition of States in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union’ ( 1992) Canadian Council of International Law Proceedings 36.
Vidmar, Democratic Statehood (n 28) 61.
For an opposing view, see ibid and Jure Vidmar, ‘Remedial Secession in International Law: Theory and (Lack of) Practice’ ( 2010) 6 St. Anthony’s Intl Rev 37.
For example: UNGA, 63 rd Session (n 38); and UNSC, 65 th year (n 38).
Obehi S Okojie, ‘Between Secession and Federalism: The Independence of South Sudan and the Need for a Reconsidered Nigeria’ ( 2013) 26 Glob Bus Dev L J 415; and Angela K Bourne, ‘Europeanization and Secession: The Cases of Catalonia and Scotland’ ( 2014) 13 J Ethnopolitics and Minority Language Issues 94.
Lovise Aalen, ‘Ethnic Federalism and Self-Determination for Nationalities in a Semi-Authoritarian State: The Case of Ethiopia’ ( 2006) 13 Intl J of Minority and Group Rights 243.
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 48, 62-64.
William W Burke-White, ‘Crimea and the International Legal Order’ ( 2014) 56 Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 65; and Chesterman (n 44).
Letter from a Group of state allies of Taiwan to the President of the UNGA, 20 July 2005, UN Doc A/59/877; Letter from the Permanent Representative of China to the UN to the President of the UNGA 25 July 2005, UN Doc A/59/879; Letter from the Permanent Representative of China to the UN to the Secretary-General of the UN, 15 August 2005, UN Doc A/60/255.
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 56-70.
For example: UNGA, 63 rd Session (n 38); and UNSC, 65 th year (n 38).
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 56-70.
Vidmar, Democratic Statehood (n 28) 65-77.
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 56.
Alec Stone Sweet, ‘Judicialization and the Construction of Governance’ ( 1999) 32 Comp Political Studies 147, 148-149.
Sujit Choudhry and Robert L Howse, ‘Constitutional Theory and the Quebec Secession Reference’ ( 2000) 13 Can J L Jur 143, 145.
Robert A Young, ‘A Most Politic Judgment’ ( 1998) 10 Constit Forum 14, 15.
Sterio (n 26).
Theodore Christakis, ‘Self-Determination, Territorial Integrity and Fait Accompli in the Case of Crimea’ ( 2015) 75 Heidelberg J Intl L (forthcoming).
Christian Marxsen, ‘The Crimea Crisis – An International Law Perspective’ ( 2015) 72 Heidelberg J Intl L 367.
I owe this term to Makau Mutua’s fecund imagination: Makau Mutua, Human Rights: A Political and Cultural Critique (University of Pennsylvania Press 2002) 40.
Brad R Roth, ‘Secessions, Coups and the International Rule of Law: Assessing the Decline of the Effective Control Doctrine’ ( 2010) 11 Melbourne J Intl L 393.
Marxsen (n 67).
Okafor, ‘Entitlement’ (n 2) 55; Rein Mullerson, International Law, Rights and Politics (Routledge 1994) 85.
Upendra Baxi, The Future of Human Rights (OUP 2006) 79.
Marxsen (n 67).
Ralph Wilde, ‘Self-Determination, Secession, and Dispute Settlement after the Kosovo Advisory Opinion’ ( 2011) 24 Leiden J Intl L 149.
Aalen L (2006) Ethnic federalism and self-determination for nationalities in a semi-authoritarian state: the case of Ethiopia. Int J Minor Group Rights 13:243–261 CrossRef
ACHPR (African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights), Katangese Peoples’ Congress v. Zaire (1996), Communication No. 75/92; reproduced in Intl Human Rights Reports 3:136
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1982) 21 ILM 59
Baxi U (2006) The future of human rights. Oxford University Press, Delhi
Bourne AK (2014) Europeanization and secession: the cases of Catalonia and Scotland. J Ethnopolit Minor Lang Issues 13:94–120
Brownlie I (1990) Principles of public international law. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Burke-White WW (2014) Crimea and the international legal order. Surv Glob Polit Strateg 56:65–80
Cassese A (1995) Self-determination of peoples: a reappraisal. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Charter of the United Nations (1945) 26 June 1945. Bevans 3:1153
Chesterman S (2014) Crimean War 2.0: Ukraine and International Law. The Straits Times 1
Choudhry S, Howse R (2000) Constitutional theory and the Quebec secession reference. Can J Law Juris 13:143–169 CrossRef
Christakis T (2015) Self-determination, territorial integrity and fait accompli in the case of Crimea. Heidelberg J Int Law 75 (forthcoming)
Cismas I (2010) Secession in theory and practice: the case of Kosovo and Beyond. Gottingen J Int Law 2:531–588
Crawford J (1979) The creation of states in international law. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Cristakis T (2011) The ICJ advisory opinion on Kosovo: has international law something to say about secession? Leiden J Int Law 24:73–86 CrossRef
Dugard J (1992) Secession: is the case of Yugoslavia a Precedent for Africa. Afr J Int Comp Law 5:163–175
Fox GH (1995) Self-determination in the post-cold war era: a new internal focus. Mich J Int Law 16:733–791
Franck TM (1993) Post-modern tribalism and the right to secession. In: Brolman C, Lefeber R, Zieck M (eds) Peoples and minorities in international law. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht
Franck TM (1995) Fairness in international law and institutions. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Guidelines on the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union (1991), reprinted in (1993) Eur J Intl L 9:46, annex at 72
Hannum H (1993) Rethinking self-determination. Va J Int Law 34:1–70
Howse R, Teitel R (2013) Humanity bounded and unbounded: the regulation of external self-determination under international law. Law Ethics Hum Rights 7:155–184 CrossRef
ICJ (International Court of Justice), Accordance with international law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion (22 July 2010). ICJ Rep 403
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1967) ILM 6:368
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1967) ILM 6:368
Kabir S, Edeh OJ (2014) An evaluation of the EU and international law: responses to the right of secession in Crimea. Mich Int Lawyer 26:4–9
Kirgis F (1994) The degrees of self-determination in the United Nations Era. Am J Int Law 88:304–310 CrossRef
Knop K (1992) The righting of recognition: recognition of states in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Canadian Council of International Law Proceedings 36
Koskenniemi M (1991) The future of statehood. Harv Int Law J 32:392–410
Kratochwil F, Ruggie JG (1986) International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state. Int Org 40:753–775 CrossRef
Letter from a Group of state allies of Taiwan to the President of the UNGA (20 July 2005). UN Doc. A/59/877
Letter from the Permanent Representative of China to the UN to the President of the UNGA (25 July 2005). UN Doc. A/59/879
Letter from the Permanent Representative of China to the UN to the Secretary-General of the UN (15 August 2005). UN Doc. A/60/255
Marxsen C (2015) The Crimea crisis – an international law perspective. Heidelberg J Int Law 72:367–391
McCorquodale R (1992) Self-determination beyond the colonial context and its potential impact on Africa. Afr J Int Comp Law 4:592–608
Mullerson R (1994) International law, rights and politics. Routledge, London
Mutua M (2002) Human rights: a political and cultural critique. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia CrossRef
Okafor OC (2000) Re-defining legitimate statehood: international law and state fragmentation in Africa. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague
Okafor OC (2002) Entitlement, process and legitimacy in the international law of secession. Int J Minor Group Rights 9:41–70
Okojie OS (2013) Between secession and federalism: the independence of South Sudan and the need for a reconsidered Nigeria. Glob Bus Dev Law J 26:415–474
Oloka-Onyango J (1999) Heretical reflections on the right to self-determination: prospects and problems for a democratic global future in the New Millennium. Am Univ Int Law Rev 15:151–208
Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Countries that have recognized the Republic of Kosovo” http://www.mfa-ks.net/?page=2,224 Accessed 12 Sept 2016
Roth BR (2010) Secessions, coups and the international rule of law: assessing the decline of the effective control doctrine. Melbourne J Int Law 11:393–440
Sterio M (2010) On the right to external self-determination: ‘Selfistans’, secession and the great powers’ rule. Minn J Int Law 19:137–176
Stone Sweet A (1999) Judicialization and the construction of governance. Comp Pol Stud 32:147–184 CrossRef
SCC (Supreme Court of Canada), Reference Re Secession of Quebec  2 SCR 217
Tomuschat C (1993) Self-determination in a post-colonial world. In: Tomuschat C (ed) Modern law of self-determination. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht
Toope S (1999) Re reference by governor in council concerning certain questions relating to secession of Quebec from Canada. Am J Int Law 93:519–525 CrossRef
UNGA (1970) Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations (24 October 1970). UN Resolution A/RES/25/2625
UNGA (2007) Third Committee, General Assembly, Sixty-first session, Summary record of the 40th Meeting, 7 November 2006 at 10am (5 January 2007). UN Doc A/C.3/61/SR.40
UNGA (2008) Sixty-third Session, 22nd Plenary meeting (8 October 2008). UN Doc A/63/PV.22
UNGA (2014) Sixty-eight session (27 March 2014). 1 April 2014, UN Doc A/RES/68/262
UNSC (2010) Sixty-fifth year, 6347th meeting (3 August 2010). UN Doc S/PV.6367
UNSC (2014) Sixty-ninth year, 7134th meeting (13 March 2014). UN Doc S/PV.7134
Vidmar J (2010) Remedial secession in international law: theory and (lack of) practice. St Anthony’s Int Rev 6:37–56
Vidmar J (2013) Democratic statehood in international law: the emergence of new states in post-cold war practice. Hart, Oxford
Wallace-Bruce NL (1994) Claims to statehood in international law. Carlton Press, New York
Weller M (2011) Modestly can be a virtue: judicial economy in the ICJ kosovo opinion. Leiden J Int Law 24:127–147 CrossRef
Wilde R (2011) Self-determination, secession, and dispute settlement after the Kosovo advisory opinion. Leiden J Int Law 24:149–154 CrossRef
Young C (1994) The African colonial state in comparative perspective. Yale University Press, New Haven
Young RA (1998) A most politic judgment. Constit Forum 10:14–18
- The International Law of Secession and the Protection of the Human Rights of Oppressed Substate Groups: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Obiora Chinedu Okafor
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta