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Über dieses Buch

This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.



The Present and Future of Rock Testing: Highlighting the ISRM Suggested Methods

Since the establishment of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) in the 1960s, there have been important scientific developments and technological advances both in rock mechanics and rock engineering. Particularly, modeling of rock behaviour, design methodologies for rock structures and rock testing methods are the main issues in these developments and advances. The models developed depend considerably on the input parameters such as boundary conditions and material and rock mass properties. For this reason, establishing how to obtain these input parameters for a particular site, rock mass and project is important. Accordingly, since 1974, the ISRM Commission on Testing Methods has spent considerable effort in developing a succession of Suggested Methods (SMs) for different aspects of rock mechanics with the contribution of a number of working groups. The SMs are intended as guidance, explaining the recommended procedures to follow in the works associated with the various aspects of rock mechanics, such as rock characterisation, testing and monitoring. In this paper; the past, present and future of laboratory and in situ rock testing and monitoring techniques and then the general principles followed in developing the ISRM SMs, stages in their evaluation and the recent developments related to the SMs are briefly given.
Resat Ulusay

Laboratory Testing


ISRM Suggested Method for Determination of the Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness: Revised Version

With its portable, simple and affordable attributes, the Schmidt hammer (SH) is an ideal index apparatus, which underlies its increasing popularity and expanding range of applications. The SH rebound hardness value (R) is perhaps the most frequently used index in rock mechanics practice for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of intact rock both in laboratory conditions and in situ. The SH is also widely used for estimating the (UCS) of discontinuity walls and assessing the workability, excavatability and boreability of rocks by mechanical means (cutting, polishing, milling, crushing and fragmentation processes in quarrying, drilling and tunneling).
Adnan Aydin

Suggested Methods for Determining the Dynamic Strength Parameters and Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Rock Materials

The properties of rocks under dynamic loading are important for the study of a whole range of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems, including blasting, protective design, explosives storage, rock bursts and seismic events. The propagation of dynamic stress waves in the ground, response of rock tunnels to dynamic load, dynamic support design and damage assessment all require a good understanding of the behavior of rocks under dynamic loading. Due to the transient nature of dynamic loading, the dynamic tests of rock material are very different from static tests.
Y. X. Zhou, K. Xia, X. B. Li, H. B. Li, G. W. Ma, J. Zhao, Z. L. Zhou, F. Dai

ISRM Suggested Method for the Determination of Mode II Fracture Toughness

Tobias Backers, Ove Stephansson

ISRM Suggested Method for Reporting Rock Laboratory Test Data in Electronic Format

Hong Zheng, Xia-Ting Feng, Zuyu Chen, J. A. Hudson, Yujie Wang

Upgraded ISRM Suggested Method for Determining Sound Velocity by Ultrasonic Pulse Transmission Technique

Adnan Aydin

ISRM Suggested Method for Determining the Abrasivity of Rock by the CERCHAR Abrasivity Test

Michael Alber, Olgay Yaralı, Filip Dahl, Amund Bruland, Heiko Käsling, Theodore N. Michalakopoulos, Marilena Cardu, Paul Hagan, Hamit Aydın, Ahmet Özarslan

ISRM-Suggested Method for Determining the Mode I Static Fracture Toughness Using Semi-Circular Bend Specimen

The International Society for Rock Mechanics has so far developed two standard methods for the determination of static fracture toughness of rock. They used three different core-based specimens and tests were to be performed on a typical laboratory compression or tension load frame. Another method to determine the mode I fracture toughness of rock using semi-circular bend specimen is herein presented. The specimen is semi-circular in shape and made from typical cores taken from the rock with any relative material directions noted. The specimens are tested in three-point bending using a laboratory compression test instrument. The failure load along with its dimensions is used to determine the fracture toughness. Most sedimentary rocks which are layered in structure may exhibit fracture properties that depend on the orientation and therefore measurements in more than one material direction may be necessary. The fracture toughness measurements are expected to yield a size-independent material property if certain minimum specimen size requirements are satisfied.
M. D. Kuruppu, Y. Obara, M. R. Ayatollahi, K. P. Chong, T. Funatsu

ISRM Suggested Methods for Determining the Creep Characteristics of Rock

Ömer Aydan, Takashi Ito, Ugur Özbay, M. Kwasniewski, K. Shariar, T. Okuno, A. Özgenoğlu, D. F. Malan, T. Okada

ISRM Suggested Method for Laboratory Determination of the Shear Strength of Rock Joints: Revised Version

José Muralha, Giovanni Grasselli, Bryan Tatone, Manfred Blümel, Panayiotis Chryssanthakis, Jiang Yujing

ISRM Suggested Method for the Needle Penetration Test

Resat Ulusay, Ömer Aydan, Zeynal A. Erguler, Dominique J. M. Ngan-Tillard, Takafumi Seiki, Wim Verwaal, Yasuhito Sasaki, Akira Sato

Field Testing


ISRM Suggested Method for Rock Fractures Observations Using a Borehole Digital Optical Televiewer

S. J. Li, Xia-Ting Feng, C. Y. Wang, J. A. Hudson

ISRM Suggested Method for Measuring Rock Mass Displacement Using a Sliding Micrometer

S. J. Li, Xia-Ting Feng, J. A. Hudson

ISRM Suggested Method for Step-Rate Injection Method for Fracture In-Situ Properties (SIMFIP): Using a 3-Components Borehole Deformation Sensor

Yves Guglielmi, Frederic Cappa, Hervé Lançon, Jean Bernard Janowczyk, Jonny Rutqvist, C. F. Tsang, J. S. Y. Wang

ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Stress Estimation—Part 5: Establishing a Model for the In Situ Stress at a Given Site

Ove Stephansson, Arno Zang



ISRM Suggested Method for Monitoring Rock Displacements Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

Norikazu Shimizu, Shinichiro Nakashima, Tomohiro Masunari

Failure Criteria


Suggested Methods for Rock Failure Criteria: General Introduction

R. Ulusay, J. A. Hudson

Introduction to Suggested Methods for Failure Criteria

Bezalel Haimson, Antonio Bobet

Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion

Joseph F. Labuz, Arno Zang

The Hoek–Brown Failure Criterion

Erik Eberhardt

Three-Dimensional Failure Criteria Based on the Hoek–Brown Criterion

Stephen Priest

Drucker–Prager Criterion

Leandro R. Alejano, Antonio Bobet

Lade and Modified Lade 3D Rock Strength Criteria

Sergio A. B. da Fontoura

A Failure Criterion for Rocks Based on True Triaxial Testing

Chandong Chang, Bezalel Haimson

Additional Article on Rock Characterization


A Survey of 3D Laser Scanning Techniques for Application to Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

3D laser scanning techniques have been developed since the end of 1990s for 3D digital measurement, documentation and visualisation in several fields including 3D design in the processing industry, documentation and surveying in architecture and infrastructure. By using a 3D laser scanner, a tunnel or underground construction can be digitised in 3D with a fast scanning speed and high resolution up to millimetre level. The scanning data consists of, not only X-Y-Z co-ordinates, but also high resolution images, either gray-scale (with reflex intensity data) or colour (with RGB data), and then can be transformed into a global co-ordinate system by control survey. Therefore, any rock engineering object with its as-built situation can be quickly recorded as the 3D digital and visual format in a real co-ordinate system. In this case, it provides a potential application for 3D measurement, documentation and visualisation with high resolution and accuracy. In order to investigate the current development of the state-of-the-art of laser scanning techniques and its potential application to rock mechanics, ISRM therefore set up the ISRM-Swedish National task in 2007 during the ISRM Congress in Lisbon through the Swedish Rock Mechanics Group (BeFo). The task focused on three parts: (1) Investigate the state-of-the-art in the current development of laser scanning techniques; (2) Summarise the application examples by using laser scanning techniques to rock mechanics projects; (3) Evaluate the limits and needs for further development. In this report, the purpose of this study is described first, and then the current development of laser scanning techniques (both hardware and software) is summarised. Based on the literature review and some case studies, the current status of the application of laser scanning techniques to rock mechanics is presented. Finally, the limits of current development and the needs for further development are discussed.
Quanhong Feng, Kennert Röshoff
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